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Full text of "A system of heraldry, speculative and practical, with the true art of blazon, according to the most approved heralds in Europe: illustrated with suitable examples of armoria figures, and achievements of the most considerable surnames and families in Scotland, together with historical and genealogical memorials relative thereto"

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. Lawric $ Co., Printers, Edinburgh, 

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Heritable Sheriff", Steward and Justiciary of the Isles of Orkney and Zetland^ 
Vice-Admiral of the same, and Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble 
Order of the Thistle and St Andrew , 


THE First Volume of this work was dedicated to the illustrious 
House of Hamilton : The second claims the patronage of your 
Lordship, a branch of the no less illustrious House of Douglas. 

Had its valuable author been alive, he muft have approved the 
VOL. II. b 


Were I permitted, it were easy to enlarge on the antiquity and glori- 
ous actions of your illustrious ancestors, some of whom were matched 
with the blood royal. 

But neither these, nor your Lordship's personal qualifications dare I 
adventure on : The world knows them ; and your Lordship's modesty, 
great as it is, cannot conceal them. 

I must, however, be allowed to say, that your Lordship's knowledge 
in antiquities and polite learning, renders you a fit patron for a work of 
this kind : And if it shall be so lucky as to meet with your Lordship's 
approbation, the editor need not fear the ill-nature of the most severe 

That your Lordship may long remain an ornament to your noble 
House, for your true attachment to justice, learning, and every virtue,, 
is the sincere desire of, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordship's most obedient, 

And most devoted humble servant, 



THE learned and ingenious Mr Alexander Nisbet, author of this Sys- 
tem of Heraldry, has, in his Preface to the First Volume, so fully ac- 
counted for the original and progress of Armorial Bearings with us, and 
other nations, and, in the Treatise itself, so elaborately and accurately 
described and exemplified the several branches of the Science of Heraldry, 
that it will be equally superfluous to add any thing to what he has said 
in the former, or bestow any encomiums on his performance in the latter, 
which has sufficiently recommended itself to all who rightly understand 
the noble science there treated of. 

But Mr Nisbet not being able to overtake his whole design in one 
volume, as at first he intended, for the several reasons set forth in the 
said Preface, he therefore promises an Appendix, or Second Volume, 
wherein the several branches of heraldry, not there treated of, were to be 
illustrated; and, as this undertaking is now finished, and presents itself 
to the public, it will be necessary that the editor should say something 
in behalf of the performance. 

In the First Part of this Volume, the following branches of Heraldry, 
viz. Marks of Cadency, Marshalling of Divers Coats in one Shield, Ex- 
terior Ornaments, &c. are fully treated of, and illustrated by proper ex- 
amples, all which were executed by the author himself in his own life- 
time ; the manuscript copy of which, in his own hand-writing, the edi- 
tor has preserved for the satisfaction of the curious. 

The other parts handled in this undertaking, are inserted because of 
their coincidency with the principal subject treated of in this Volume. 
Of this kind is the chapter of Funeral Escutcheons, which was composed 
by Roderick Chalmers, herald, and herald-painter in Edinburgh, whose un- 
derstanding and practice in. these matters is well known ; and the other 
chapters, such as that of Precedency, the Office and Dignity of Heralds, 
&c. and that concerning Public Processions and Cavalcades, which gives 
an idea of the grandeur of this ancient and once flourishing kingdom, 
were all carefully collected from MSS. in the Lawyers' Library, and the 
writings of the learned Sir George Mackenzie, &c. 

To render this work the more useful and complete, the editor has given 
the Return of the Lords of Session, to an order of the House of Peers, 
concerning the Scots peerage ; which cannot fail to give satisfaction, as it 
was the result of the inquiries of that august Court into the records of the 
nation, and is a most exact and authentic state of our peerage at this day. 

The editor observing that no body had ever yet published an exact 
draught of these monuments of the antiquity and independency of this 
kingdom, the Regalia, viz. Crown, Sceptre and Sword ; and, as the ori- 
ginals are not now to be seen, he has embellishedthe work with a plate 


of them, which the ingenious Mr Richard Cooper has engraven, with 
great pains and exactness, from the description given of them in the in- 
strument taken by that true lover of his country, Mr William Wilson, 
at depositing them in the castle of Edinburgh. 

But what takes up a great part of this Volume, is the memorials of 
private families, which neither Mr Nisbet nor the publisher are any ways 
answerable for ; they must stand upon the faith of those who gave them 
in, and the vouchers they adduce for their support. Many of those 
printed in Mr Nisbet's lifetime were signed by the parties concerned ; 
but that practice was afterwards neglected, since every one, no doubt, 
will be ready to support what he has advanced for the honour and an- 
tiquity of his family. 

From what is above set forth, it will be evident that the editor has nei- 
ther spared pains nor expences to render this book useful and valuable. 

It may now be expected that he should give some account to the sub- 
scribers for the delay in the publication ; and indeed this, in part, may 
be ascribed to Mr Nisbet's death, and the property of it going through 
many different hands, and likewise to the dilatoriness of the subscribers 
in giving in memorials of their families : However, as it now comes 
abroad into the world, it is hoped it will give general satisfaction, and 
meet with a favourable reception, both as it completes the design of its 
worthy author, who was the most learned in the noble Science of He- 
raldry of any that ever appeared in this country, yea, perhaps, not in- 
ferior to any ; and, as it contains many curious things, which tend to 
illustrate the honour and dignity of the nation, either never before print- 
ed, or only to be found in loose papers in the hands of the curious, not 
to mention the memorials of many ancient and noble families who have 
deserved well of their country, the executing of which has far exceeded 
the number of sheets at first proposed. 

Since finishing the impression of this work, the editor coming to the 
knowledge, that a learned antiquarian had written Historical and Critical 
Remarks on the surnames and families of those whose predecessors swore 
fealty to Edward I. of England, in 1292, &c. inserted in a writing com- 
monly known by the name of Ragman Roll, he purchased the same at 
a considerable expence, and has printed it in a size fit to be bound up 
with this volume : And, as it proves the antiquity of many of the sur- 
names, and most of the great families of this kingdom, and in a great 
measure supplies the want of particular memorials of many of these fa- 
milies, it is hoped, such as would have it bound up with their copy, will 
not grudge a particular allowance for it, as well as for the supernumerary 
sheets above the number mentioned in the proposals. 



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5N the First Part of this System I have given an account of the Rise and Art of 
Blazon of Arms, of their Tinctures, Figures, Proper, Natural, and Artificial ; 
in their Terms, Regular Positions, Dispositions, and Situations, illustrated by a nu- 
merous train of examples. 

And now, for the further prosecution of my System, it will not be unuseful to 
repeat my definition of arms, given in the former part, Chap. 2. 

Arms are hereditary marks of honour, regularly composed of certain tinctures 
and figures, granted or authorised by sovereigns, for distinguishing, differencing, 
and illustrating persons, families, and communities. To which 1 shall add a defini- 
tion given by a very eminent author, John Baptista Christyn, Chancellor of Bra- 
bant, in his famous treatise, titled, Jiirispnidentia Heroicn, de Jure Bdgamm circa 
Nebititatem, page 78. " Signa, summi principis autoritate, alicui concessa, ai;t pro- 
" pria voluntate assumpta. personam a persona, familias a familiis, civitates a 
" civitatibus, collegia a collepiis, varie distinguentia." 

From these definitions the use of arms is obvious, viz. (.besides their being ho- 
nourable rewards of virtue) to distinguish' and difference persons, families, and 
communities : So as, first, to distinguish the nobility and gentry ffom the vul- 
gar. Secondly, to distinguish principal families of nobility and gentry am ngst 



themselves. And, thirdly, to difference descendants of each particular family 
amongst themselves, conform to their seniority. 

As to the first of these uses, viz. the distinction of the nobility from the vulgar; 
it is plain from the foresaid definition, that no person or family are entitled to 
carry arms, hut such as have received, or assumed the same by approbation of so- 
vereign authority, which is sufficient to ^distinguish the vulgar from the nobility 
and gentry, so that I need not further to insist on that use of arms. 

As to the second, I hope I have sufficiently accounted for the same in the First 
Part of this System. 

The third shall be the subject of this chapter, in which I shall give the several 
differences that have been used by the descendants of nobility and gentry, to dif- 
ference themselves from their original and principal families, that their degrees of 
descent may be known, which are as necessary as the former, for differencing 
younger brothers and their issue from the eldest, that the order and degrees of 
both, in the lines of the descendants from one stem, may be known, to prevent 
confusion and contention amongst them ; all which hath been carefully looked to 
by sovereign princes their laws and edicts. 

With us, our king and parliament, in the year 1590, for regulating the dif- 
ferences of descendants, made an act, impowering the Lyon King at Arms, and his 
brethren heralds, to visit the whole arms of noblemen, barons, and gentlemen, 
within Scotland, and to distinguish them with congruent differences, and to 
matriculate them in their books. As also to inhibit all such as bear arms, as by 
the law of arms ought not to bear them, under high penalties ; as the act more 
particularly bears. And, in the year 1672, chap. 21. the foresaid act of Parlia- 
ment is renewed and ratified, and the Lyon King at Arms is impowered to dis- 
tinguish arms, and to matriculate them in his books or registers, from whence I 
have taken, and do take most of my examples in this System, which are marked 
L. R. 

Our above-mentioned author gives us the edict of Albert and Isabel, Sovereign 
Princes of the Netherlands, published in the year 1616, with his Commentary 
thereon, in his above-named book, Jurisprud. Her. or De Jure Belgarum circa 
Nobilitatem & Injlgnia, in the 5th article concerning Brisures, or Marks of Cadency, 
has these words, " Ut altercationibus jurgiisque, quae ex planorum insignium de- 
" latione oriri solent, obviam eatur, jubemus, familiarum omnium natu minimos, 
" imo vel maximos spirante patre, gentilitiis insignibus quoddam addere discerni- 
" culum, moribus usitatum, ut inde geniturae ordo pateat, & perpetuo lineae dig- 
" nosci possint, idque donee anteriores defecerint, aliter facientibus, indicta est 
" poena 50 Florenorum." Which is to this purpose by the foresaid article, " To 
" remedy the debates (which may as they have been seen to fall out in time by- 
" gone) touching the seniority, and carrying the plain arms, we will and ordain, 
" that the youngest sons (and even the eldest sons in their fathers' lifetime) shall 
" be holden to place in their arms some brisure, in the accustomed form, for a 
" distinction from the eldest, and to continue such brisure as long time as the 
" branches of the eldest remain ; to the end, that the descendants of the one or 
" other branch may be known and discerned, under the pain of 50 Florinses. 

On the laws and edicts of France, Spain, and other nations, I forbear to insist ; 
but show some of their practices in this matter, which are various. 

The differences, or additional figures, used by cadets, to difference themselves 
from their original families, are termed by us in Britain, differences, or marks of 
cadency; by the French, brisures, upon the account they break the principal 
bearing of the family : And those who write in Latin, call them armorum discerni- 
cula, and ordinarily say, primogenitus arma babet Integra, cceteri nota quadam dis- 

It is many years since I published an Essay of Marks of Cadency, in which I 
was as full as the practice of our nation allowed me, and took in such foreign 
examples as were suitable to illustrate that work ; some part of which I am obliged 
to repeat in this chapter as curtly as possible, the rules thereof being sufficiently 
exemplified in that Essay, and many of them in the former part of this System. 

But now I shall proceed to the universal practice of differencing the arms of de- 
scendants, which are, and have been very various through all Europe : And I 


think the same may be reduced to these nine ways : First, the change of the tinc- 
tures of the field : Secondly, the change of the tinctures of the principal or es- 
sential figures : Thirdly, by dividing the field, by the partition lines, under acci- 
dental forms: Fourthly, the displacing the figures, or altering their positions or 
situations in the shield : Fifthly, the diminishing the number of them: Sixthly, 
by increasing the number of the principal or original figures : Seventhly, by adding 
different figures to the principal ones: Eighthly, by quartering the paternal arms 
with other ones: And, Ninthly, by transposing, the quarters, or changing the crest ; 
to each of which I shall speak. 

First then, as for altering the tinctures of the field, it was anciently used : 
John Baptista, in his forecited Treatise, Art. 5th, says, " Olim Belgi & Galli sola 
" colorum variatione arma discernebaut ;" and adds, ' Imo &- apud Britannos mos 
" hie cognitus." Of old the Belgians and French differenced arms by changing 
only the tinctures of the field ; and this practice was with the Britons. He gives 
us instances of this practice in Flanders, in the 1120, that of Arnoldus Are sc'jii 
Comes, who had five sons; the eldest carried the plain arms of his father, being 
or, three flower-de-luces sable; the second son, Baron of Woscinale, altered the 
tinctures, and carried, gules, three flower-de-luces argent ; the third son, Baron of 
Roteslakie, counter-changed his immediate brother's bearing, by making them, 
argent, three flower-de-luces gules; the fourth son took argent, three flower-de- 
luces sable; and the fifth, gules, three fl(Aver-de-luces or. Our author proceeds to 
give many instances of this kind, not only in Flanders, but in France, and disap- 
proves of this way of differencing, that it altogether changes and confuses arms; 
his words are, " l*uto quippe mos ille non adeo insignia distinguendo, quam in 
" totum iinmutundo subserviit, ex quo plurimum gentilium confusio & perturba- 
" tio demanavit." And in that paragraph he tells us, that the lamble, orle, and 
bordure, were not then known to the Belgians for differences, till they got them 
from the French. 

Sir William Dugdale, Garter King at Arms in England, in his book, titled, The 
Ancient Usage in Bearing Arms, says, The differences that antiquity used for 
distinguishing descendants were by changing the colour of the field, figures, or 
charges ; and, for instances, he gives us the practice of the family of Basset in 
England, in the reigns of Edwards I. II. and III. and in the families of the name 
of L'Estrange there. 1 have given several instances of the same practice of old, 
by the Royal issue of the kings of France, England, and Scotland, in my former 
Essay on this subject, and shall only mention again a few with us. 

The HOMES, as descended of the old Earls of March, who carried gules, a lion 
rampant argent, their paternal ensign, (the bordure which surrounded, and charged 
with roses, being the badge of their comital office) carried the same white lion, 
but placed it in a green field, for difference, as relative to their first designation, 
from their lands of Greenlaw, which they first possessed, as in the old charter of 
IVillielmus filius Cospatricii Coi/iitis Domi/ius de Greenlaw^. His posterity having 
purchased the lands of Home, were afterwards designed Domini de Home; from 
whence came the surname. Of which, more fully, in an essay of mine on this 
subject, page 20, and in the first part of this System, page 270. The same way, 
of old, the progenitors of the family of Dundas of that Ilk, as descended of a 
younger son of Cospatriciits Comes, the first Earl of March, (of which more fully 
in the Appendix) differenced themselves by a transmutation of the tinctures of 
the old Earls of March, gules, a lion argent, into argent, a lion gules; which the 
principal family still continues, and all the branches of the family, with suitable 
marks of cadency. The principal family of the name of DOUGLAS carried argent, 
a chief azure, charged, with three stars of the field. 

HUGH DOUGLAS Earl of ORMOND, in the reign of King James II. fourth son of 
James Earl of Douglas, to difference himself, changed the tincture of the field of 
Douglas to ermine. CAMPBELL of Loudon differenced himself from his chief, the 
tatnily of Argyle, which carried, gironnt of eight, or and sable, by changing the 
tinctures of the girons into ermine and gules ; which two tinctures also they took 
to show their relation to the Crawfurds of Loudon, with whom they married', bear- 
ing g ule /, a fesse ermine^ 


The second way proposed in differencing, by changing the tinctures of the prin- 
cipal or figures of arms, falls frequently out by changing the tinctures 
of the lieki ; t .pecially when cadets divide the field of their arms, for a difference, 
into two distinct tinctures of metal colours. And when there is but one tincture 
in the principal bearing, then the cadets are necessitated to alter the tincture of 
some of their figures, by counter-changing them with the field, that metal lie not 
upon metal, nor colour upon colour. The field, when it is divided into two halves 
by any of the four principal partition lines, which are called by the English, part- 
ed per pale, per fosse, per bend, dexter and sinister', by the French, parti, coupe, 
tranche, faille, which I have explained and demonstrated in the yth chapter of the 
First Part of this System. Of this practice with us, amongst many examples, I 
<hall add one from the Lyon Register. LAURENCE OLIPHANT, Writer to the Signet, 
descended of a second son of Oliphant of Gask, a second son of the Lord Oliphant, 
i urries, parted per fesse, g tiles and argent, three crescents, 2 and i, counter-changed 
of the same tinctures, to difference him from Gask, who had his field but of one 
tincture, viz. gules, three crescents argent, 2 and i. This way of dividing the field 
into two different tinctures, and counter-changing the charge, (the principal fa- 
mily having his figures in a field of one tincture) is a remote brisure suitable for 
cadets of cadets. 

The third way of differencing by the partition lines, under accidental forms, 
is done, when the chief of the name and family has the field of his arms divided' 
into two tinctures, by any of the partition lines, plain and straight, then their 
descendants ordinarily have the same, but makes the partition line crooked, that 
is, by putting the same under some accidental form ; such as, ingrailcd, waved, 
nebitle, embattled, &-c. The Right Honourable the Earl of PANMURE, chief of the' 
name of MAULE, carries, parted per pale, argent and gules, a bordure charged with 
eight escalops, all counter-changed of the same. Of which family in the follow- 
ing chapter. The cadets of this family differenced themselves from their chief 
only by having the partition line waved, or nebule, as in the Register of the He- 

Fourth way of differencing, is, by diminishing the principal figures, by carrying 
:wer of them than the chief family. In Jurisprudentia, Art. 5th, there are in- 
stances given us of this practice. The family of CLERMONT TALLART, in Dau- 
phmy, carries gules, two keys in saltier argent. The family of CHATTO, descended 
it, was obliged to curry gules, one key in bend argent: And the House of URRE, 
same province, carries a bend charged with three stars : The cadets of this 
louse carry, on the bend, but one star. Chassanaeus, in his Catal. Glor. Mundl 
this way of differencing, and says, " Quilibet primo genitus solet portare 
na plena & Integra ipsius domus sine diminutione, alii vero posteriores &. 
:ea gemti dexcendentes portant ea cum aliqua differentia, diminutione & 
The author of Jurisprudents says, " Alium & veterem, sed per- 
rnu: hvmgendi morem observo, quo minores natu aliquam in insigni- 
ticularn ad distmctionem pnmogenitorum omittere soliti erant " This 
ferencing, by diminishing the principal %ures, by younger sons, is very 
ieldom to be met with; few or none of the arms in Great Britain upon 
the account of this way of differencing, has occurred to me. 

:th way, by altering the position and situation of the principal and essen- 
res, by cadets, is more frequent with us than the former. In England I 
practice, from the learned Camden, in his book entitled, Remains Con- 
Bntain, chapter Of Armories; who says, In past ages those who were de- 
1 from one stem, reserving the principal charge, and commonly the colour 
at, made some audition or alteration nf th^ fin.,,-^. c,... e ' xarnD i e T j 



lionceaux rampant sable. The younger brethren of that House, viz. COBHAMS of 
Stetburv, or" Blackbury, of Billockly, took, for the three lionceaux, three estoils; 
the second, three eaglets ; the last, three crescents. BERKELEY of Wymondham, in 
the countyof Leicester, descended from the Lord Berkeley, who earned a cheveron 
betwixt ten cross patees, changed these ten crosses into as many cinquefoils. The same 
practice is with us, i'or cadets to change and alter the position of the principaj figures. 
The HERRINGS of Gilmerton bare gules, on a bend argent, a rose betwixt two lions 
rampant of the field. HERRING of Lethendy added another rose, but HERRING of 
Carswell turned the bend to a fesse. SCOTT of Bevelaw turned the bend, Carried by 
Scot of Buccleugh, into a fesse, for difference, without any other addition, or, on a 
fesse azure, a star of six points, between two crescents of the field. The same did 
I, of Balquhain, in turning his chief's bend into a fesse, without any other 

The sixth method or way of differencing cadets, is by adding figures to the arms 
of chiefs of families, which is now most frequently used, diverse ways, by different 
nations: But when these additional figures began, what they are, and how to be 
disposed, for differencing the numerous issue of descendants, is the subject of the 
following discourse: For it seems the variation of the tinctures of field, and figures, 
was not sufficient without additional ones, which w.e find first used by the French; 
and from them the Belgians, with whom arms were very soon used, and regular, 
took the lambel, orle, bordure, as additional figures. The author of Jurisprudentia 
Heroic a, article 5th, paragraph 6th, says, " Varii tamen a variis nationibus scuta 
diffringendi modi observati sunt: Apud primos Brabantos &. Belgas incognita 
fuere, tigilla, limbi, margines, Gullice, lambeaux, orles, bordurer, quie tune tem- 
poris a Gallis mutuati sunt, sed ipsa arma quidam ab uxoribus, quidam a terri- 
ioriis, gloriae sibi duxerunt; plerique tamen familiaria retinuere insignia, colo- 
rum dumtaxat adhibita variatione." Divers nations used different ways and 
marks, in, distinguishing the arms of descendants of one family from another: For, 
of old, the Brabantines and Belgians did not know the lambel, bordure, orle, which 
were then used by the French, for differences, but took figures from their mothers, 
wives, territories, and feudal ensigns, to difference themselves; and many kept 
the arms of the family entire, only making some alteration of the tinctures or fi- 

When the French began to use those above-mentioned, and other additional 
figures to the lilies of France, by younger sons, is uncertain. Some say, (as one 
Paradin) that ROBERT the first Earl of ANJOU, descended of Hugh Capet, carried 
azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, within a bordure gules, in the year 988. Alo- 
vertus, and Kdliforestus, as in Jurisprud. Her. say, That Philip the august King 
of France, who reigned 1 18 1, was the first that permitted the sons of France to 
carry the arms of France with brisures, being before that time unlawful to be car- 
ried by the sons of France. Others again say, that the sons of France did not 
carry the arms of France without, or with brisures, till Lewis the Gross, who be- 
gan his reign in the year mo. Whatever those writers say, I am persuaded, 

Anciently the younger sons of the Kings of France were not permitted to carry 
the arms of France with a brisure, but only allowed to make use of the tinctures 
of the kingdom, azure and or, in those figures, which the younger sons of the 
kings assumed, on the account of their marriages, or appanages. Thus, the old 
Dukes of BURGUNDY took for arms, bendy, or and azure, within a bordure gules. 
And the old Counts of VERMANDOIS carried, cheque, or and azure, as Sylvester 
Petra Sancta observes, out of Marcus Gilbertus de Warenius, cap. 67. de guttatis 
tlgillis tesserariis. We find, in later times, the second race of the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy (descended of the royal fa nily) carried the arms of France, viz. azure, 
seme of flower-de-luces or, within a bordure compotie, argent and gules, for a brisure, 
which they quartered with ancient Burgundy first, and afterwards with other arms. 
So the second race of the Counts of Vermandois (when brisures became more fre- 
quent and ordinary) added a chief azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, to show their 
extraction was from the royal blood of France. 

It cannot be hence concluded, that proper differences were not in use till the 
sons- of sovereigns carried the sovereigns' ensigns with brisures, which was but late,. 



because those were looked upon as sacred and incommunicable, being the ensigns 
of sovereignty. Before these were allowed, the sons of France had arms of the 
royal tinctures, which were transmitted to their younger sons, with suitable dif- 
ferences then in use. The same practice was anciently with us, for the sons of 
our kings did not carry the arms of the kingdom with a difference. DAVID Earl 
of HUNTINGDON, brother to King William the Lion, carried or, an escutcheon, 
within a double tressure, counter-flowered gules, being of the tinctures of the royal 
bearing of Scotland. And long after, JOHN SENESCAL Earl of CAR.RICK, eldest son 
to King Robert II. did not carry the arms of the kingdom with a label, during 
his father's reign (as our princes have done since), but the paternal coat of Stewart, 
us appears by this prince's seals, with a lion naissant out of the fesse cheque, inti- 
mating his right to the crown; as also, that it was then beginning to be customary 
for the sons of our kings to carry their father's sovereign coat with brisures; for, 
when John Earl of Carrick came to the throne, by the name of Robert III. and 
had a son, David the prince, the elder brother of King James I. carried the impe- 
rial bearing of Scotland, bruised with a label of three points. And can any pre- 
tend to say, that before that time the younger sons of our nobility and gentry 
ilid not carry their father's arms with some difference or other, to difference them- 
selves from their elder brothers, and their descendants. But to proceed to show 
and describe the differences, or marks of cadency, the lambel, or label, batton, or 
cottise, bordure, or fillier, and cheveron, which are called, by some heralds, the 
principal differences ; because, according to them, they are never seen in arms but 
when they difference younger sons. This may be said of the first two, the lambel 
and batton; but the bordure and cheveron are sometimes carried as principal and 
-ential figures in arms, though very frequently as marks of cadency too, which I 
shall show by the general practice in Europe. 

The lambel, or label, is derived from lambeau, i. e. as heralds say, " Semen seu 
' recisa panni particula, sa robe s'en va par lambeaux; vestis in minutas discindi- 
' tur particulas;" from whence comes lambriquius, lacima; flucntes ex galea, which 
we call ordinarily mantlings; of which in another place. 

The label, or lambel, is taken there for a piece of silk stuff, or some such thing, 
wherewith princes of old environed their heads, which was called a diadem, or 
fillet, such as we now see Moors' heads banded with in arms, as Selden observes. 
Others take the label for the tying of crowns and garlands with points hanging 
down; but our French heralds will have it a kind of scarf, or ribbon, which young 
men wore anciently about the neck of their helmets (as we now do cravats) with 
points hanging down, when they went to the wars, or military exercises, such as 
tournaments, with their fathers, by which they were distinguished from them 
and where it was customary, in some places, for younger brothers to be distin- 
guished from their elder brothers, the points of the tyings hang down upon the 
chief, or upper part of their shields, whereon was their father's arms: From whence 
heralds do present this figure as a brisure upon the armorial ensigns of the 
eldest sons whilst their father is in life; and by custom it was also given to young- 
er sons; of whidi practice we shall speak hereafter; the form thereof is as you see 
The traverse, we call the beam, which does not touch the sides of 
eld ; and the pieces that hang down are the points, which are always 
patulous, i. e. broad at the ends. 

j The heralds who write in Latin; give the word hmniscus for a lambel; and 

Uredus use the word lambella, as in the blazon of the arms of 

ES, a sigmory m Hainault, " Scutum sexies auro & minio dcxtrorsus facia- 

m supenmposita qumque partium lambella," i. e. bendy of six, or and gules, 

1 a lambel of five points, and sometimes the lambel of three points Uredus 

t\ ee "I" trifda ' and ChifIIetius uses the W01 ' d "" tripes, for a lambel of 

H f if P ntS t ! mbd may be Clther CVen Or Odd ' to the 

" " " in his father ' s llVetime * has 

v thn e , n m > e ^ S n n s ater ' s lletime ' * has 

e points, which are plain, ,. ,. not charged, or under accidental forms; 

elde son h ,i ,h "^ P mt V han three > * sh s the bearer not to be the 

lest son, but the younger, or one of his descendants. 


I shall in some few instances show the antiquity of the lambel. We read, that 
St Bernard, in his rules to the Templars, discharged the wearing of lambels about 
the heads and necks of those of that Order, because they were used by laics as 
military marks, and not fit for ecclesiastics, and calls them laquea; 5" rostra. But 
it is to be observed, that clergymen of old, and at this time in popish countries 
use not marks of cadency in their arms, because they are not supposed to ha\e 

The lambel was anciently used on the seal of arms of the princes of Flanders; 
GUIDO, second son of William Lord Dampetra, and his lady, Margaret, daughter 
of Baldwin Earl of Flanders, carried a shield charged with t\vo leopards, and a 
label of five points in chief, in the year 1234. And the same Guido, after his 
eldest brother's death, had a label only of three points, his lather then being in 
life, and he the living son; but upon his father's death he laid the label aside 
altogether. Robert, the eldest son of this Guido, continued the same practice as 
did their successors Earls of Flanders, as by their seals given us by Oliverus Ure- 
dus, De Sigillis Coi/iiturn Ylandria. 

The ancientest use of the lambel in England is said, by some heralds, to have 
been borne by GEOFFREY Duke of BK.ETAGNE and Earl of RICHMOND, fourth son of 
King Henry II. who was crowned 1153, viz. gules, three lions passant gtudant or, 
a label of five points argent. But Mr Sandford, in his Genealogical History of 
England, says, He believes that this filial distinction, the lambel, was not so soon 
used in England ; and he makes EDMUND Earl of LANCASTER, second son of King 
Henry III. and brother to Edward I. by his seal of arms, to be the first who car- 
ried over the arms of England a lambel of three points azure, charged with llower- 
dc -luces or, upon the account the flower-de-luces were his wife's figures, she being 
a daughter of France. 

Though the lambel be a brisure in itself, they were anciently in use to charge 
them with figures, when carried by younger sons, as they have done the bordure, 
to show their maternal descent, and other dignities. The family of LANCASTER 
for a long time had always their lambel azure, charged with flower-de-luces, upon 
the account above mentioned; and the House of YORK, had their lambels argent, 
charged with torteauxes gules, to show their descent from the Briton, Tudor Earl 
of Cornwall, who carried such figures. As for the variation of the labels by the 
other branches of the royal family of England, I have given an account at the end 
of the First Part of this System of Heraldry. 

Several English writers, as Gerard Leigh, among the first of them, tell as, That 
the eldest son's label should have only three points, the one to intimate his father 
in life, the other his mother, and the third himself; and that if the grandfather 
be alive, the label should have five points : But I find it otherwise by the ancient 
practice of the royal family of England, by their seals of arms, given us by the 
above-mentioned Sandford. Prince EDWARD, the eldest son of Henry III.' who 
was afterwards King Edward I. while he was prince, had on the one side of his 
seal the arms of England, with a label of three points, and, on the reverse, with a 
lambel of five points, in the year 1267, when he had no grandfather living: And 
the same lambels of three and five points were upon the seals of the succeeding 
princes, eldest sons of Edward 11. and III. So that Gerard Leigh's account did not 
hold then in England. 

The lambel has been so carried, with three points plain, by the eldest sons of 
f ranee, and by the younger sons with more points, variegated with different charges. 
With us, the plain lambel with three points is seldom assigned to younger brothers, 
but when the heirs-male of the eldest brother fails, and the inheritance falls to his 
daughters and their heirs, the younger brother and his issue may then use the 
plain lambel of three points, as the heir of expectancy; of which before, in the 
Part of tins System, page 384. so carried by HAMILTON Earl of ABERCORN 
over the arms of Hamilton. By which practice the plain label in this case seems 
to be hereditary, when carried by younger sons and their heirs-male. And the 
same practice was used by a younger brother of the House of NITHSDALE, who 
married the heiress of the Lord Herries-, quartered his paternal coat, argent, a saltier 
sable, and in chief a lambel gules; with the coat of Herries, viz. argent, three 
urcheons sable : And which arms continued with his successors after the same 


manner ARBUTHNOT of Findowrie, a second son of the family of Arbuthnot, car- 
riivi always a label for his difference. 

1 shall add here what the author of Jurisprud. Her. de Jure Belgarum, says of the 
use of the label. When the label is hereditary and fixed as other figures, which 
the father carries, his eldest son and successor inust carry the same; and if it be a 
label of three points, the second son may carry one of four points, and the third 
son one of five point-,, and the fourth son a label of six points, and no further, for 
the label's points can be no more multiplied. And this is practised also by the 
French, as well as by the Flandrians. 

The other principal difference, the button, before mentioned, being almost the 
-.ame with the bendlet, cottise, and ribbon, of which I have treated in the First 
Part of this System, chap. 13. as being diminutives of the said bend; and have 
distinguished them as to their use, that is, when the field is filled with bendlets, 
and when two cottises accompany a bend, then they are no marks of cadency; 
but when there is only one of them surmounting the arms, it is called a button, and 
i< an ancient mark of cadency: As that in the old arms of ABERNETHY, of which 
before, where the batton, or ribbon, by some so called, surmounts and bruises the 

I shall give here two instances of its practice of old as a brisure, first, HENRY, 
second son of Henry III. carried the arms of England, surmounted of a bendlet 
azure, for his difference; and when he succeeded his elder brother in the earldom 
of Lancaster, in the reign of Edward II. he laid aside the bendlet, and carried, as 
his father and brother, over the leopards of England, a label of three points azure, 
each charged witli flower-de-luces. The other instance of a bendlet as a brisure, 
Olivarius Uredus gives us in the arms of GUIDO, second son of William Lord Dam- 
pctra, and his lady, Margaret Countess of Flanders, who carried the arms of Dam- 
petra, two leopards bruised, with a bendlet for difference, in the year 1251, which 
he laid aside when he succeeded his elder brother William. 

It is to be minded, that when the eldest son dies without issue, the second son is 
then successor, and carries the plain arms of his father, as Chass. Cat. Glor. Mitnd. 
Part. i. " Primogenito sine liberis decedente, arma Integra ad secundo genitum 
" devolveret ita deinceps." 

The batton is now-a-days ordinarily couped, that is, touches not the angles of 
the shield, and is used very short by the French, which they call baton peri. The 
Latin heralds give the words Jjffiira and baccitlus, commonly for a batton. Syl- 
vester Petra Sancta calls it clabilla, a little club, and sometimes clavuht. In his 
68th chapter, De Clavula & de Stamine Tesserario, where he says, " Vectis & bacil- 
" lus scutarius formae teres, &- ejus tantum latitudinis, ut trientem baltei non ex- 
" cedat, hie inquam vectis, seu bacillus, etiam ipse a primogenitis, turn liberos 
" natu minores, turn eorum posteritatem distinguit." 

It is, and has been the constant custom of France, to distinguish younger sons 
by battons: Thus Monsieur ROBERT of FRANCE, Count of CLERMONT, younger son 
of Lewis IX. of France, carried France bruised with a baton peri gules. He mar- 
ried Beatrix, daughter and heiress to John Lord Bourbon, whose eldest son carried 
the foresaid bearing, from whom issued the noble family of Bourbon, of whom the 
present monarch of France is descended. The baton peri is frequent with the 
French, as the author of Jurisprudent! a Heroica says, " Insignia seu regale Bour- 
bonium stemma discriminavit, clavula nempe coccinea, seu fusti scutano, vulgo 
le baston de gueules, qui (non sec us ac taema, nisi quo multo sit temiior) a parte 
' dextra in sinistram vergit, heraldire, peri en bande." The second son, JAMES 
Count de la MARCH, who married the heiress of Vendosme, did also bear the fore- 
said coat; but charged the batton (for a sub-brisure) with the figures of Vendosme, 
viz. three lions argent; and the other younger sons of this family differenced their 
battons with other figures, as BOURBON MONPENSIER placed on the top of his batton 
a canton charged with a dolphin azure; and BOURBON d'EvEREux has his batton 
componed, argent and gules. 

I seldom or never find with us, and the English, a batton couped made use of 

lawful sons, because, as to those that know not the science it looks like 

it Ulegitimatioxu The batton sinister I have treated of before, in the I4th 



chapter of the First Part of this System, and shall here treat of it again, with other 
maiki of tllegituaation ; but first of the bvrdure. 

The /w<f<v.v, the t'aird mark of cadency above mentioned, goes round the ex- 
tremities of the shield, and takes up the hfth part of the field, by the English ;. 
by our piactice, sometimes less, sometimes more, according as it suits with the 
figures within the shield, and the figures that charge the bordure. Part I. chap. 

By all nations it is frequently used as a brisure ; and especially by the English, 
who do not look upon it as a principal figure, or one of the honourable ordinaries, 
bin a principal difference; and is never to be found, say they, in a coat of arms, 
but when it stands for a mark of cadency. By the French it is looked upon as a 
principal figure, and not a mark of cadency ; but when the bordure is less than its 
jusi quantity, and of metal upon metal, or colour upon colour, it is called bv 
them a fillier. vVith us the boidure, as with the French, is sometimes a principal 
figure, and sometimes taken for a mark of cadency, and that very frequently ; but 
with the French, and witn us of old, for a principal figure. 

For the antiquity of the bordure, as a principal figure, in an old edition of the 
Chronicle of St Lewis, by Joinville, he there says, That Charlemagne gave arms to 
ARNOLD de COMESING Viscount de COZERANS, which were only or, a bordure gules, 
for his good services in Spain. Here it could not be but a principal figure, since 
there are none other but itself. The Kings of PORTUGAL carry their imperial en- 
Mgn within a bordure, charged with towers or castles, for the kingdom of Algarve, 
which Alplionuis III. got from the king of Castile, upon the account he married 
his daughter in the year 1278. The bordure is not taken for a mark of cadency 
in the armorial bearings of the Spaniards, who use to have more than .one or two 
bordures, but as principal figures, or essential parts of the bearing, representing 
some victory over the Moors, Goths, and other barbarous invaders of their country, 
as John Baptista Christyn, in his Jurispnidentia Heroica, Art. 5. his words are, 
' Quod ad aliarum attinet familiarum margines &. limbos, non adeo sunt discrimi- 
' nis notre, quam scuti partes essentiales, iis tot Victorias a Mauris, Gothis, cae- 
' terisque barbaris reportatas, aliaque id genus decora significantes." The same 
author, in his Supplement to his First Part, tells us, That ordinarily the Spaniards, 
and those of the Netherlands, have their mothers' figures, charging a bordure 
round their own arms, not as a brisure, but to show their marriage or maternal 
descent. His words are, " Limbi apud Hispanos connubia designant, &. quemad- 
' modum apud Belgas &- Gallos insignia exponuntur." For which he gives us the 
instance of Alphonsus III. before mentioned. And the GUZMANI, in Spain, have 
round their arms, by marrying with the family of Villamicares, a bordure charged 
with castles and lions; which is also given in taille douce by Sylvester Petra 
Sancta, page 599. 

One of the ancientest and greatest families with us, the DUNBARS Earls of 
MARCH, without question the principal family of the name, carried gules, a lion 
rampant ardent, within a bordure of the same, charged with roses of the first. 

The honourable and ancient family of MAUJ.E Earls of PANMURE have always 
been in use to carry parted per pale, argent and gules, a bordure charged with 
'ops, all counterchanged of the same; being the same which their progenitors 
in the kingdom of France: of which more particularly in the following chan- 
ter. So much for the bordure as a principal figure. 

As it is an additional figure, and mark of cadency, I have spoken to it before in 
11 its varieties, and given examples by whom carried; and here I shall add others, 
whom 1 have not before mentioned, with some new observations. 

11 the bordure is made by plain lines, and not charged with figures, and of 
the tincture of the principal figure in the field, it then shows the bearer to be a 
younger son of the principal family. 

Mr THOMAS HOPE of Rankeilor, Advocate, second lawful son to Sir John Hope 
of Craigiehall, azure, a cheveron or, betwixt three besants, all within a bordure of 
the second; crest, a broken globe surmounted of a rainbow, proper: motto, At 
spes infra 7 fi. L. R. and Plate of Achievements. 

JAMES BANNANTYNI of Kelly, a second son of the family of Kames, bears the 
arms of the family, viz. gules, a cheveron argent, betwixt three mullets or, (and 




for his filial difference) within a bordure of the second ; crest, a griffin's head 
erased, proper: motto, Non cito non tarde; as in the Lyon Register. 

JOHN MACARTNEY of Auchinleck, in Scotland, now Esq. and residenter in Ire- 
land, argent, a stag tripping gules, attired or, within a bordure of the second ; crest, 
a dexter hand holding a slip of a rose tree, proper: motto, Stimulat sed ornat. 

L. R. 

ALEXANDER SCOTT of Sinton, a second son of Scott of Harden, bears or, on a 
bend azure, a star of six points betwixt two crescents of the field ; and, on the 
sinister chief point, a rose gules, stalked and barbed vert, all within a bordure sable; 
crest, a crescent argent; with the motto, Crescendo prosim, L. R. 

SCOTT of Galashiels, a younger brother of Scott of Sinton, carries the same arms, 
but, for his difference, charges the bordure with six-escalops argent, for marrying 
a daughter of Pringle of Galashiels; crest, a lady from the waist richly attired, 
holding in her right hand a rose, all proper: motto, Prudenter amo. L. R. 

When the bordure is formed by uneven or crooked lines, such as ingrailed, in- 
vected, indented, embattled, and other such lines, which I have described before in 
the First Part of .this System, it shows the bearers to be descended of the third or 
fourth son of a family. 

THOMAS LIDDERDALE, Merchant, citizen of London, son to the deceased Robert 
Lidderdale, a younger son of St Mary's Isle in Scotland, bears, azure, a cheveron 
ermine, within a bordure ingrailed argent; crest, an eagle's head erased, proper: 
motto, Perbelle qui prcevidet. L. R. 

JOHN GKEJG of Ballingrie, gules, three dexter hands couped and disposed bend- 
ways argent, 2 and i, within a bordure ingrailed of the second; crest, a right 
hand : motto, Signantur cunla manu. L. R. 

DONALD M'GILCHRIST of Northbar, gules, a lion rampant argent, within a bordure 
invected of the last; crest, a lion's paw bend- ways argent: motto, Cogit in hostem. 
L. R. 

LUNDIN of Auchtermemy, descended from the family of Lundin, carries the old 
coat of Lundin, viz. paly of six pieces, argent and gules, on a bend azure, three 
cushions or, all within a bordure indented of the third; crest, a hand, proper, 
holding a cushion argent : motto, Tarn genus quam virtus. L. R. 

Colonel GEORGE HAMILTON,' second lawful son to Redhouse, (whose great-grand- 
father, the iaird of Redhouse, was one of the Senators of the College of Justice, 
and second brother to the laird of Priestfield, afterwards Earl of Haddington) 
bears gules, on a cheveron, betwixt three cinquefoils ermine, a buckle azure, all 
within a bordure embattled or, charged with eight thistles vert, flowered gules; 
crest, two hands conjoined, issuing out of a cloud, and within two branches of 
laurel, disposed in orle, proper: motto, Presstando prtesto; recorded the 2pth of 
March 1694 in the Lyon Register. 

A bordure formed on the inner side, as those above, by a line crooked like a 
wave of the sea, is called a bordure waved ; as that in the arms of HAMILTON of 
Ladylands, a cadet of Torrence, descended of the House of Hamilton, gules, a 
mullet betwixt three cinquefoils, all within a bordure waved argent. L. R. 

HAMILTON of Westburn, descended of the family of Torrence, descended of the 
family of Hamilton, gules, three cinquefoils ermine, within a bordure potent and 
counter-potent of the second and first; crest, a hand grasping a lance in bend, 
proper: motto, Et arma et virtus. L. R. and Plate of Achievements. 

CRAWFURD of Cartsburn, gules, a fesse ermine, betwixt three mullets in chief 
argent, and in base two swords saltier- ways ; for a brotherly difference he had a 
crescent surmounted of a crescent ; and, in lieu thereof now, for his difference he 
carries the above blazon within a bordure waved argent; crest, a sword in pale, 
having a pair of balances on the point, all proper: motto, $uod tibi, hoc alteri. 
L. R. and cut in Plate of Achievement, Part I. 

The more the bordures are varied from plain ones, by accidental forms, and 

rged with figures, they show the bearers to be the further removed from the 

cipal House; as also, when componed, or counter-componed, or divided bv the 

To which purpose are the words of the author of Jurisprudent 

uermca, " Tertio gemti filius primus paternum retinet limbum; secundus limbum 

praferetdentatum; a la bordure edentee; tertius besantiis nummis insignitum, 


" a la bordure cbargee tie besans ; quartus sectionibus diversi coloris distinctum, a 
" la bordure compwee, ita de csteris." Of the bordure compone 1 shall here 
treat more particularly. 

The bordure compone, as the French say, and gobonated by the English, is when 
the bordure or any other figure is filled with one rank of square pieces, alternately 
of metal and colour, as that going round the arms of Lundin of that Ilk, to be 
seen Plate XVil. in the First Fart of this System. 

This bordure was of old honourable, but of late fallen into disgrace : how it 
came, I cannot give a particular account, but shall here give my observes of its 

PHILIP Duke of BURGUNDY, surnamed the Hardy, the youngest lawful son of 
John King of France, surrounded the arms of France with a bordure gobonated, 
argent and gules, which were the ensigns of Burgundy modern ; and so stands yet 
quartered with Burgundy ancient, bendy of six, or and gule s, within a bordure of 
the last : Which arms have been marshalled with these of Spain, and has prece- 
dency of all the other arms of dukedoms and provinces marshalled in the achieve- 
ment of that kingdom. 

The first bordure compone, or gobonated, I find in England, was used by the 
children of JOHN of GAUNT Duke of LANCASTER, fourth son of Edward III. pro- 
create on Katharine Roet, widow of Sir Otes Swinford, in the lifetime of his 
former wives. This Katharine he married last, (as Sandford in his Genealogical 
History) but could not free his three sons, John, Henry, and Thomas, begot upon 
her, from bastardy, till he obtained an act of Parliament for their legitimation ; 
and before that act of legitimation, which was obtained the zoth year of the reign 
of Richard II. the three brothers, says Sandford, carried, parted per pale, argent 
and azure; over all, on a bend gules, three lions passant gardant or, the figures of 
England. The first brother differenced his arms with a lambel ; the second, the 
same arms by a crescent ; and the third, Thomas, by a mullet. But after the act 
of legitimation of these three brothers, says our author, their distinction of bastardy 
was discontinued ; which, it seems, was their placing their father's arms on a bend, 
and the field of two tinctures : For JOHN BEAUFORT, the eldest, was Earl of Somer- 
set, and after the legitimation did bear the arms of France and England quarterly, 
within a bordure gobone, argent and azure. The second brother, HENRY BEAU- 
FORT, Cardinal and Bishop of Winchester, carried the same arms with his elder 
brother: And the last, THOMAS, had a bordure gobone, ermine and azure: But 
when he was made Duke of Exeter, he made his bordure round the arms of 
England, gobone, drgent and azure ;. the last charged with flower-de-luces, because 
he married the daughter of HOLLAND Duke of EX.ETER, and whose bordure was azure, 
feme of flower-de-luces or. Those brothers were surnamed Beauforts, from the castle 
of Beaufort in Anjou, where they were born, and used the portcullis of that castle 
for their badge; which figure, with these of the thistle and rose, the badges of 
Scotland and England, are yet to be seen upon old buildings with us, since the 
murriage of King James I. of Scotland with Jean, daughter of John Beaufort Earl 
of Somerset. And her arms being the same with her father's, before blazoned, are 
so illuminated in our old books of blazons. The bordure compone, or gobonated, 
was looked on then as an honourable figure to distinguish lawful children; for I 
find HUMPHK.EY Duke of GLOUCESTER, fourth lawful son of King Henry IV. of 
England, carried the royal arms of England, within a bordure gobonated, argent 
and sable; which bordure, says Sandford, he was advised to take, in imitation of 
that of the Duke of Burgundy above mentioned, by Nicol Upton a herald. But 
aft -wards this Duke Humphrey laid aside the bordure compone', and took a bor- 
dure argent, as more honourable, in imitation of Edmond Earl of Kent, and 
Thomas Duke of Gloucester, younger sons of Edward I. and Edward III. Our 
author says, the ingratitude of those of this latter age to the memory of those 
illustrious families above mentioned, have converted the bordure gobone to no 
other use, than in distinguishing the illegitimate issue from those lawfully begot- 
ten. But this saying of his will hardly clear it from the aspersion of bastardy, 
even by the instances he gives us; and that it was looked upon by heralds as 
such; as bv Spelman, in his Notes upon Nicol Upton, who says, That in England 
the batton-sinister, and the bordure gobonated, were, of old, the marks of illegiti- 


mation in England. And the author of Jurisprudentia Hcroica, Article 12th, 
paragraph lyth, says the same from Spelman, thus, " Bacillus sinister extrema 
.scuti non attingens, &- fimbria quandoque stnata, sed plerumque gobiata (ut 
fecialibus fari visnm est) hodiernae nobis illegitimi notae sunt, &. antiquitus 
" etiam fuisse apud Anglos nothorum differential!!, notatu dignum censens." 

CHARLES Earl of WORCESTER, Lord HERBERT (so dignified by King Henry VIII.) 
was a natural son of Henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset, eldest son of Edmund 
Duke of Somerset, third son of John Beaufort Earl of Somerset, eldest son of John 
of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, by Katharine Rouet his third wife; which Ghaiies 
bare the coat of his father, viz. France and England, quarterly, within a bordure 
gobone, argent and azure, with the addition of a batton-sinister. He was succeed- 
ed by his lawful eldest son, who carried the arms of his father, but disused the 
batton, and after, all the descendants of this family were in use to do the same; and 
carry the arms of France and England within a bordure gobone; as the present 
Henry Somerset Duke of Beaufort, sprung from the above-mentioned John of 
Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. 

The bordure C'jmpone, or gobonated, was, of old, in great esteem, in differencing 
lawful sons with us; as by Sir WILLIAM WALLACE of Ellerslie, g ules, a lion rampant 
urgent, within a bordure compone azure, and of the second. 

It is used promiscuously in the arms of many families with us, whether legitimate 
or illegitimate, as an honourable brisure, and also round the arms of ancient fa- 
milies sprung from the natural sons of some of our kings ; as that carried by 
STEWART Earl of MURRAY, descended of a natural son of King James V. and of 
late by LUNDIE, or LUNDIN, of that Ilk, as an honourable additament from the 
crown, who having laid aside their old arms, viz. paly of six pieces, argent and 
gules, surmounted of a bend azure, charged with three cushions or, carry now only 
the arms of Scotland, within a bordure gobonated, argent and azure, as sprung 
from a natural issue of King William the Lion. 

JOHN LUNDIN of Baldester, whose great-grandfather was a lawful brother of the 
ancient family of Lundin, assumed the new coat of Lundie, and quartered it with 
the old arms of Lundie, thus recorded in the Lyon Register, quarterly, first and 
fourth the arms of Scotland within a bordure gobonated, argent and azure, as be- 
ing the arms granted by King Charles II. to the family of Lundin; and specially 
adapted to their descent from Robert of Lundin, natural son to William the Lion 
King of Scotland, and brother to King Alexander II. The second and third 
quarters are, paly of six, argent and gules, on a bend azure, three cushions of the 
first, as the coat formerly used and borne by these of the name, all with a bordure 
azure ; crest, a dexter hand open, and charged in the palm with an eye, all na- 
tural : motto, Certior dum cerno ; so recorded in the Lyon Register, i4th Tanuarv 

This bordure has not only been used by the issue of bastards, (of which I could 
give several instances) but even by bastards themselves; so that the bordure go- 
bonated is become more suspicious of being a sign of illegitirnation than any other 
figure in heraldry, except the batton sinister. 

The natural sons of King Charles II. and King James VII. have been in use to 
carry the arms of Britain within such bordures ; as CHARLES Duke of RICHMOND 
natural son to King Charles II. carries Britain, within a bordure gobonated argent 
and gules, on the first roses of the second. 

JAMES Duke of BERWICK, natural son to King James VII. carried the arms of 

am within a bordure compone, gules and azure; the first charged with the lions 

England, and the second with the flower-de-luces of France: And so much for 

: bordure compone, or gobonated. I proceed to other bordures, composed of 

e than one range or tract of square pieces of different tinctures, which have 

been attached as any sign of illegitimation by birth or descent, but have 

everywhere been used as regular and honourable brisures, so far as I know 

Bordure counter-compone , which some call counter -gobone, and the French call it 
n ecbiquete of deux traits: It consists only of two ranges or tracts of square 

1 ? 7 f, dlfferent ^ nct u ures ' and is alwa y c d as a brisure or mark 
or lawful younger brothers and their issue. 


JOHN CARMICHAEL, Portioner of Little-Blackburn, as descended of Carmichael 
of that Ilk, carries argent, a fesse wreathed, azure and gules; and, for his differ- 
ence, within a bordure counter-compone of the second and first. Lyon Register. 

Mr JAMES GARDEN, sometime minister of the gospel at Balmerino, descended of 
the family of Garden of Leys, argent, a boar's head erased sable, betwixt three 
cross croslets fitched gules, all within a bordure counter-componed of the second 
and first; crest, a rose slipped, proper: motto, Sustine, abstine. L. R. 

Bordure cheque consists of three ranges or tracts of square pieces, alternatively 
of metal and colour. There are many good families with us, who, as cadets, 
brise their chief's arms with this bordure; of whom I have given several examples 
in the First Part of this System, and shall here add two. 

LESLIE of Findrassie carried the quartered arms of the Earl of Rothes, within a 
bordure cheque, gules and or. L. R. 

JOHN IRVINE of Kingoussie, descended of Drum, bears two coats ; quarterly, 
fir^t argent, three holly branches, -each consisting of as many leaves, proper, band- 
ed gules, within a bordure cheque vert, and of the first, for the name of Irvine; 
second argent, an eagle displayed sable, for Ramsay ; third as second, fourth as 
first. L. R. 

The more the bordure is varied from plain ones, of which we have given ex- 
amples, the more they show their bearers to be removed from their principal house : 
As likewise, the bordures which are divided by the partition lines, as parted per 
pale, per fesse, bend dexter, and sinister, are suitable differences of cadets; of 
which I have given examples in the First Part of this System. 

The bordure is often charged with small figures, such as crescents, besants, 
martlets, &c. frequently taken, especially by the younger sons, some of them be- 
ing the figures of their mother's arms, to show their descent, and to difference 
themselves from their elder brothers, by charging their bordures. 

The cheveron, counted by some, as aforesaid, one of the principal differences, is 
never carried in a coat of arms, but to difference the bearer from the chief. This 
does not hold in our practice, nor in that of the French ; but sometimes it is car- 
ried as a principal and essential figure, and one of the ordinaries, to difference one 
principal family from another. Of its form and signification I have treated before, 
in the First Part of this System. 

It cannot be denied but it is often used with us and other nations as a mark of 
cadency, to distinguish younger sons from the principal family, and cadets from 
one another. 

It has been carried as a principal and essential figure by the ancient surname 
of FLEMING, of which before ; and by the surname of HEPBURN, and several 

The cheveron, as I said, is very frequently made use of as a principal or dif- 
ferencing figure by us: Yea, there is no principal figure in armory, whether pro- 
per or natural, but has been added by cadets to the principal bearing of their fa- 
milies. I shall add two or three instances of the. cheveron being carried as a mark 
of cadency. 

It is said by heralds, especially the English, that it represents the couples or 
rafters of a house, such as wrights set on the highest part of the house, which is 
not complete till it be set up; for which they Latin the cheveron, tignum: In 
which sense, GORDON Earl of ABOYNE, third son to George Marquis of Huntly, for 
his difference, took a cheveron, and so carries, azure, a cheveron betwixt three 
boars' heads couped, within a double tressure, flowered with flower-de-luces within, 
and adorned with crescents without, or ; and, for motto, took these words, Slant 
ceetera tigno, to show himself a cadet by the cheveron. HAY of Seafield, descend- 
ed of Hay of Fudy, who was a son of the House of Errol, argent, a cheveron be- 
twixt three escutcheons gules. When the cheveron is of the tincture of the prin- 
cipal figures, such as the escutcheons last mentioned, which accompanies the che- 
veron, it shows the bearer to be more near the chief house than those cadets who 
carry the cheveron of a different tincture from the principal figures. And the 
same may be said of all the other ordinaries, when they are added by cadets to the 
arms of their chiefs for differences. 



I shall here only add the arms of ROBERT FULLER-TON of Craigliall, Writer to the 
Signet, and Comptroller of his Majesty's Customs at Leith, eldest son of Robert 
Fullerton of Craighall, who was son of Mr William Fullerton of Craighall, a third 
lawful son of rhe family of Fullerton of that Ilk, so matriculated in the Public 
Register of the Lyon Office, and thus blazoned, viz. argent, a cheveron berwixt 
three otters' heads erased gules; crest, a camel's head and neck erased, proper: 
motto, Lux in tenebru; the crest and motto of the chief family. Of which before, 
in the First Part of this System. 

The cheveron, when as a brisure, and put under accidental forms, such as in- 
grailed, inverted, &-c. or when charged with other figures than these in the princi- 
pal bearing, show the bearers .to be degrees removed from the principal house, ex- 
cept the figures that charge the cheveron belonging to the mother of the cadet, to 
show what marriage he came from. 

What I have said of the variety of the bordure, in differencing descendants, the 
same may be applied to the cheveron. 

Having now treated of the label, batton, bordure, and cheveron, as principal 
differences or additional figures, added by cadets, in all their varieties, I now 
proceed to other figures frequently used to difference descendants of one family, 
in their different degrees of birth, when added to their paternal bearing. 

There are other sorts of differences given us by heralds, such as differentia; con- 
sanguineorum, and differentiae extraneorum ; the differences of the first being these 
of consanguinity; which are, the crescent, mullet, mart/ft, annulet, flower-de-luce, 
and such like minute figures, which are given to younger sons whilst they are in 
their fathers' family; to show their primogeniture, descent, and degrees of birth, 
when added to their paternal bearing. But it is to be observed, when these' 
younger sons come to erect and be heads of distinct families, with issue, they or- 
dinarily leave these minute and petty differences, and take differentia* e\trftneonim t 
large and conspicuous figures, such as bordures, bends, cheverons, quarters, &-c.' 
By such like conspicuous figures, whilst they were in the field of battle, they 
were the more eminently distinguished by their banners, ensigns, and other utensils 
of war whereon were their arms. 

.Having spoken of some of those before, I shall now proceed to treat of those 
differences of consanguinity, by some called the minute differences, or modern and 
temporary ones. 

The label, of which before, is counted one of them; but then it is frequently 
only temporary by the eldest son during the father's life, and seldom is carried by 
the second son as hereditary, unless when the fortune of his eldest brother goes off 
with the inheritance of the family to his daughter; of which before. 
The second son (his elder brother continuing) adds a crescent to his paternal 
: tor difference, (and some h raids tell us, that this figure, as the other figures 
lowing hath a symbolical e ,se and representation) to put him in mind to in- 
e in fortune and honour. The third son carries a mullet, (which proneily 
signifies a spur-rowel, though some take it for a star) to incite him to chivalry. 
fourth a martlet, being a little bird in armories, represented without feet and 
eak, to make him mindful to trust to the wings of virtue and merit, and not to 
s own legs, having little land to. put his feet on. The fifth, an annulet, or rin* 
remember him to achieve great actions. And the sixth, a flower-de-luce, to 
miml him of his country and prince. 

rf ^Ih ' J lve ' Ster P f * San <*a, takes this martlet to be a swallow, when he 

.s of the differences of Britain, thus: At in Britannue regno feciales tri- 

uunt secundo gemtis addititiam lunulam, tertio genitis merulam, similemve 

" qUart CmtlS Stdlulam S enitis ' sexto 

These differences are now frequent with the English, of which I shall add some 

.stances. WILLIAM CAVENDISH Duke of NEWCASTLE, representative "of a second 

son of Cavendish Earl of Devonshire, sable, three harts' heads cabossed 


crescents for their differences, and several others of the English nobiiity, as by 
the late English bouks of arms. JOHN DIGBY Earl of BRISTOL, descended of a 
third brother gives azure, a dower-de-luce urgent, with a mullet, for dilieience, in 
the dexter chief point of the second. The same does MONTAGUE Earl ot SAND- 
WICH, of whom before. GEORGE VILLIERS Duke ot BUCKINGHAM, a,^a:t, on a cross 
gii'.cs, five escalops or, with a martlet of the second, in tht dexter canton. JAMES 
BEX. TIE Earl of ABINGDON, argent, three battering rams, bar-\\ay> in pale, proper, 
armed and garnished azure, with an annulet lor difference, being ;i fifth biotuer, 
01 descended of a tir'tli. CHARLES HOWARD, Baron HOWARD of EscntL, gules, on a 
bend, betwixt six cross croslets ftcbe argfiit, an escutcheon or, thereon a demi- 
lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tress u re, 
counter- flowered ,/; being the bearing of the name and family of Howard, and, 
a> a cadet, add-i, for difference, a flouer-de-luce. Most of the arms of the genlr> 
of England ar- stuffed with these figures. Sandford, in las Genealogical History, 
says these differences began in the reign of Richard 11. 

The same, differences were used in Holland with some variation; the eldest car- 
ried as his lather, tiie second sou used the label, third son a crescent, fourth son 
a mullet, or star, and so forth, as John Baptista, in his Junsprudtntia, Art. 5. 
" In liollandia, vicinisque provinces, paulo aliter insignia distinguuntur, ita ut 
" priinogenitus vivente patre, aut eo mortuo; secundo genitiu tigillum, seu lam- 
' bcllum retineat; tertius lunulam crescentem ; quartus molulam seu asterculum; 
" &. alii qui sequuntur merulam, annulum aut lilium insignibus, in discrimen ali- 
" orum adhibeant." 

The same practice of these figures is to be found with us as with the English, of 
which I shall subjoin, a few instances. MONTEITH of Millhall, as descended of a 
second son of Monteith of Kexse, carries, quarterly, first and fourth or, a bend 
cheque, iabie and argent, for Monteith; second and third azure, three buckles or; 
and, for his difference, has a crescent in the centre of the quartered arms, as in the 
First Part of this Treatise, and Plate of Achievements. 

ROBERT UDNEY of Auchterallan, a second son of Udney of that Ilk, bears the arms 
of Udney, viz. gules, two greyhounds counter-salient, argent collared of the field ; 
in the honour point, a stag's head couped, attired with ten rynes, all betwixt three 
flower-de-luces, two in chief, and one in base or; with a crescent for his difference. 
And JOHN UDNEY of Coultercallan, a third son of Udney of that Ilk, carries the same 
arms, with a mullet for his difference. ARTHUR UDNEY, a fourth son of the ta- 
mily of Udney, bears the same with Udney of that Ilk, with a martlet for his dif- 
ference. As all of them in the Lyon Register. 

The annulet, the difference of a fifth son, was made use of by Sir WILLIAM 
HAMILTON of Whitelaw, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, a fifth son 
of Bangour, gitles, a mullet betwixt three cinquefoils argent, on a chief of the last, 
an annulet of the first. Mr WILLIAM HAMILTON of Orbiston, a younger son of 
James Lord Hamilton, gules, an annulet betwixt three cinquefoils ermine. JOHN 
NAIRNE of Segden, descended of the House of Sandford, carries, parted per pale, 
sable and argent, on a chaplet, four quatrefoils, all counterchanged ; and, for his- 
difference, he had a martlet. L. R. 

Ti\ie.Jlowcr-de-iuce, the difference of a sixth son, carried by PATRICK. FRASER of 
Broadland, Advocate, descended of Fraser of Philorth, whose quartered coat he 
carries, viz. first and fourth azure, three frases argent ; second and third gules, a lion 
rampant argent, armed and langued sable; with a flower-de-luce for difference. 

ALEXANDER NAPIER, descended of a sixth son of Napier of that Ilk, bears 
argent, on a saltier ingrailed, between four roses gules, a flower-de-luce for differ- 
ence; crest, a dexter hand erected per pale, holding a crescent argent : motto, 
Sam tache. L. R. 

These are called the differences of tbe first bouse, when made use, of by sons of 
principal families. 

The second bouse is the second son and his children. The eldest son of the se- 
cond house bears his father's coat, with such differences as he did ; but if his fa- 
ther be in life, and his difference from his elder brother be a crescent, then the 
crescent is charged with a label, which is temporary during his father's life. The 
second son of the second house a crescent charged with another crescent, as 
HOWARD Earl of BERKSHIRE, Viscount ANDOVER, and Baron HOWARD of Charles- 


ton, second son of Thomas Howard Earl of Suffolk, who was descended of a second 
son of the Duke of Norfolk, gules, a bend betwixt six cross cmsletsfocbe argent; 
in the middle of the bend, on an escutcheon or, a demi-lion rampant, pierced 
through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure counter-flowered gules. 
Which escutcheon the Duke of Norfolk got from the King of England, as an ho- 
lourable additament for the victory he obtained over the Scots at Flodden. Suf- 
folk adds a crescent, as a second son, and Berkshire charges it with another, as a se- 
cond son of a second son. With us, DAVID FORRESTER of Denoven, a second son 
of a second son of Forrester of Garden, argent, three hunting-horns sable, garnished 
.V/, a crescent surmounted of another for difference. THOMAS NAIRNE, second 
i to the deceased William Nairne of Langside, who also was a second son of the fa- 
mily of Sandford, bears, parted per pale, argent and sable, on a chaplet four mullets, 
all counter-changed ; and, for a brotherly difference, in the middle fesse point a 
crescent surmounted of another, both counter-changed as the former; crest a 
celestial sphere, or and azure, standing on a foot gules : motto, Spes ultra, and be- 
ith, FEsperance me comfort e. L. R. 

The third son of the second house has the crescent surmounted with a mullet ; 
the fourth son of that house with a martlet; the fifth with an annulet, and the 
sixth son the crescent, charged with a flower-de-luce. 

The third son and his issue makes the third house. The difference belonging 
thereto is the mullet, and the second son of that house surmounts it with a crescent. 
WILLIAM HAY, merchant and bailie in Edinburgh, descended of the Earl <;f 
Tweeddale, whose quartered coat he carried, bruised the surtout with a mullet, sur- 
mounted of a crescent, being the second son of a third brother of that family. 
The third son of the third house, surmounts the mullet with another, the fourth 
-on with a martlet, and the fifth with an annulet; as DRUMMOND of Carlowrie, or, 
three bars waved gules, in chief a mullet of the last, charged with an annulet of 
the first. 

The martlet, annulet, and flower-de-luce, being charged, as I have said of the 
crescent and mullet, are the differences of the fourth, fifth, and sixth houses. 

Besides those six differences, some heralds add other three; to the seventh son 
they give a rose. With us several families carry roses for differences, as younger 
sons or brothers. SCOTT of Harden, or, on a bend azure, a star of six points be- 
twixt two crescents of the field, in the sinister chief point a rose gules, stalked and 
barbed, proper, being a cadet of Scott of Sinton : But now he carries the coat of 
that family, viz. or, two mullets in chief, and a crescent in base azure. SCOTT of 
High-Chester, as a second son of Harden, the foresaid old coat of Harden, and sur- 
mounts the rose with a crescent argent. SCOTT of Thirleton, near Kelso, a third 
son of Harden, charges the rose of Harden with a martlet; and SCOTT of Wool! 
the same, with an annulet. It is strange, that these families of the name of Scott 
descended of Sinton, should have carried the arms of Buccleugh, 'with additional 
figures, and not added them to the arms of Sinton. 

CUNNINGHAM of Brownhill, argent, a shake-fork sable, in chief a rose gules sur- 
mounted of a mullet of the field. 

To the eighth son they give across moline, or anchor; and to the ninth a double 
quatrefoil ,. e. a flower with eight leaves, to express that he is removed from his 
elder brother and the succession by eight degrees. 

These distinctions, as we have said, were called differences of consanwinitr, be- 

ause they were primarily invented for the use of younger sons, whilst infamilia 

is, in their fathers family, as marks of their primogeniture, or degrees of birth 

t to distinguish their families, when erected, distinct, and separate from the 

principal house, they taking other regular and conspicuous marks; such as the 

differentia extraneorum, of which immediately. 

Terences of these who erect new distinct families, and which they trans- 

r posterity will not only serve to distinguish their families and issue 

one another, but from the principal house whereof they are descended, and the 

ne of their descent, which can never be done by those minute figures to th, 

Deration : For though a second son, descended of a second son, Ike a cres- 

And h P ev L f f \ HlS - SeC T d S n Sha11 disti "g^h hardly conceivable, 
ey are so far from showing the time of their bearer's descent, that they can- 


not distinguish the uncle from the nephew, that is the second brother from his 
eldest brother's second son, who would both carry the same thing : But to what 
our worthy countryman Sir George Mackenzie has written of them, I refer the 
reader. I shall here add what the elaborate Sir William Dugdale, Garter King at 
Arms in England, has written in his book, The Ancient Usage of Anns; who says, 
" As for these minute ones, they do not show the time of the descent ; for we cannot 
" know which of the crescent bearers are the uncle or nephew. And further, it 
" is a very usual matter for every new riser at this day, that can find a man of his 
" surname that hath a coat ef arms, presently to assume it, by adding a crescent, 
" or any other of these minute differences, which (says he) I seldom credit such 
" kind of differences, nor the bearers, unless it be by some other testimony, or 
' proof made manifest, which cannot be counterfeited so well in the other differ- 
" ences, except the assumer should be thoroughly acquainted with the descent of 
" him whose line he seeks to intrude himself into." We have reason to complain 
of the like practice with us, and of our goldsmiths, engravers, painters, masons 
and carpenters, who are very ready, though altogether ignorant of this science, to 
give to those who employ them in any piece of work, coats of arms, with some of 
the foresaid differences ; not only to those who have right to carry arms, but even 
to some who ought not to be honoured with armorial bearings, although they be 
of some ancient surname. To which irregular and unwarrantable practice, I wish 
the Lyon Kiiu;- ut Arms would put a stop, by putting the acts of Parliament in 
execution against such persons, by which the arms of our old gentry will be better 
known and more easily distinguished from new upstarts. I conclude with what 
Sir Henry Spelman, a learned herald, has wrote of these differences, " Rideo 
" igitur, & rejicio mi nut as istas iconculas, quibus nee error defuit nee periculum," 
i. e. I therefore smile and despise these petty differences, in which there is both 
error and danger. 

It is, and has been an ancient custom with us and other nations, (since that a 
few certain differences could not be sufficient to distinguish the numerous issues of 
many families, and suit with their various bearings) that all persons who had right 
to carry arms, might add any figures for differences, which they affected, being 
agreeable with their paternal bearings, by the allowance of the Lyon King at 
Arms. So that not only the honourable ordinaries, and sub-ordinaries, which we 
call proper figures in heraldry, but even all other figures, and representations of 
things natural and artificial, are made use of for marks of cadency; which some- 
times not only serve to distinguish cadets from principal families, but also to ex- 
press some honourable action, alliance, or descent, from other honourable houses, 
which have occasioned many composed and quartered coats. Of the last in the 
following chapter. 

These additional figures are either proper or natural. The proper figures are 
these which have their names and being from the Science of Heraldry, as the 
honourable ordinaries, and sub-ordinaries, viz. pale, fesse, bar, chief, bend-dexter, 
bend-sinister, cross, saltier, and cheveron; which I have fully described in all their 
varieties, and illustrated them by examples in the First Part of this System. As also 
the sub-ordinaries, the bordure, orle, essonier and tressure, inescuicbeon,franc-qitar- 
tier, canton, cheque, billets and billet, pairle, point, girons, piles, Jlasque, fianque and 
-voider, lozenge, rustre, mascles, fufils, fret and fretty, besants, torteauxes, vires t an- 
nulets, gutte, papelonne and diapre; of which I have treated in the First Part. As 
also of the natural figures, which are the representation of all things animate or 
inanimate, and are called natural, because they keep their own proper names in 
this science, but have additional terms from their positions, dispositions, and situa- 

All these figures, whether proper or natural, are sometimes carried as principal, 
and sometimes as additional. By principal figures we understand those heredi- 
tary fixed marks carried by the chiefs of families, (which serve to distinguish chief 
families from one another) and are transmitted to all the descendants. By addi- 
tional figures, we understand these, whether proper or natural, which cadets add as 
narks of cadency, and differences to the principal, hereditary, fixed figures of the 
family ; that they may be distinguished from the chief, and from one another, 

VOL. II. F. 


which art- called differentia extraneorum. The differences of these that are ex> 
traneous, such as younger sons, brothers, and other descendants, extra familiam pa- 
tris, and so erect new distinct families, add to their paternal figures one or other oi' 
the proper and natural figures above mentioned, which I have given before in all 
their varieties, both as principal and additional figures. 

These figures have been assumed by cadets, which they added to their paternal 
bearing, to perpetuate the memory of some noble action, lucky event, honourable 
employment, or office ; or to show their gratitude and acknowledgment of benefits 
received from some honourable friend or superior; or else to express their alliance 
with other families. 

We have instances of differences assumed by cadets upon such accounts and 

:is, of which I shall add a few examples. This we have intimated to us by 

the additional figure in the armorial bearing of GRAHAM of Inchbraikie, descended 

,ui eldest .-on of a second marriage of the first Earl of Montrose, who gives or, 

a dike or wall fesse-ways azure, broken down in several parts, and in base a 

rose gules, on a chief sable three escalops of the first. The dike here is assumed 

to difference the bearer from his chief, and to perpetuate that action of Gramu,, 

(one of the predecessors of the noble family of Graham) in pulling down the 

wall built by one of the Roman emperors, which was thereafter called Graham's 


SEATON of Barns, a second son of George Lord Seaton, added to his paternal 
figures, the three crescents, a sword erect in pale supporting an imperial crown, 
for his difference, to perpetuate the special and seasonable services performed by 
one of his progenitors, Sir Christopher Seaton of that Ilk, to King Robert the 
Bruce ; who gave these figures with the lands of Barns to Sir Alexander Seaton, 
son of Sir Christopher, for his and his father's good services; as Sir George Mac- 
kenzie in his Science of Heraldry, and of which before, more fully, in the First 
Part of this System. 

We have several instances of honourable employments and offices represented 
by additional differencing figures, as in the bearings of some of the surname of 
WOOD, the paternal coat being azure, an oak tree, proper, growing out of a mount: 
WOOD of Balbigno, as descended of the principal family, added, for difference, 
two keys tied with strings to a branch of the tree, to show his office as Thane of 
Fettercairn. And WOOD of Largo placed his tree betwixt two ships under sail, 
to difference himself from other families of the name, as being admiral to King 
James III. and IV. 

FORBES of Waterton, descended of Tolquhon, carries over Tolquhon's quartered 
coat, an escutcheon argent, charged with a sword, a key in saltier gules, as the 
badge of his office, being Constable of Aberdeen. 

These who were advanced by kings, princes, or other great lords, did many time 
bear their whole coats, or some part of the arms of those who advanced them, and 
joined them with their own paternal bearing ; which served very aptly, not only 
to difference them from the principal families whereof they were cadets, but also 
to show their gratitude and acknowledgment of benefits received from some ho- 
nourable friend or superior; and by reason thereof they are united together in a 
kind of friendship, and is a great strengthening to both Houses. I shall add here. 
what Camden says in his Remains-of Britain, page 118. " Gentlemen began to 
' bear arms by borrowing from their lords' arms, of whom they held in fee, or to 
' whom they were most devoted ; so, whereas the Earl of CHESTER bare garbs, or 
1 wheat sheaves, many gentlemen of that country took wheat sheaves. Whereas 
' the old Earls of WARWICK bare cheque, or and azure, a cheveron ermine, many 
' thereabout took ermine and cheque. In Leicester, and the country confining, 
' divers bear cinquefoils, for that the ancient Earls of LEICESTER bare gules, a 
1 cinquefoil ermine. In Cumberland, and thereabout, where the old Baron of 

KENDAL bare argent, two bars gules, and a lion passant or, in a canton of the 

second, many gentlemen thereabout took the same in different colours and 
" charges in the canton." And as Sir George Mackenzie observes, in his Science 
of Heraldry, page 5. That most of the surnames in Annandale carry the BRUGES' 
arms, being a saltier, and chief gules, which the Bruces had from the old lords 
*f Annan when they married with the heiress of Annandale. The JOHNSTONS 


carry the same figures. The Right Honourable WILLIAM Marquis of ANNAN-DALE 
carries argent, a saltier sable on a chief gules, three cushionsor. The KIRKPATRIC:^ 
carry the same figures with tlie Johnstons, but differ only in tincture. Sir THOMAS 
KIRK.PAI RICK, of Closeburn gives argent, a saltier and chief azure, the last charged 
with three cushions or. JAK.DINE of Applegirth, argent, a saltier and chief gules, 
charged with three mullets of the first; so that the saltier and chief are armorial 
figures taken from the Annans, the old Earls of Annandale. 

In the shire of Murray, many families carry stars, the figures of the name of 
MURRAY. As INNES of that Ilk, urgent, three stars of six points waved azure. 
And many families in Douglasdule, Teviotdale, and other countries which thr 
Douglases possessed in property or superiority carry stars. In the shires where 
the Stewarts, of old, had interest, many gentlemen who have been old posse 
there, carry fesses chequered, the figure of the STEWARTS, or other figures chequer- 
ed, as cheverous and bends. 

With us it is a frequent practice for younger brothers to add to their paternal 
bearings some part of their mothers' arms, to difference themselves, and show their 
alliance with other families. And these coats are all called composed arms, because 
there are two coats joined in one shield, without distinction of quarters. This way 
of difference is much approver! of by Dugdale, in his Ancient Use of Arms, who 
recommends this way to his countrymen : " For" says he, " it not only serveth 
" to unite the families who have matched together in love and amity, and thereby 
" worketh the like effect, but, beside, it showeth the certainty of the descending 
" of the said younger brothers out of both the houses, and giveth knowledge < 
" the time thereof." It is true, this way may show the time of the descent, but 
cannot show the seniority of many younger brothers, without the assistance of the 
minute differences. 

The Right Honourable the Lord BALMERINO is known by his difference to be 
descended of a younger son of Robert Lord Elphinstone and his lady, Sarah Mon- 
teith, daughter to Sir John Monteith of Kerse, because he charges his cheveron 
with buckles, which was a part of his mother's bearing. His lordship's bearing 
is argent, on a cheveron sable, betwixt three boars' heads gules, as many buckles 

ARBUTHNOT of Fiddes, descended of a younger son of Arbuthnot of that Ilk, 
and his lady, Margaret Eraser, carries the arms of the Viscount of Arbuthnot, 
viz. azure, a crescent betwixt three stars argent, within an orle of frases of the 
last. ARBUTHNOT of Catherlan, descended of a third son, procreate betwixt Sir 
Robert Arbuthnot of that Ilk, and Dame Margaret Fraser, daughter to the Lord 
Lovat, carries Arbuthnot within a bordure argent,, charged with eight frases, or 
cinquefoils, azure. 

NICOL SUTHERLAND of Torboll, thereafter of Duffus, a second son of Kenneth 
Earl of Sutherland, that was killed at the battle of Halidon-hill, anno 1333, and 
his lady, a daughter of Donald Earl of Marr, married Cheyne, heiress of Duffus, 
with whom he got the barony of Duffus. His lady's bearing was gules, three cross 
croslets fitched or. He added them to his paternal coat, viz. gules, three stars or. 
Thereafter this family matched with another heiress of the name of Chisholm> 
who carried azure, three boars' heads erased or. With these figures they com- 
pose the coat as now borne by the present Lord DUFFUS, viz. gules, a boar's head 
erased, betwixt three stars, 2 and i, and as many cross croslets, i and 2, or. 

Mr GEORGE KEITH of Arthurhouse, sometime Depute of the Sheriffdom of Kin- 
cardine, descended of the Earl Marischal, gives a composed coat thus, argent, a 
saltier and chief gules, for Bruce, the last charged with three pallets or,, for Keith v 
all within a boidure gobonated azure, and of the first. 

Thus I have treated of the ancient and modern marks of cadency, as fully as 
any hitherto, and of other additional differencing figures, taken to perpetuate some 
honourable action, event, employment, and alliances with other families: Which 
additional figures being joined with the principal figures of the chief families in 
one shield, encumbered them, and made a confused order in their description, not 
suitable to the regular disposition and situation of figures, according to the rules of 
blazon, which gave occasion to separate and marshal them into distinct quarters. 


by the principal partition lines. And this is the eight way proposed to different, 
descendants from the principal house, and one from another. 

There are ten or twelve principal causes which have given ground for multi- 
plying of coats of arms, and rightly marshalling them into distinct quarters in one 
shield : On which I am not to insist here, but in the following chapter. I shall 
mention here one of the principal causes of quartering coats, which is the necessity 
that younger brothers or sons lie under to distinguish themselves from the princi- 
pal houses they are descended of. 

By my proposed order I begin with the partition line called parted per pale, 
the French only parti. The husband ordinarily impales his own coat on the dex- 
ter with that of his wife's on the sinister, which the English call baron andfemme. 
If the husband be a younger brother, he ought to carry his brotherly difference, 
notwit'astanding he impales with his wife. If the wife be a younger sister, 
she needs no difference, but may carry her father's coat as he did : For all nations 
agree that sisters should carry no marks of difference, though they have brothers, 
and when they have no brothers, and be heirs-portioners : yea, although the 
estates, dominion, and dignity come to the eldest sister. For which I shall here 
add the opinion of several lawyers, given us by John Baptista Christyn, Chancellor 
of Brabant, in his Jurisprudentia Heroica, Art. 5. paragraph 22. " An etiam filiaj- 
" &. sorores insignia paterna rumpere debeant, ad hoc, ut a fratribus distinguantur, 
" &- certum est quod non, cum vere sunt familiae suas finis, & nubendo transeant 
" in aliam familiam :" For which he cites several authors, and adds, " Licet feu- 
" dum &- dominium pracipuum ad majorem duntaxat pertineat," they may all of 
them carry their father's arms entire; and if he be a second son, or any other 
descendant, having his arms with a mark of cadency, they must continue the same 
bruised arms; as our author, " Si earum pater arma sua ruperit, veluti secundo 
" genitus, tune etiam filix eandem rupturam patris agnoscent, &- in insignibus 
" propriis retinebunt." 

The reason which Guillim in his Display gives, that sisters should carry no 

marks of differences, that when married they lose their surname, and receive that 

of their husbands. But that is no reason at all ; for I have shown by learned 

authorities, and regular practices, that, in some cases, they may use their father's 

arms ; and of which more particularly in the following chapters. Nor does this 

reason of his prove that daughters, before their marriage, should not bear their 

paternal coat with differences; seeing, till then, they lose not their own surname. 

But the learned Sir George Mackenzie gives a better reason for this rule, " That 

' albeit among sons the eldest exclude all the younger from the succession, and 

therefore differences are given for clearing the right of succession amongst 

brothers and their descendants ; yet sisters succeed equally, and are heirs-por- 

tioners; and so there is no use of differences amongst them, seeing seniority in- 

" fers no privilege." 

Churchmen, who are obliged to impale their paternal coat with that of their 
office, place their coat of office in the dexter, parti, with their paternal on the 
simster; which is not to be bruised with any mark of cadency, although descend 
ed of a cadet, because anciently they were not supposed to have succession. But 
eformation the practice is otherwise, not only with us but in other 
protestant countries. The ecclesiastics are obliged to carry the coat of their fa- 
milies with suitable marks of differences, whether they impale or not impale with 
a coat : of office: because they may have lawful issue to transmit their arms to 
coHaterTs antS ' '"^ ^ distin S uished from the chief house, and other 

As to the eight way proposed of differencing, by quartering of two coats in one 
shield, it is done by dividing the shield into four parts, by a parti and coupe h 
placing the one coat m.the first and fourth area, or quarter, "and the othefin The 
econd or third area or quarter. It is questioned by some, whether it be a sufficient 
.fference I hese who will not have it one, argue, that the paternal coat is no 
bruised and twice repeated, as entire as that of the eldest brother - Besides "he 
heads of principal families quarter and marshal other coats with their own so tha 
a second brother cannot be distinguished from the eldest. It is true t^v do 
i several other accounts, as to show their dignified feus, & c . of which after 


wards ; yet by the practice of all nations younger brothers difference themselves 
from their elder brother, by quartering with their paternal arms those of others, 
such as their mother's, without diminution or addition to the arms of their father, 
but must still continue their father's brisure, if he be a cadet of a principal family. 
Of this opinion is the above-mentioned author, whose words I here subjoin, being 
an answer to the above question : " Abunde satisfit dum primogenitus plana portat 
" avita insignia, alter vero illorum maternis cumulata in distinction is notam:" 
And afterwards, " Et ita mores passim observant, ut ilia scuti quadripartitio, se- 
" cundo genito videatur esse peculiaris:" And gives for examples, " Sic Rymmer- 
" swallii insignia cum Gauriis, a secundo genito cumulata vidimus: Sic Mont- 
" morenciaca cum Egmondanis & Bossuviis: Sic Henninia cum Burgundicis, &- 
" plura alia quorum enumeratio taedium pariat." 

The same is practised with us; for a younger son or brother, by way of quar- 
tering another coat with his paternal, is looked upon as a sufficient and regular 
brisure, in the best of our families, and especially by second sons ; which \\ ay 
seems to be peculiar to them, not only by quartering the arms of their mothers, 
but other arms, upon account of honourable actions, offices, titles, alliances, &-c. 
Of which practice, many examples might be given, but 1 shall here only add a 

Sir George Mackenzie says, in his Science of Heraldry, chap. 2.1. " These ca- 
" dets, who have their arms quartered with other arms, need no difference, (sup- 
" posing them to be immediate sons of principal families, as I understand) for the 
" quartering or impaling is a sufficient difference; and therefore it was unne- 
" cessary for the Earl of KELLY to have borne a crescent for a mark of difference, 
" as second son of the Earl of Marr, seeing he bears, quarterly, with the arms of 
" Erskine, first and fourth an imperial crown within a double tressure or: bestow- 
" ed upon him for his assistance given to King James, in Cowrie's Conspiracy." 

The Right Honourable the Earl of NORTHESK, whose predecessor was a second 
brother to David Carnegie Earl of Southesk, was first created Earl of ETHIE, who 
then carried,"" or, an eagle displayed azure, within a bordure gules, for his differ- 
ence : But thereafter changing the title of Ethie for Northesk, quartered the pa- 
ternal coat of Carnegie (without the bordure) with argent, a pale gules, for 

The Right Honourable the Viscount of STORMONT, quarters the principal coat 
of Murray, as descended of Tullibardin, with the arms of Barclay, for his differ- 
ence, without any other brisure. 

HUME of Wedderburn, descended of a. second son of Sir Thomas Home of that 
Ilk, one of the progenitors of the Earls of Home, and his lady, Nicolas Pepdie, 
heiress of Dunglass, has been in use, since the reign of King James I. to carry the 
principal bearing of the family of Home, viz. quarterly, first vert, a lion rampant 
argent, armed and langued gules, for Home; second argent, three papingoes vert, 
beaked and membred g ule s, for Pepdie of Dunglass; third argent, a saltier ingrail- 
ed azure, for Sinclair of Polwarth, added for his difference from the Earl of Home, 
and the fourth quarter as the first. 

HUME Earl of MARCHMONT, descended from a second son of Wedderburn, car- 
ries as Wedderburn; but, for his difference, adds another quarter, the arms of Pol- 
warth, being argent, three piles ingrailed^w/w. 

HEPBURN of Humbie, descended from a second son of Hepburn of Waughton, 
carries the principal coat of Hepburn, viz. gules, on a cheveron argent, a V^e be- 
twixt two lions rampant of the first ; and, for his difference, quarters them with 
argent, three laurel leaves vert, for marrying with a daughter of Foulis of Col- 

KER of Littledean, descended of a second brother of Cessford, quarterly, first 
and fourth vert, on a cheveron argent, three stars gules ; and in base, an unicorn's 
head erased of the second, for Ker; second and third azure, three crosses nioline 
argent, for Ainslie, which differences him from others of the name of Ker. 

I shall not trouble my reader with more examples of this kind : But it is to be 
still observed, that a second brother, though he differences himself by quartering 
another coat with his paternal, yet he must always continue h;s father's brisure, he 
being a younger son of a principal family: For, how shall we otherwise distinguish 



principal families from those descended of them, if the cadets do not continue that 
mark of the families from whom they are descended ? For, if cadets should be 
allowed to lay aside their father's or grandfather's brisures, in their paternal bear- 
ings, when they quarter them with the coats of other families, by the same allow- 
ance, they will leave out the marks of cadency of these coats with whom they 
quarter, and then we shall not know the particular families they are descended 
from, nor with what family they are allied. If a Douglas should quarter with 
>ther family of the name of Douglas, and Stewart with a Stewart, the differ- 
ences of these families being laid aside, we shall not know what Douglases or 
Stewarts they are come from. Our ancient practice was not so, but of late 
practised by some. The clearest way then to make known the descents of fa- 
milies by arms, is for them to retain the congruent differences of their progenitors, 
although they quarter with the coats of other families as their own particular 

The nin'J} way of differencing, as proposed, is by transpo?ition of the quarters, 
by making the first, second, and third, first, and by adding different crests ;. which 
practice is not frequently used but in Germany, as Menestrier observes, page 389, 
That several branches of great families distinguish themselves only by different 
crests, without inserting any addition in the arms themselves, where there will 
be many crests timbering one shield : of which more particularly in the chapter of 

The above differences I have been treating of, they make use of sometimes, but 
not so frequently and regularly as the Bntons, French, Spaniards, Flandrians, and 
other nations; for with the Germans, all the younger brothers do succeed equally 
to the titles of dignity and honour of the families from which they are descended, 
which is not ordinary in other nations ; besides their differencing by crests, of 
which they have many and various on their shields. The author of 'Jurisprudentia 
Heroica, Art. 2. speaking of the Germans, says, That it is necessary for brothers to 
distinguish themselves from one another, which they sometimes do, by different 
crests; his words are, " Etiam inter fratres armorum distinctio necessaria est: In- 
^ terdum arma solo cimerio discrepant;" and instances the families descended 
from the House of Burgundy, who carry all one arms, but difference by crests; 
some have flower-de-luces, others owls, and some trees. They do also difference 
themselves ordinarily by addition or diminution of quarters,, of which they use 
many in one shield. 

The Electoral Dukes of SAXONY have twenty-one quarters in one shield which 
they timber with eight helmets, and as many crests. The other branches of that 
family not only distinguish themselves by different crests, and disuse the Electoral 
ensign, but add or diminish the number of their quarters for difference; as Jacob 
Imhott, m Notttia, S. Rom. Germanid Imperil Genealogica, lib. 2. cap. 7. " Cste- 
' rum Saxoniae ducura, quorum hoc capite mentio facta est, clypei in eo tantum 
' ab illo quern modo deumbravimus, differunt, quod Electorali symbolo carent' 
ahudque ferunt." The above-mentioned author of Jiirispnutentia tells us Art c' 
paragraph 15. ' In Germama omnes eadem cum primogenito insignia portant 
nisi quo tres principes Electores Sasculares, ad differentiam illorum qui cum illis 
jusdem gentis oc ongmis sunt, ea qme imperatori in ordine processioms pne- 
srunt insignia, clypeis electoralibus insculpta habeant." It is to be observed 
he badges which the Secular Electors use in each of their arms, are marks of 
their offices, and not there placed for differences. 

Elector PALATINE gives for his achievement three shields /,*, i. e. tied 
; the first saMe, a lion rampant or, for the Palatine; second, lozenrf 
it ^ azure, lor Bavaria; the thud shield betwixt these two is only Jles 
or the electoral ofl.ce The families branched from the Elector Palatines fa ry 
: arms marshalled with more coats, but never use the electoral ensign 
hat being forb.d them. The Palatme of RANGRAVE carries, quarterly first and 
tourth the hon or Palatine; second and third the lozenges, fo^ Bavaria; and for 
difference, uclds the arms of Degenfield by way of surtout The S Palace 
URG l,ne add more quarter* viz. coupe one, parti three which make 
| quarters, and the arms of Palatine in surtout makes the ninth qua er The 
SIMAN line carries, quarterly, first and fourth Palatine, second Bavaria' third 


cheque, ardent and t v/^r, for Spunheim: But the BIPONTIN branch, which is next 
to the Count Palatine Neuburg, carries the same nine quarters of Palatine Neu- 
burg; but, fur difference, otherwise disposes or transposes the quarters thus, coupe 
in cnicf, Palatine and Bavaria quarterly, and in surtout Valentia, which are three 
coats; and in base, coupe one, parti two, which make six quarters, and so nine of 
the whole. Which diilerencing way by transposition of the quarters is very singu- 
lar with the Germans, as imhoil takes notice: But with the French and English I 
have met with no such practice allowed by our heralds. For, if transposing of 
quarters be received for a way of differencing cadets, it would not only prejudge 
principal families, and frustrate the end and design of marks of cadency, whe, 
we may know the degrees of consanguinity, but likewise destroys heraldry, by 
rendering all its witty contrivances useless: For the transposition of four or 
quarters may be so many ways, that we shall never know the principal stem, whereof 
they are come, nor primogeniture amongst themselves, nor degrees of consangui- 
nity by their bearings. And likewise, the transposing arms which are marshalled 
in one shield is dangerous; for thereby the arms, which in one bearing ha\'e pre- 
cedency, lose it in another;, so that we cannot know the precedency due to arms, 
of which in the following chapter. And I shall conclude this with a short ac- 
count of the practice of differences in- Italy, which the eminentest families mo^t 
religiously observe, as the author of Jurisprudentia Heroica, that they difference by 
the lambel, bordure, batton, and quartering other coats with the paternal, as by 
the examples he gives us, whose words follow: " Ab aliquibus illustribus in Italia 
" fannliis, mos ille ultra religiose fuerit observatus. Ipsa Neapolitan! regni in- 
" signia, tigillum coccincum pra-ferunt, ut &- ipsi Sicilian reges," /. e. azure, sem-i 
of flower-de-luces or, a lambel of five points gules, being the arms of their prince-;, 
who were the younger sons of France. So PETER MEDICI carries the arms of 
Medici, quartered with these of Toletani, to difference from his elder brother the 
Duke of Etruria: " Sic Petrus Mediceus insignia quadripartita ex Mediceis $ 

Toletanis armis gessit, in discrimen fratris natu majoris, magnaj Etrurite Ducts. 

' Petrus Antoninus Sanctevernus, Sancti Marci Dux, limbum gestavit cyaneum," 

i. c. a bordure azure round thfe principal bearing of the family, being argent ', a 

fessegulet. " Tiberius Caraffa familue suae insignia plana & integra gessit, ejus 

4 frater Fabricius Roccellae princeps, baculo ilia prasino &- spinoso a fraternis 

' discrevit, unde prosapia ilia nomen de la Spina attraxit," /.. e. Fabricius Prince 

of Rocceili distinguished his arms from the plain ones used by his elder brother 

by adding a bend green bordered with thorns, so that his family is named Spinosa, 

or de la Spina. Sylvester Petra Sancta the Italian, in his Tessera Gentilitia:, cap. 67* 

De guttatis tigillis tesserarii, i. e. lambels; cap. 68. de clabula, i.. e. batton; and 

cap. 69. de. limbo, the bordure: Of all which he treats, and illustrates by examples 

in all their varieties, in tinctures and forms of figures, of differences, or*additional 

figures, to. difference descendants, to whom I refer the curious. 

In the Dukedom of MILAN it is somewhat odd that younger brothers use no 
differences, but carry the entire arms with their elder brothers, as by a declaration 
of the senate, 23d of May 1.663, which is fully set down in Jurisprudentia Heroica. 
And the same practice is in the country of Piedmont, where all brothers carry the 
same arms with their elder, except they be counts; and then they place above 
their arms a comital bonnet, or crown, which the younger brothers are discharged 
to use on their arms. 

So much then for the general practice in Europe, for differencing lawful younger 
ons or brothers from principal families, and from one another. 

But before I proceed to treat of marshalling, or quartering many coats of arms 
in one shield, upon several accounts and occasions in the following chapters, I shall 
end this with the marks used by the most polite nations, in distinguishing unlaw- 
ful issue, or bastards, from the lawful. 



^CARRIED by such as are not born in lawful marriage; who are divided by law- 
yers, in naturales, spurios, fc? ex damnatis complexibus procreates, but by our style 
11 of those go now under the general name of bastards. 

With the most polite nations in Europe arms have been looked upon as sacred 
:igns of families, and could not descend but to the lawful issue; so that bastards, 
as some say, cannot carry the name in arms of their supposed fathers, not being of 
the family or kindred : Nam de jure patrem demonstrate nequeunt. Therefore, see- 
ing the common law determines not who is their father, it were absurd that the 
laws of heraldry should allow them to bear any man's arms as their paternal coat : 
As Bartolus, " Non enim sunt de familia sive agnitione, & hoc jure communi 
" verum est." And the same is said by Hopingius, " De insignium prisco &. 
" novo jure, cap. 7. Cum haec scilicet arma sunt praecipuum agnitionis & fa- 
" miliae indicium." And it was also a received rule amongst heralds, that bastards 
should not bear the paternal coat, nor name of their supposed fathers, and this was 
strictly observed of old. 

We do not find the natural sons of princes and great men to have carried the 
name and arms of their fathers, of old, in Britain : A few instances I shall here re- 
peat. WILLIAM PEVEREL, natural son of William the Conquerer, carried nothing 
of his father's arms (1 mean these of Normandy) however so highly dignified; 
neither did ROBERT, natural son of Henry I. of England, but other arms, viz. or, 
three chevronels gules; and the same was carried by his lawful son WILLIAM Earl 
of GLOUCESTER. WILLIAM LONG-ESPEE, natural son of Henry II. begot on the fair 
Rosamond, who was made Earl of Salisbury by King Richard I. anno 1196, car- 
ried for his armorial figure a long sword, as relative to his name; and his son, 
bnother WILLIAM LONG-ESPEE, took the arms of his mother Ela, the daughter and 
heir of William Fitzpatrick Earl of Salisbury, viz. azure, six lions argent, 3, 2 and 
i, as Sandford in his Genealogical History. Where he also tells us, that Sir JOHN 
CLERMONT, natural son of Thomas Duke of Clarence, (who gave France quartered 
with England, with a label ermine charged with cantons gules') carried parted per 
cheveron, gvles and azure, in chief two lions rampant gardant, and affronte or, 
By which bearing it seems he was the first natural son, at least I observe, in 
England, who began to carry arms resembling those of his father ; the lions being 
little different from those of England. His father, the duke, was a second son of 
Henry IV. 

The natural sons of our kings anciently had neither name nor arms of their fa- 
thers, but .such as were altogether different; and these they obtained upon several 
accounts. As, by marriage, ROBERT, natural son of King William the Lion, 
having married the heiress of Lundie of that Ilk, he and his issue took upon them 
the name and arms of that family, and which they continued to carry, till of late 
they took the arms of Scotland within a bordure gobonated, argent and azure, as 
the natural sons of our kings, who have been in use to take such bordures since 
King James II. of Scotland: But what other marks of illegitimation 
they had before, I cannot learn. How soon the bastards of our nobility and gentry 
were allowed to carry the arms of their supposed fathers I cannot be positive; but 
, Spain, Italy, and Flanders, bastards were allowed to carry their 
thers' arms with some singular mark, invented to distinguish them and 
ssue from the lawful children and their descendants. I shall here add an 
e relating to bastards, from the edict or law of the Archduke Albert and 
:oncermng the ensigns of the nobility of the Belgians, proclaimed the I 4 th 
ot December 1616, as in Prudentia Heroica. 

To repress the abuses which have fallen out with respect to bastards, and their 

mdants, who have presumed to carry the surname of the lawful family, as 

arms of the same, without, placing therein any mark of bastardy; so 

t in process of time, the descendants of some natural or unlawful sons, come 

ten to put themselves in rank with the lawful, and pretend to their successions, 

and prerogatives, on account, that neither by the name, nor by the arms 

can be known any difference or distinction, betwixt the lawful children 


" and the descendants of bastards: We will, and expressly command, that to the 
" arms of bastards and unlawful children, (unless they be legitimate by letters 
" from us or our predecessor^) mid their descendants, shall be added a difference, 
" and notable special mark, to wit, to the arms of the said bustards or unlawful 
" children, a bar, and to that of their descendants, a remarkable note from these 
" used by the younger descendants of lawful children, under the pain," &-c. 

The bar above mentioned, called by us the bastard bar, is well known through 
all Europe as a mark of legitimation. It is a traverse, which comes from the 
upper left corner of the shield, passing to the right corner in the lowest part; it 
surmounts, or comes over the essential or principal figures, and is called by the 
Germans barra, and with them it is somewhat broad, near almost as the bend- 
sinister. If it be narrow, it is called by the Latin writers filum, a line or thread: 
" Filum vero in eo tantum ditFert a barra, quod sit linen quarta parte ea an- 
" gustioi." But with us and the English, the bastard bar, or batton, is the fourth 
part of the bend-sinister, as Guillim and other English writers describe it, and now 
carried coupe ; that is, cut short, and does not touch the extremities of the shield, 
called by the English, button-sinister c'juped, and by the French, baton peri, be- 
ing very small and short with them. It is said by some to represent a cudgel; and 
is given to bastards, to show that they were not freemen, but liable, as slaves of 
old were, and servants yet are, to be beat and cudgelled. This mark of illegiti- 
mation is so well known, and generally practised by all nations, that I need not 
add examples here of domestic and foreign bearings. But to proceed to other 
marks of illegitimation in certain countries. 

In Brabant, Flanders, and some other dominions in Germany, the bastard (if he 
has not the bar) is obliged to carry his father's arms in a canton dexter or sinister, 
and all the other part of the shield is blank. As the author of Jurisprudentia He 
roica, " Illegitimorum indicium, si quis in ea parte scuti, quam heraldi canton 
" vocant, patenuun gestet insigne, reliqua scuti parte vacua relicta;" of which 
practice he gives us several examples, as a remarkable note of illegitimation : But 
I have not met with such a practice in Britain. 

Some write, that when the helmet and crest,, which timbers the shield of arms,, 
are turned looking to the left, it is a sign of bastardy. But this does not hold by 
a general practice; for when achievements of arms are hung up in churches at 
the sides of the altar, the helmet and crest look to the altar ; so that some look to 
the right, and some to the left. And the same custom is used where the sove- 
reign's arms are, as our above-mentioned author, whose words are, " Hoc vero non 
1 ita obtiiut in Bzlgio, infmitis ubique exemplis posset verificari, & in omnibus 
1 templis ubi capitula seu commitia aurei velleris celebrata fuerunt, videntur 
' galeaj equitum ab una parte versus levam ab alia versus dextram versae, sic ut 
4 omnes aram sacram aspiciunt." And it does not hold in Germany, where they 
have many helmets and crests upon one shield ; these on the right and left look 
to one placed affronts in the middle betwixt them. 

The bordure gobonatcd, or compone, is now a mark of bastardy in Britain, by our 
late practices, which I have already spoken to in this chapter. These then, being 
the ordinary marks of illegitimation which I have met with us, to 'distinguish un- 
lawful children from the lawful ones. 

When there are many bastards in one family, they are obliged to carry these 
marks, and to difference themselves from one another, having them of different 
tinctures, as the five natural sons of King Charles II. JAMES Duke of MONMOUTH 
had over the arms of Great Britain a batton-sinister or. HENRY FITZROY Duke of 
GRAFTON carried the same, with his batton-sinister compone, azure and argent. 
CHARLES FITZROY his batton was all ermine. GEORGE FITZROY Duke of NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, his batton-sinister was compone, azure and ermine. And GEORGE BEAU- 
CLERK Duke of ST ALBANS had his batton-sinister gules. All which were placed, 
over the arms of Great Britain. 

What were the marks that were added to the arms of the bastard and his lawful 
descendants, the batton being dispensed with, is difficult to give a satisfactory ac- 
count. By the edict above mentioned, where the lawful descendants of a bastard. 
:re to have remarkable notes, different from these used by the descendants of 
lawful progenitors, it could not be by quartering their arms with their maternal,, 


which is a fit difference for the descendants of lawful children, except the bastard 
bar was placed on the paternal arms: But the bar and bordure gobonated being dis- 
pensed with, what could these other marks be? 

[ohn Baptist* Chnstyn, author of Jurisprudentia Heroica, gives us trom bcohier 
five sorts of differences (besides the batton for difference) used by bastards, and 
their lawful descendants. I. La pointe de I" 1 ecu coupee de metal au couleur, i. e. the 
point of the shield toupe of metal or colour. 

II. Le ch-f de Cccu c,upe & d'autre metal ou couleur que les armes, 2. c. the chief 
of the shield coupe, and of other metal or colour than the arms. 

III. La pointe de l\cu tiianglee de metal ou de couleur, i. e. the point of the shield 
triune-led of metal or colour. 

IV. /, chfftaille fcf tranche, ou autrernent se blasonne escloppe a dextre et sinistre, 
ou deCun seal, i. >: the chief faille and tranche, or otherwise blazoned, slopping to 
the right or left, or of one alone, of a tranche or faille line. 

V. L'assiete des armes sur Vecu en forme de chevron, i. e. the situation of the 
arms, or the shield, in form of a cheveron. 

The reason which is given by lawyers, especially by Tiraquel, de Jure prin. 
Quest. 12. ver. 13. is, that it is necessary to give to the lawful children of bayards 
different marks, to distinguish them from children of lawful descent : For the first 
mentioned not being of the house and family, nor existing as successors to the 
grandfather, there can be no lawful consequence from an unlawful beginning of 
birth, and corrupt root, with those of lawful descent. What these different marks 
are, 1 cannot learn, nor of such a practice in Britain, or anywhere ; but that the 
lawful issue of bastards, keeping their fathers' or grandfathers' marks of illegi- 
timation, distinguish themselves to show the seniority of their births by the same 
marks of cadency (of which I have been speaking) used by those of lawful 

But to return to the above marks of illegitimation given by Scohier, which I 
shall explain a little, though their practice is hardly to be met with in Britain. 
And as to the first of them,, that is, when the under part of the shield is blank, 
and separate by a coupe line from the arms above. And as to the second, when 
the upper part of the shield is blank, and the arms below. Of the first, our cele- 
brated author of Prudentia Heroica, gives, for instance of such practice, the arms of 
CHARLES, a natural son of the Duke of BURGUNDY; his words are, Scuto nempe in- 
tegro, infernis fracto', and tells us, that this way of differencing is yet in use in 
Brabant, and there strictly observed, not only by bastards, but also by their law- 
ful issue : And further tells us, that a bastard of a bastard must have as many 
marks of illegitimation as there are illegitimate generations descending in a right 
line : For which he gives us the seal of arms of ANTHONY Baron of WACKKN, na- 
tural son of Anthony Lord Roche, of the House of Burgundy, called for his valour 
Le Grand Bastard. The first mentioned Anthony carried the arms of Burgundy, 
coupe en chef, and en pointe, that is, the upper part of the shield and the lower 
part was blank, and the arms of Burgundy were placed fesse-ways; so there were 
two marks of illegitimation in chief and base, as our author says, Sic duobus ille- 
gitimis discerniculis notatum, sive bis ruptum. 

The bastards of the House of Burgundy differenced themselves variously, as the 
four bastards of Duke Philip the Good ; the first, ANTHONY Lord of ROCHE carried 
the arms of Burgundy with a traverse line, or bar-sinister. The second carried 
the arms of Burgundy in bend, (as our author) ilia in baltheo, vulgo en bend. 
The third the same, in fascia, vulgo en ftice, that is, in fesse, or fesse-ways. The 
fourth bastard had the same arms of Burgundy, in cheveron, or cheveron-ways ; 
and all the other parts of the shield being of gold, were void of other figures; as 
our author says, Scuti partibus aureis '( V'lcuis vulgo escloppe relictis: And their seals 
of arms are also given us by Olivarus Uredus .le Sigillis Comitum Flandriee', where 
it is also to be observed, that the lawful descendants of those bastards carried the 
arms of Burgundy quartered with those of their mothers, or with these of their 
dominions and territories ; and some of them had sinister, and some dexter traverse 
lines over the quarters of Burgundy. 

These ways of distinguishing natural sons from lawful ones I cannot say I have 
met with in Britain, except that one vised by HENRY BEAUFORT Earl of SOMERSET, 


and Lord HERBERT, lawful son of Charles Earl of Worcester, and Lord Herbert, 
\vho \v;is a natural son of henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset: which Charles car- 
ried the arms of his father Duke Henry, being, quarterly, France and England, 
within a- bordure gobonated, argent and azure, and bruised them beside \\ith a 
batton-sinister argent, as a mark of illegitimation : But his lawful son, the above 
mentioned Earl Henry, laid aside the batton-sinister, used by Ins father, and car- 
ried the arms of Beaufort, with a new difference, (one of them, as I observe, above- 
mentioned) c'jti, c en chef, and en poime, i. e. the arms i <>r fesse-waj s : And 
his sun .aid successor, WH.I.IAM Earl of WORCESTER, Lord HtKbERT, carried its his 
father, which \vt-ic so placed on his stall at Windsor, bcii! S u , of the Gar- 
uv. as Sandford tells us in his Genealogical History ot England, ile uas succeed- 
ed by his son Ei>\\ r .\:to SOMERSET Earl of WORCEVF i:;<, Lord HI-'RBKRT, who was the 
first of the line ot Somerset that left that way of placing the arms of Beaufort in 
-ways, and tilled the whole shield with the arms of Beaufort, vi/.. 
France and England, quarterly, within a bordure gobonated, argent and azure ; 
and ever since are so continued by the family. 

It is without controversy that there were laws made and observed through all 
Europe relative to nobility, and even concerning the discernicula, the brisures of 
la\\ful children, and the marks and distinctions given to bastards. John le Fevre 
Sti Rcinige Dynasta, Chief King of Arms to the Duke of Burgundy, in the year 
I4!>3, in a manuscript of his in French, given us by the author of Jurisprudentia 
.ic,!, has some general rules relating to the distinction of bastards from lawful 
children, \\lnch 1 here add. 

None ought to carry the arms, nor the sign of another, to the prejudice of others 
to whom they belong. 

None can sell nor alienate the arms of his family or lineage. 

A bastard may carry the arms of his father with a traverse, i. e. a batton-sinister; 
and take his surname from the loftTship from whence his father titles himself, 
and not the surname of his father, unless he had such title and surname as the 
said arms signify. 

The bastard cannot lay aside the traverse without liberty and licence from the 
chief of the name and arms, and from these of the family carrying the same arms, 
unless it be that he place them in a faux ecu, i. e. false shield ; which we take for 
a cartouch, of which I have treated, and given its figure in the First Part of this, 

The sons of a bastard born and procreate in lawful marriage, if their mother is a 
gentlewoman, may carry the arms of their father and mother quarterly, always 
having the traverse in the quarter of the father's arms ; or, if otherwise they would 
carry them without the traverse, they must place them in a faux ecu. 

If a woman be a bastard, or the daughter of one, she may carry her father's 
arms, with the traverse. I shall here give an instance of this rule from Sandford's 
Genealogical History of England : ANTIGONE, natural daughter of Humphrey 
Duke of Gloucester, fourth son of King Henry IV. whose arms were France and 
England, quarterly, within a bordure compone, argent and sable. His natural 
daughter, Antigone, carried the same as her father, bruised with a batton-sinister 

Some are of opinion, that a bastard woman marrying a gentleman, is by his 
quality legitimate, as Guil. Benedict. " Si foemina bastarda nupserit viro legitimo, 
" propter qualitatem mariti, eilicitur legitima, quia capacitas viri ad uxorem por- 
' rigitur." And the same says Scohier, that a female bastard married to a gen- 
tleman lawfully begotten, the children of such marriage shall not receive any 
dishonourable spot, because that by the quality of the husband she is freed, in so 
for as the capacity of the husband is contributed to his bastard wife. 

Churchmen of the highest orders, if bastards, are obliged by the law of armories 
to have on their fathers' arms a mark of illegitimation, though they be impaled or 
quartered with the arms of their ecclesiastical dignities, and even legitimate by the 
Pope: Of which practice the author of Jurisprudentia Heroica gives us these two 
examples: JOHN, natural son of John Intrepidus Duke of Burgundy, carried the 
ayms of his father, with the batton-sinister, though quartered with those of the 
Episcopal See of Cameracensi; and the same was done by ANTHONIE, a bastard of. 


Burgundy, though he was legitimate by the Pope, whose legitimation qualifies the 
person for holy orders, yet in temporals he behoved to be legitimate by the prince, 
whose subject he is; and, in the letters of legitimation, there must be orders ex- 
pressly to remove the mark of bastardy, else it will, continue in the arms, says our 
author. And other lawyers tell us, as the learned Sir George Mackenzie, in his 
Science of Heraldry, chap. 22. of Bastards, that legitimation by the prince does 
not empower the person who is legitimated to bear his father's coat, except that 
power were expressly contained in his legitimation; " Nisi legitimatio expresse 
" ad delationem armorum facta fuerit," Hoppingius ds Jure Insigninm, cap. 7. 
Yet it is certain, that such as were once bastards, but are legitimated by subse- 
quent marriage, may bear the father's arms without any such diminution; for 
there is more reason and force in legitimation by subsequent marriage, because it is 
natural, than in that by the prince, inferior to nature, and only fictitious, as 
Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, paragraph 4. " Major merito vis legitimations 
" facta; per subsequens matrimonium, quam ei, qui per rescriptum principis inesse 
" debet, cum ilia nature; hasc a lege natura satis inferiore, proveniat; ilia ex sub- 
" secuto matrimonio sit vera & propria, hiec ficta & impropria dicatur." 


SINCE I am speaking of the diminution of arms, I shall only mention here some 
figures, which English heralds and others call abatements of honour, lest I seem 
wilfully to omit any thing relating to heraldry: The figures of which abatements 
of honour were to be added to the arms of those that are convicted of vice, and 
acts of dishonour. As to those who boast in martial acts, to a coward, to him that 
killeth his prisoner, to an adulterer, to a liar, and to a traitor. 

The figures and names of these abatements I think are not worth the pains to 
name, much less to engrave them ; they may be seen in English books, and repre- 
sented by Sir George Mackenzie in his Science of Heraldry, chap. 23. The French 
know no such figures; and the learned Menestrier calls them English fancies; and 
Sir George Mackenzie says, Who would bear such abatements? and that he never 
saw such borne by any : neither have I met with them anywhere. 

It is true, by the custom, of Scotland, reversing of the arms of traitors is prac- 
tised ; for Sir George gives a distinct account in his time, that when any person 
is forfaulted by parliament, or Lords of Justiciary, the Lyon King at Arms, and his 
brethren Lyon Heralds come into these judicatures in their coats, and other for- 
malities, where the Lyon does publicly tear the arms of the person forfaulted : 
And if he be a cadet of a family, the Lyon proclaims openly, at the tearing of 
these arms, that it shall be without prejudice to the nobleman or chief whose arms 
they are. After which he and his brethren go to the cross, and there hang up the 
shield of arms reversed, turning the base or lowest point upwards. I know not 
what the custom of England has been in this point. But, of late, there was no 
such formality used in the pronouncing the sentence of forfaulture upon the no- 
bility and gentry there. 

The learned Sir George, in the above-mentioned chapter adds that it is debated 
among lawyers, whether the children of forfaulted traitors lose' thus the arms of 
their predecessors? The ordinary solution is, that if the father, who was forfeited 
was the first that got arms, these could not be transmitted to his issue- But 

h.s arms pertained formerly to his family, then his crimes do not d-bar his 

postent from using them: For crimes should only infer punishment against the 

comrmtter; for which our author cites several lawyers. But they advise them to 

rave restitution as the safer way. With us the children of forfeited parents da 

their predecessors' arms without being restored. 

nf of ARMS 


Tk* Arm of the 

feudal <rrsi77ru 

atom, andjpecial 

JE . ofB chart 

I Ordinary trf 

and In - 

a otherway- 

vet- 4 Partee 6. err a. 

es Ctilkti Enf-ee 


IZf. of Prtfttrn, 

ofK CreorqefR 




HAVING given before the three ends and designs of armories, I am come 
now to the fourth ; which is, to illustrate persons, fami'n i ;ind communities, 
wi:u marks <>f n'ible descent, and other additamcnts of honour, within or without the 
shield. Of those within, i am to treat in this, and of those without, in the follow- 
ing chapters. 

Tliese within the shield are added to the paternal figures, by way of composing, 
or marshalling. 

The first is done by adding marks of honour, or some part of the arms of ano- 
ther family, to the paternal arms, without any distinction of quarters. 

Marshalling of arms is when ensigns of ho: sour, or the entire arms of other fa- 
milies, are joined with the paternal ones of the bearer, by partition lines, making 
tl; .;inct areas or quadras in one shield. 

Cj.'iiposing of arms is frequent with us, not only to chiefs, heads of families, and 
others, to show their alliance with other families, but also to cadets; by adding to 
their paternal bearings some part of their mother's arms, to show their maternal 
descent, and to difference themselves from other descendants of the same family : 
Of which 1 have treated in the former chapter. 

Anciently arms were single and plain, consisting of few figures; but in later 
times they are not only looked upon as hereditary ensigns of honour, but as marks 
of noble descent, alliance, property, or right to territories and lands, offices, and 
other valuable things in their possession, or of their right and pretension to the 

These arms, or marks of alliance, offices, and property, were not carried of old 
in one shield as now, but in different shields, using sometimes one shield of paternal 
arms, and another of alliance, &-c. as occasion required. 

Upon their seals appended to deeds and evidents, we find several shields (which 
we call collateral ones) with distinct arms, to show their right and pretensions to 
different feoffs; which gave occasion for seals to be made with two sides, a face 
and a reverse, as we see the ancient seals of sovereigns and great men. The face 
is that where a man is represented enthroned, or on horseback with/ a shield of 
arms, called the royal or equestrian side or face of the shield : And on the other* 
side, the reverse of the seal, are ordinarily the seal of the owner's proper arms. 

Upon the equestrian side of the seal a man is ordinarily represented on horse- 
back in his surcoat, upon which were ordinarily depicted his coat of arms. On 
the caparison of his horse were other arms. On the shield and buckler, which he 
holus by his left arm, were likewise different arms: And on the reverse of the seal, 
another shield of arms, accompanied with- several other shields of arms, commonly 
called collateral shields, because at the sides of the principal or paternal shield, 
which they accompany; as are to be seen on foreign coins, such as dollars, &-c! 
To illustrate this practice, I shall bring a few examples from Olivarius Uredus his 
Collections of the Seals of the Earls of Flanders, from our own country, and from 
Sandfbrd's Genealogical History of England. 

BALDWIN Count of HAINAULT and Marquis of NAMUR, his seal of arms had two 

face and reverse: on the first was a man on horseback, brandishing a sword, 

ibout whose neck hung a shield of the arms of the Earldom of Hainault; and on the 

reverse, was a shield of arms of the Marquis of Nainur, in the year 1178. He 

having murried Margaret, sister.and heir of Philip Earl of Flanders, she bore to him'i Earlot Flanders, who carried on his seal the arms of Flanders, and the 

of Lusitania, and those of Hannonia, indistinct shields: So it appears that the 

custom of marshalling several arms in one shield was not then in use with the 

Is of Flanders, till the Burgundian race, which began in Philip Duke of Eur- 

a younger son of John King of France, who was observed to be the first 

r quartered the arms of Burgundy modern with these of Burgundy ancient. 

married Margaret the daughter and heir of Lodovick Farl of Flanders, and 

impaled her arms with his own in one shield. Other great men in that country 




and in the countries near thereto, in imitation, began to marshal other arms with 
their own in one shield. 

The practice of collateral shields was also in Scotland before the use of mar- 
shalling was frequent, as appears by the seal of arms of WALTER LESLIE, who mar- 
ried Euphame Ross, eldest daughter and one of the co-heirs of William Earl of 
Ross, appended to a charter of his, in the year 1375, upon which were three 
shields of arms: That in the middle, between two collateral ones, had the arms of 
the Earldom of Ross, three lions rampant j that on the right side was the shield 
of the arms of Leslie, having a bend charged with three buckles ; and on the left 
. was a shield with three garbs, for Cumin, or the country of Buchan. Those three 
urms were quartered formally in one shield a few years after, when marshalling 
of arms came in use. 

Another instance of collateral shields of arms with us is that one of WILLIAM 
KEITH, Marischal of Scotland, and Margaret Fraser his spouse, appended to a char- 
ter of theirs to Robert Keith their son, of the barony of Strachan, in the sheriff- 
dom of Kincardine, loth September 1375, which ends thus, In cujus rei testimoniiim 
sigiUa nostra consimiliter sunt appensa; which I caused engrave in an Essay of the 
Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, page 26. Upon which seal were three 
shields ; that on the right had a chief paly of six pieces, the arms of Keith Ma- 
rischal; on the second, six cinquefoils disposed 3, 2 and i, which was for his lady; 
and the third had more figures; but being defaced, I cannot tell upon what ac- 
count it was there placed. 

EUPHAME Ross, second wife to King Robert II. is represented on her seal sitting 
in a chair of state; at her right hand, is the shield of the arms of Scotland, and at 
her left that of the earldom of Ross, her paternal coat. 

I have also seen the seal of EUPHAME STEWART, daughter and heir of David Earl 
of Strathern, by his second wife, appended to a charter of the date 1389, wherein 
she is designed Evpham Senescal, Comitissa Palatina de Strathern : on which seal 
was the picture of a woman at length, holding by each hand a shield ; that in the 
right was charged with two cheverons, for Strathern ; upon the other, by the left, 
was a fesse cheque, for Stewart: Which two arms were afterwards composed to- 
gether in one shield by her successors of the name of Graham, Earls of Strathern 
and Monteith, and quartered with the arms of Graham. 

The same practice of carrying different arms in distinct shields was with the 

^English, as in Sandford's Genealogical History of England : There he gives the 

'seal of arms of Eleanor queen to Edward I. of England, being a daughter of the 

King of Castile and Leon : upon the one side of the seal was her effigies, at her 

right side was a castle, and below it a lion ; and at her left side a lion, and below 

it a castle, so disposed as they were marshalled in her father's arms, (the way of 

marshalling not being then known in England) and upon the reverse of her seal 

was the escutcheon of England. 

ISABEL, daughter of Philip IV. of France, queen to Edward II. of England, had 
her effigies on her seal between two shields : That on the right hand had the arms 
of England, and the other, on the left, the arms of France, impaled with the arms 
of Navarre, being those of her mother Joan Queen of France, who was the daugh- 
ter and heir of Henry I. King of Navarre. This practice, says our author, of 
haying the arms of husband and wife on different shields, was before the method 
of impaling arms; but the practice was then in France, as by the foresaid example 
of France impaled with Navarre. 

From the practice of collateral shields with distinct arms came the custom of 
carrying two shields accolle; that is, when two shields of different arms are joined 
together, as Plate I. fig. 3. The Kings of FRANCE have been, and are in use still 
to carry their arms accolle with those of the kingdom of Navarre, since the union 

those two crowns in the person of Henry IV. of France : But, however, I doubt 
not but this method of joining two shields of arms together, of the husband and 

re, proceeded from the ancient use of collateral shields, before the way of mar- 
shalling or impaling husband and wife came in use; of which there is a particular in- 
stance, in Sandford's History, "of the seal of MARGARET Dutchess of NORFOLK 
daughter of Edward I. and widow of two successive husbands, in the reign of her 
brother Edward II. Upon her seal she had her own shield of arms, being those of 


England between two other shields accollc; that on the right containing the arms 
of her first husband JOHN Lord SEGRAVE, viz. a lion rampant; on the other, on 
the left, the arms of her second husband Sir WALTER MANN\V, or, three chevcrons 
sable. This way of carrying husband and wife's arms accolie has been practised 
in France and England, as also in Scotland, on old paintings and carvings on the 
entries of old houses, which I have seen, though not frequently now practised. 

Before 1 proceed to regular marshalling of several arms in one shield, it will not 
be much out of the way to give here the division of arms occasioned by the fore- 
said practice of carrying many coats of arms in distinct shields, upon different 
reasons; and thereafter marshalling many in one shield, which has given occasion 
to lawyers to divide arms into several kinds, as the famous Hopingius de Jure In- 
signium, gives nine sorts of arms, 17/75, plain arms, anna simplicia, are these which 
have no addition of any other figure; but being plain, as carried by the first of 
the family, such as these of kings, princes, and earls of old, without composition 
or marshalling; such as these of BURGUNDY, says our author, were of old, or, a lion 
rampant gules, crowned azure. The Princes of HENNEBURG carried only a hen, 
v> it iout the eagle as now. The Duke of BRUNSWICK, carried, of old, only one lion, 
but afterwards more. And the like simple or plain arms, says our author, had the 
nobles of Denmark and Sweden from the Goths and Vandals. The same practice 
was with our sovereigns and nobles. At first our kings carried only or, a lion 
rampant gules; but afterwards the double tressure was added by a gift of Charles 
the Great of France. The princely family of STEWART had only a fesse cheque, 
but afterwards accompanied or marshalled with other figures; and the same 1 may 
say of the rest of our nobility, who have some figures or other accompanying or 
quartering with their ancient ones; except the Earls Marischal, and Hay Earl of 
Errol, Constable of Scotland, who have their ancient, simple, and plain arms. 
Our author likewise tells us, that the ancient Celti distinguished their shields only 
with various colours, and the Germans arms were paly, bendy, cheque, or lozengy, 
without other figures which are plain arms: His words are, " Nobiles homines 
" apud priscos Celtos lectissimis tantum coloribus sua singulos distinxisse scuta ; 
" unde etiamnum ea omnium antiquissima ac maxime genuina apud Germanos 
" nobilitatis dicuntur insignia, quae omnium simplicissima, certis duntaxat spaciis 
" ac coloribus distincta, in quibus sunt ilia quae Latini, laterculos, & virgas, & 
" rhombos appellarunt:" For which he cites Limneus. 

2do, Composed arms, compojita insignia, when other figures or quarters are added 
to plain or simple arms ; of which I have given many instances in this System first 
and last. 

$tio, Ancient Arms, antiqua sen fumosa insignia, are those carried by old families, 
and transmitted down to their successors in honour and dignity ; and the longer 
the progression is, they are the more noble, as our author says of nobility ; " Et 
" quo longius procedit, eo magis augetur & cum generis vetustate primorum orna- 
" mentorum conjunctim habet." The English call these perfect arms ; by which 
they understand these of a hereditary descent, though no further transmitted but 
from the first obtainer to his grandson ; which are ensigns with them of a perfect 
and complete nobility, begun in the grandfather, (as heralds say) growing in the 
son, complete in the grandson, or rather great-grandson, as some will have it : 
from which rises the distinction of gentlemen of coat-armour in the father and the 
son ; and gentlemen of blood in the grandson, or great-grandson ; and from the 
last descend gentlemen of ancestry. 

4(0, By Imperfect Arms they do not understand irregular or defective arms in 
respect of tincture or figure, but of new ones granted to the first receiver, who had 
none before, and are but signs of imperfect nobility in the receiver ; upon which 
he is called a gentleman of coat-armour, being the same with the Novus Homo with 
the Romans ; the first obtainer of Jus Imaginum, i. e. the right of erecting his own 
image or statue, as a sign of begun' nobility; as the first concession of arms was 
afterwards with other nations. These may be likewise said to be new arms, 
though ancient in some families, which have been lately assumed by others, by 
right of adoption, marriage or disposition ; called nova insignia, qua noviter per 
ipsos novos whiles sunt queesita. 


tto Proper or Paternal Arms, are these which are the fixed figures of the family 
and surname, and distinguished from additional ones : " Propria insignia," says our 
ai *hor, " sunt ea quai de jure pertinent ad propriam familiam vel personam." 

too, Strange Arm, aliena insignia, are these belonging to another family or 
person, carried by those who have right to use or quarter them with their own. 

jmo, Triu- Arms, vera insignia, are these which are granted by authority, or any 
other legal way, upon the account of virtue and glorious efforts. 

%vo, False Arms, falsa insignia, are to be understood in two respects, first, these 
granted or disponed by those who have no right. Secondly, These granted to one 
bevond his merit, nobility and dignity, fit and competent for those of higher 
de-Tees ; as our author, "Quod non sunt competentia, quod altiorem respiciant 
" ordinem, atque inde altioris ordinis insignia." 

9o, More Noble Arms, nobiiiora insignia, are not so by the nature of the figures 
they have (as some think) but as they fitly represent the brave actions of some of 
their progenitors, regularly disposed, and artfully situate in the shield, to incite 
posterity to imitate the virtuous actions of their predecessors ; as our author, 
" Nobiiiora insignia, non ex nobiliori imagine (ut vulgo creditur) sed ex rebus a 
" quopiam proavorurn proeclare gestis ac clypeo inscriptis, dijudicanda veniunt, ita 
" ut quando habeant plus artis, ingenii & efficaciie, ad animos monitu suo contuendos, 
" tanto excellentiora reputentur." 

Sir John Feme, in his Glory of Generosity, divides arms into abstract and ter- 
minal ones : the first are the same with the above-mentioned perfect arms, being 
;ibstracted and carried down by the heirs and representatives of the first obtainer, 
without alteration, diminution or addition ; and are these which we now call 
original, principal and paternal arms. By terminal arms, he understands these of 
younger sons and cadets, who have right to carry their paternal arms, terminate 
and differenced with congruous marks of cadency, to show the time and seniority 
of their descents. 

There are several other sorts of arms named, from the causes of their bearing ; 
as these of marriage, of office, arms of alliance, arms of adoption, arms of patronage, 
of gratitude, of religion, concessions general and special ; arms of sovereignties, 
feudal ones, and pretensions to the same. All which I shall treat separately, and 
show the precedency due to them in their respective quarters with other arms, 
when marshalled together. 



MARRIAGE has been one of the chief causes of marshalling different coats of arms 
in one shield. The practice is but late ; and lawyers of old tell us that women 
cannot carry arms, for that is a manly and not a feminine office, they not being 
exercised in war, nor in the use of military instruments, upon which arms were 
first to be seen ; besides, they are looked upon as the end of their own family, and 
these married go into another family, and are incapable of the na 1 !^ and arms of 
their paternal family, as lawyers say, especially Ulpian and others ; " Sororem 
" etiarn dictam putat quasi seorsum nascatur ab eaque domo separetur, qua nata 
" est." But by the custom of nations, daughters are allowed to use the arms of 
their fathers: Hoppingius de Jure In.rignium, proposes a difference between daughters 
married and unmarried : tHe first, being incorporate in another family, do not carry 
their father's arms, as these unmarried, who may carry them to the effect to show 
their name and agnition in their father's family ; whereas those married do not 
carry their paternal arms to that effect, but only for ostentation of their descent, 
as our author, " Ad originis claritatem, antiqtiitatem generis, memoriamque inde 
" arguendam &- conservandam, introducfum est." Neither can their children 
properly carry their arms r " Matris insignia liberi regulariter deferri nequeunt." 
For, being in their father's family, they have their rise and surname from it, and 
not from their mother. " Et h;ec sunt proccipuum agnitionis &- familiae indicium :" 
'Ascendants of a daughter cannot regularly carry the paternal arms of their 
mother, except they be heiresses, or be allowed by those of their mother's side, who 


have right to dispose of the arms by way of testament or disposition, or else they 
be allowed by the laws and customs of the country. 

Our author citeth another lawyer, Andreas Aliciatus, who says, that a son cannot 
carry the arms of his mother ; yet when the nobility of his mother is more eminent 
than his father's, and illustrate by it, he may carry the arms of his mother with 
those of his father's, according to the custom of many countnes and kingdoms ; as 
in Italy and Spain, and I may say the same is practised in Britain. His words I 
shall here add, cap. II. " Quamvis Andreas Aliciatus dicat lilio matris insignia 
" gerere concessum non esse ; attamen cum nobilitas paterna ex nobilitate maternu 
" splendidior illustriorque efficiatur, consuetudine nonnullarum provinciarum & 
" regnorum, turn Hispamae turn Italue, arma gentilitia, paterna ac materna, simul 
" colligari observatur." 

By the custom of nations, wives may use the arms of their husbands ; for being 
in their families they have a right to the honour and privileges of the same : as 
Hoppingius*-/? Jure Insignium, par. 8. " Ratio, qui transit in alterius familiam, is ejus 
" origine, nomine & privilegiis, gaudet, nobilitatisque & dignitatis fit particeps, 
" adeo ut insignia deferendi jus transeunti denegari non posse, atqui omnis uxor 
" transit in familiam. mariti ;. ergo uxori jus deferendi insignia mariti recte dene- 
" gari non poterit." 

Though the wife be ignoble and a bastard, she has right to make use of the arms 
of her husband ; as our author, " Non impedit, quod uxor ignobilis &- plebeia, 
" maritus vero nobilis extat ; similiter non refert, quod mulier spuria ; nam nulla 
" major unio quam conjugalis, nee negamus, quin oleum non consecratum, conse- 
" crato possit oleo commisceri." But it is not so with the ignoble husband who 
has a noble wife ; by her he is not nobilitate, nor can properly carry her arms, 
because wives receive honour from their husbands, but do not give it j as our 
author, " Vir ignobilis, ducendo uxorem nobilem, non nobilitetur per earn, cum 
" accipiant, non adferant nubentes mulieres dignitatem." 

After the husband's decease the widow may continue to have the arms of her 
husband upon all her utensils ; but if she proves vicious or unchaste, she loses the 
honours of her husband, says our author ; and if she marry again, she must follow 
the condition of her second husband, and cannot use the arms of her first husband, 
especially when she marries again one of an inferior quality to her first husband, 
whose honour she loses ; which holds with us, and in England ; as Sir George 
Mackenzie in his Precedency, " Yet sometimes the king allows her the same pre- 
" cedency and honours of her first husband, or these of her father, by a letter ; as 
" he does also to the daughters of dukes and others, who have lost their honour by 
" marriage : which letters or warrants are directed to the Herald Office, and regis- 
" trate there." 

Having shown the right women have to carry arms, I shall now proceed to show 
in what form and manner they have been in use to carry them. 

When arms came to be hereditary to all the issue of great men, as tesseras, and 
marks of a noble descent, women then began to make use of those of their fathers, 
on their habits, and to have them in square figures, called lozenges, orfusilc shields, 
to show their descent, and at length to join them with those of their husbands. 

The practice seems to be ancient, by women placing their paternal arms upon 
their habits, such as mantles and kirtles, as may be seen in old illuminate books of 
heraldry, and other paintings. Eminent ladies are there represented with arms on 
their mantles and kirtles : and heralds tell us, when the same arms are both on 
mantle and kirtle, they are then the arms of their fathers ; but when there are arms 
on the mantle different from these on the under habit, the kirtle, she is then mar- 
ried. These on the mantle belong to her husband, who is as a cloak or mantle to 
shroud the wife from all violence ; and the other arms on the kirtle belong to her 
lather; for women have 'no proper arms of their own, but these of their fathers : 
yet, in later times, we meet with some concessions of arms granted by sovereigns 
to virtuous ladies : of which afterwards. 

By the universal practice of Europe, unmarried women must, place their pater- 
nal arms in lozenges or fusile shields, and cannot place them in formal triangular 
shields as men do, except they be sovereign queens or princesses, >nia naturam 
nobilioris sexus participant, says Sir John Feme in his Glory of Generosity; and that 



sovereign princesses may trim their shield of arms with all the exterior ornaments 
belonging to a king or sovereign prince : as MARY, Queen of SCOTLAND, carried the 
royal achievement of that kingdom entire ; and the same did Queen ELIZABETH 
that of England. Queen ,dowagers, it seems, are not allowed to carry the sovereign 
arms, though impaled with their own, but in a lozenge : for an instance 1 shall 
mention the seal of arms of JEAN, Queen Dowager of King James I. mother of King 
James II. a daughter of John Earl of Somerset, appended to an indenture betwixt 
her and Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar, anent the delivery of her son, the 
young king, to be kept by the said Sir Alexander in the castle of Stirling, of date 
the 4th September 1439. ^ n ^ er sea ^ was a l zen g e shield, with the arms of 
Scotland on the right, impaled with her own on the left side, having France and 
England quarterly within a border gobonated. 

Custom, in some countries, has allowed wives to place their arms within a formal 
shield, provided it be close joined on the left of their husband's ; which way is 
called accolle, or impaled with the arms of their husband in one formal shield, either 
by dimidiation or impalement, or by way of escutcheon over the husband's arms, 
while the husband is in life. 

The way of carrying husband and wife's arms accelle has been practised in 
France, though not frequently, as Menestrier observes, and very seldom to be met 
with among us. 

The impaling of husband and wife's arms in one shield is more frequent ; which 
is done two ways, the first by dimidiation, the second by an entire impalement. 
Dimidiation is when the wife's entire arms are placed upon the left half of the 
husband's arms ; as by the seal of arms of PHILIP the Bold, Duke of BURGUNDY, in 
the year 1381, who carried quarterly, Burgundy, modern and ancient. Upon his 
marriage with the daughter and heiress of Lodovick Earl of Flanders, his arms 
were dimidiate with his wife's, being argent, a lion rampant sable ; which were 
placed upon the left half of her husband's quartered arms, so that the second and 
fourth quarters were absconded, and the first and third quarters of the husband's 
only seen; which I have caused engrave in aa essay of armories, Plate II. fig. 2. 
MARY, Queen of SCOTLAND, when married to Francis II. of France, on her great 
seal had the arms of Scotland and France dimidiate ; the arms of Scotland lying 
on the left half of the French arms, being azure, three flower-de-luces or, two in 
chief, and one in base ; so that the flower-de-luce in the sinister chief point, and 
half of the flower-de-luce in base, are absconded by the arms of Scotland. Many 
other instances of this practice I have given in a former essay. 

Entire impalement is by dividing the field of arms into two equal parts by a 
paler line or purfle of a pencil. The husband's arms are entire on the right, and 
the wife's so on the left, which make an entire whole ; and these are called by the 
English baron andfem?ne. By, this way of impaling, which is now frequently used 
no figure is absconded or cut off, except sometimes that side of the border of the 
husband's or wife's arms that is next to the paler or dividing line. 

The English, as Guillim, make a distinction of marriage, single and hereditary 
the one bring off no hereditary possessions, the other do, being married with 
heiresses: the first has these forms above mentioned of marshalling; but their 
children shall have no further to do with the mother's coat (says our author) than 
. set up the same in their house pale-ways, after the foresaid manner, so to conti- 
nue the memorial of their father's match with such a family. But, as I have said 
fore, the children of the single match have right to take a part of their mother's 
compose with their paternal figures, to show their descent, and difference 
.selves from other branches of the family. The hereditary marriage (savs our 
hor) has a prerogative which the former has not: that the baron, having re- 
ssue from the femme, it is in his choice whether he will bear her coat by 
ement or else in an escutcheon upon his own ; and the heir of these two in- 
entos shall bear these two hereditary coats of his father and mother to himself 
leirs quarterly, to show that the inheritance as well of the possession, as of 
t arms, are invested in them and their posterity 

three rules observed in impaling the arms of husband and wife First 

that the husband's arms are always placed on the right, as baron and these of the 

fcmmc on the left side. Secondly, Heralds tell us that no husband can impale his 


wife's arms with his own on the surcoat of his arms, ensigns and banners, upon the 
account of baron and fcmme only ; but when they are the arms of dignified feus, 
to which he has right by his wife, he may then use them on such utensils as arms 
of pretension, and of feudal ones. Thirdly, when the husband impales the wife's 
arms with his own, he cannot surround the shield with his royal order of knight- 
hood, as that of the thistle and garter, &c. as Sandford observes : for this reason, 
though a husband may give the equal halt of his escutcheon and hereditary honour, 
yet he cannot share his temporary order of knighthood with her; so that the 
knights-companions of any sovereign order cannot, by the practice of heraldry, 
surround their shield of arms with collars of sovereign orders, when their wives' 
arms are impaled with them, merely upon account of barm and femme. Yet, in 
my opinion, the collar may be placed at the side of the husband's part of the 
shield, for his honour, except they be sovereigns of these orders, who have an here- 
ditary right, v.hether male or female. The kings of England and Scotland have 
been in use to surround their arms impaled with their queens, with their respective 
orders of knighthood, of which they were sovereigns. 1. have seen the arms of 
FRANCIS King of FRANCE, impaled with those of his Queen, MARY of SCOTLAND, 
surrounded with the collar of the Order of St Michael, and also her arms alone, 
surrounded with the Order of the Thistle, of which she was sovereign ; and are so 
engraven on the boxing of the chimney in the great hall of the palace of Seaton, 
(called palace in our kings' charters to the Earls of Winton), and on the other side 
are the arms of George Lord Seaton, surrounded with the collar of the Order of St 
Andrew or Thistle.^ 

MARY Queen of ENGLAND had her arms impaled; with those. of her husband, 
PHILIP of SPAIN, surrounded with the Order of the Garter. Those instances cannot 
be a precedent for any less concerned ; for Francis and Mary were sovereigns of 
orders, and Philip only a knight of the last. It seems by this practice that the 
widows of sovereigns, though their arms continue impaled with their deceased prin- 
ces's, are not surrounded with, the collars of their orders : for, as 1 observed, albeit 
the Archduke of AUSTRIA, and Duke of BURGUNDY, sovereign of the Order. of the 
Golden Fleece, having married Isabel Infanta, daughter and heir of Philip II. of 
Spain, marshalled her arms with his own, and surrounded them with the collar of 
the Golden Fleece, when alive, being sovereign of that order ; but after his death, 
his princess carried the arms of her deceased husband impaled with her own, and, 
instead of being surrounded with the foresaid collar, it was only with a cordelier, 
as on her seal, in Olivarius Uredus's Collections. Since I am speaking of Isabel 
Infanta of Spain, and the fashion of her armorial bearing when a wife, and a widow, 
I think it not improper here to show her shield of arms when a maid, being some- 
thing singular to us, though ordinary in her own country. She had on her seal of 
arms, while unmarried, a lozenge shield, parted per pale; on the left half the arms 
of her father, for her own ; and the right side was blank, (without arms for a hus- 
band) called arms of expectation ; which, it seems, was then a custom, in Spain for 
young ladies that were resolved to marry : which shield of Isabel, Olivarius Ure- 
dus gives in his Collections, with these words : " In Isabellas insignibus dextram 
" scuti latus vacuum, quod expectativum vocant, indicat Isabellam adhuc innuptam, . 
" & in illo insignia- mariti expectantem, sinistrum autem aucupant insignia patris 
" ejus Philippi secundi." Here it is to be observed that the wife gives always the 
right hand in the shield to the husband, though she does not know what quality he 
may be of. 

When one marries an heiress, he may either impale or quarter her paternal coat 
with his own, or place her arms, by way of an escutcheon, over his own arms; as 
Sir THOMAS BRAND, Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod of the most ancient Order 
of the Thistle, places in the centre of his quartered coat an escutcheon of his wife's 
arms, gironne of eight, ermine and g ules, within a bordure ingrailed of the last, for 
Campbell of Lundie, whose daughter, (it seems an heiress) he married. For which 
see Plate XXII. in the First Part of this System. 

It is a frequent custom with the English of late to place the arms of the wife, 
heiress or not heiress, in an inescutcheon, in the centre of the husband's arms, 
which they call an escutcheon of pretence, because he pretendeth right to that coat 
upon marrying an heiress: As Guillim says, in his Display of Heraldry, where he 


gives several examples, to which I refer the reader: But how to call that on the 
husband's coat, who has not married an heiress, I know not. 

When a husband has had two wives, heiresses or not heiresses, and would have 
their arms marshalled with his own, the husband's shield may be then tierced in 
pale, '. e. divided into three equal parts perpendicularly; the husband's arms placed 
in the middle area, and the wives' two coats on the right and left areas : Or they 
may be otherwise disposed thus, parti mi-coupe to the sinister, i. e. the shield being- 
divided in two equal halfs by a paler line, the husband's arms on the right side, 
and the left side divided by a horizontal line ; above and below are placed the 
arms of the two wives, as frequently practised with us upon funeral escutcheons ; 
of which partitions I have treated in the 7th chapter of the First Part of this Sys- 
tem, and illustrated by examples in my Essay on the Ancient and Modern Use of 

When a wife would have the arms of her two husbands represented in one shield 
with her own, then it is divided thus, parti mi-coupe to the dexter; of which I 
have given examples in my last mentioned book. 

Mr Kent, in his Grammar of Heraldry, says, if a man do marry three wives, the 
first two shall have, the chief part, and the third all the base : So the husband's 
arms is in the middle, or fesse part; and if he have a fourth wife, she must, says 
he, participate of the base with the third wife : And Guillim, in his Display of 
Heraldry, gives us an example of the arms of a gentleman of the name of CLIFTON, 
impaled in the middle with the arms of his seven wives; four on the dexter side, 
and three on the sinister, all bar-ways, that is to say, the shield is tierced, i. e. 
divided into three equal parts perpendicular, the first part on" the right is coupe 
three, which make four areas, where the first four wives' arms are placed one above 
another ; in the second part, which is the middle, are only the arms of Clifton 
the husband ; the third part, on the left hand, is coupe two, which makes three 
areas, in which are his other three wives' arms, one above another ; for which see 
our author. And these are the ways of marshalling many wives and husband to- 

Besides impaling by way of baron and femme, the husband, by a frequent cus- 

tom with us, quarters the wife's coat with his own, upon the account that she is 

an heiress; i. e. by dividing of the shield into four equal parts, which makes four 

areas : In the first and fourth are the husband's arms, in the second and third are 

the wife's. But this custom is not so frequent in other countries as with us of late: 

For the husband, in that condition, properly placed his wife's arms by way of sur- 

tout over his own, that is, an inescutcheon in the centre of his own, which I have 

said above, to be an escutcheon of pretence ; because he pretendeth to bear the 

arms of his wife, and his right to her inheritance, which his issue should enjoy, 

that their successors may freely quarter their paternal and maternal coats to- 

gether. As for the custom of the husband quartering his wife's arms with his 

own, I shall add the instance of the Right Honourable WILLIAM JOHNSTON Marquis 

of ANNANDALE, Earl of Hartfield, and Lord Johnston, chief of his name who car- 

d argtnt, a saltier sable, on a chief gules, three cushions or: But upon his mar- 

2 with the heiress of Craigiehall of the name of Fairholme, he quartered her 

irms with his own, being or, an anchor in pale^a/w: And the same is still carried 

by their son and heir, the present Marquis of Annandale. 

Sir JAMES DALRYMPLE, President of the Session, and afterwards advanced to the 

ity ot Viscount ot Stair, quartered the coat of his lady with his own, who was 

garet eldest daughter and co-heir of James Ross of Balnall and Carsecreuch, 

air Glenluce m Galloway (as , our New Register of Arms) carried, quarterly 

mt or, on a saltier azure, nine lozenges of the first; second or, a cheveron cheJe, 

Their eldest son Sir JOHN DALRYMPLE Earl of STAIR, married Elizabeth Dun- 
das, heiress ot Newhston, and placed her arms, ar gn t\ a lion rampan gules on 
an inescutcheon over h,s father's quartered arms, af above. He was created Eaii 
of Stair, Vcount of Dalrymple, and Lord Newliston, anno 1703. His son again 

* 8 ' marShaUS ^ ' 

these of 


It is to be observed, that when a gentleman marries a gentlewoman, whose fa- 
ther did bear any marks of cadency in his coat, the same ought to be continued in 
the impalement and quartering of the daughter's arms with her husband's, which 
is just and reasonable: For, by the mark of cadency of her father, she will be 
known from what branch of the stem of the principal house she is come of. 1 
have shown before, when a coat of arms, surrounded with a bordure, is marshalled 
pale- ways with another, then that part of the bordure which is next to the other 
coat impaled with it, must be exempted, and not seen. Again, it is to be ob- 
served, if a bordured coat be marshalled with other coats quarterly, then shall no 
part of the bordure be omitted, but the bordure shall environ the same rounck 
Having treated, 1 think, sufficiently of the several ways of marshalling husband's 
and wife's arms, I shall now proceed to treat of the method of marshalling arms of 


AMONGST the several causes and occasions of assuming arms, lawyers, and writer* 
on the science of armories, give offices for one, as well used by ecclesiastics as 

1 gave out before, page 20. that the Romish churchmen are not obliged to 
bruise their paternal arms with marks of cadency, although younger sons, or de- 
scendants of such, because they are not allowed to marry, and so have no lawful 
succession: And some lawyers of this opinion tell us, that the end and design of 
marks of cadency, to bruise the principal bearing, was to difference the descendants 
of younger sons; so that there is no need of brisurcs in the arms of ecclesiastics, 
since they can have no issue. Secondly, They s:ty, that churchmen have no need 
of additional figures to bruise their paternal bearings; for their arms are suffi- 
ciently distinguished from the laics, being only adorned with cherubims, or angels, 
and not timbred with a military dress, which are marks of greatness and pride, 
sucli as the helmet, mantlings, wreaths, and crests. 

But more rightly others reason with Scohier, in his Compartment of Arms, cap. 
17. " That differences or brisures were not invented by law and custom to dis- 
" tinguish the descendants of younger brothers, but to difference brothers them- 
" selves." The words of our author, with these of Jurisprudentia Heroica, in an- 
swer to the former two reasons, are, " Nee obstat prima, nee secunda ratio, quan- 
" doquidem discerni colorum usus non solum sit inventus, ad ipsos descendentes 
" ex diversis fratribus dignoscendos, verum etiam ad ipsos inter se discernendos." 
Neither can churchmen be said to be the end of the family; because, by the 
Pope's dispensation, they may marry, whose issue may begin and continue their 
family; so that they must have differencing figures added to the principal or 
pLiin arms of the principal family, which only belong to the primogeniture. And 
as for the other reason, that ecclesiastics are sufficiently distinguished from the 
luics, in not having their arms timbred with helmet, volets, and crests; yet when 
they fall into noble feus and jurisdictions they then timbre their shields, as was 
found in the Council of Brabant; as our author, " Nee obstet alia ratio, quia illud 
' discerniculum, non ipsa arma aut insignia, sed exteriora ornamenta afficit, quan- 
' quam etiam ab ecclesiasticis, praesertim nobilibus, &. jurisdictione aliqua imbutis, 
' thymbrum militarem fastum adhiberi vidimus. Et hanc opinionem nuper sum- 
' mum Brabantiie concilium amplexum est." When a churchman marshals the 
arms of" a dignified feu, or these of his office, I mean those of the church, with his 
paternal arms, he needs no other brisure: And this is the general practice in Eu- 
rope, of which I proceed to give some examples. 

Cardinals, bishops, abbots, priors, and other church officers, in imitation of the 

la'.cs, when marshalling was in use, began to tjke some remarkable figures of 

their offices, and to compose or marshal them with their paternal arms, after 

order or method now in use, parti, coupt, and quarterly: Of which I shall add 

i few instances of the practice of prelates abroad, and then return to those in 


VOL. II. K i 



The first way mentioned, parti, which the English call parted per pale, is by 
impalement, as before, of husband and wife's arms ; but with this difference, the 
arms of office are placed on the right side of the shield parti, with the paternal 
arms of those in office. And though a bishop, or any other prelate, be called 
muritus ecclesiae, the husband of the church, by the canon law, yet he is but one, 
in a figurative speech; and the church's arms take place as the more noble, as also 
do those of secular offices. 

The second method of prelates marshalling their arms by way of coupe, that is, 
parted per fesse, by dividing the shield into two equal parts horizontally, is by 
placing the coat of the office above, and that of the incumbent below; a frequent 
practice in Italy. 

The third method by quartering, is done by a palar, and horizontal line divid- 
ing the shield into four quarters; which way is frequently used by the French 
and Germans; especially when those high churchmen are temporal princes, as 
the ecclesiastic peers of France. The Archbishop and Duke of RHEIMS, for his 
office, carries azure, seme flower-de-luces or, a cross gules. The Bishop and Duke 
of LANGRES, azure, seme flower-de-luces or, a saltier gules. The Bishop of LAON, 
seme of France, a crosier in pale gules. The Bishop Count of BEAUVAIS, or, a 
cross gules, cantoned with four keys of the last. Which arms of offices are placed 
in the first and fourth quarters, with the paternal ones of those in office. 

The three Archbishops, Electors of the Empire, do also marshal their arms of 
offices with their paternal ones, which are sometimes placed by way of surtout, 
upon the account of many coats of offices, which they marshal together. 

The Archbishop and Elector of MAYENCE, or MENTZ, Great Chancellor of the 
Empire in Germany, carries, quarterly, first and fourth gules, a wheel with white 
spokes or, for his Episcopal See ; second and third, the paternal arms of the bishop 
,in possession. The wheel is storied to have been at first assumed by one WILLIGIS, 
who was chosen archbishop for his eminent piety; and he, out of humility, be- 
ing the son of a wheelwright, took the wheel, which his successors have con- 
tinued for the arms of that See. This Willigis (says Hoppingius de Jure Insignhnri) 
to show his humility, caused paint on all the rooms of his house the wheel of a 
waggon, with this pentameter, " Willigis recolas, quis es, &- unde venis," i. e. 
Willigis, consider what you are, and whence you came. " Haec rota postea, 
' insigne successorum in hoc archiepiscopatu permansit, confirmante illud Henrico' 
" imperatore." 

The Archbishops of TREVES, Great Chancellors of the Empire in France, and > 
Electors, have been in use to. carry four coats of offices, thus, (as by Jacob Imhoff) 
quarterly, first argent, a cross gules, for the Arch-See of Treves; second gules, a 
paschal lamb, proper, standing upon a mount in base vert, carrying a flag over its 
shoulder, as abbot of Pruym; third gules, a castle argent, masoned sable, sur- 
mounted of a crosier in pale, and below, a crown or, as prepositor and overseer of 
Weissenburg; fourth azure, a cross argent, as Bishop of Spires; and over all, by 
way of surtout, an escutcheon of the paternal arms of the archbishop for 'the 

But to come home to Britain with some observes of the ancient and modern 
practice of our prelates in Scotland, in carrying of their arms on their seals of 
flice, and on other places, I observe, of old, they neither did compose, impale 
nor quarter their ensigns of office with their paternal ones till after the Reforma- 
ts trom the church of Rome; for before, their seals of arms were formed after 
fashion of oblong ovals, upon which are only to be seen the frontispieces of 
churches, with the image of their patron-saints standing in the porches, or in fine 
ved mches; and below them small triangular shields, with the incumbent pre- 
rms, sometimes adorned with mitre, crosier, or cross-staff: Of which I shall 
here add some instances. 

I have seen several seals of the archbishops of St Andrews, which have the 
.mage of St Andrew with his cross, standing in the porch of a church, and below 
ttle shield, with the paternal arms of the archbishop thereon; as 
especially that of WILUAM Archbishop of that See, in the reign of Robert the 
Bruce, who has on his shield three cinquefoils, or frasiers, bein| of the name of 
Iraser, and the shield timbred with a mitre below the feet of St Andrew 


1 have seen the seal of JOHN Bishop of GLASGOW, which had upon it the image of 
St Mungo standing in the portico of the church, and below his feet the shield of 
arms of that prelate, charged with three bars, to show he was of the name of Ca- 
meron, timbred with a mitre; and at the. sides of the shield were two salmons 
with rings in their mouths, and on the legend round the seal, Sigillum Joannis 
Episcopi Glasguen. Which seal is appended to an indenture or agreement betwixt 
Jean Dowager Queen of Scotland, mother of King James II. and Sir Alexander 
Livingston of Calder, anent the delivery of the young king's person: which in- 
denture I have mentioned before with the queen's seal. 

The seal of JOHN Bishop of Ross had on it the figure of a bishop, with a mitre 
on his head, standing in a portico of a church; and, at his feet, a shield charged 
with a bull's head cabossed, being the paternal figure of the name of Turnbull. 
Besides these, I have seen several other bishops' seals after the same form, with 
their shields of arms below images of saints, or mitred bishops, supported by angels, 
and adorned with mitres and crosiers. 

ANDREW, Commendator of Jedburgh, upon his seal appended to several evident:;, 
which 1 have seen, had the image of a saint standing in a fine carved nich ; at 
the foot of which is his shield of arms, quarterly, first and fourth a lion rampant, 
second and third three papingoes, he being of the name of Home; and behind the 
shield, a crosier turned to the right. 

Upon the buildings of several churches, we find the paternal arms of bishops 
and abbots only adorned with mitres and crosiers; as these of GAVIN DUNBAK. 
Archbishop of Glasgow, having only three cushions within a double tressure 
counter-flowered, adorned with a mitre, for the name of D unbar N descended of 
D unbar of Westficld. 

On the wall that surrounds the castle of Glasgow, on several places there, as I 
am informed, are the arms of JAMES BEATON, the last Romish Bishop of that See, 
being these of Beaton quartered with Balfour, as a nephew of Beaton of Balfour; 
and below these arms is a salmon, with a ring in his mouth, which some of his 
predecessors carried also, to perpetuate a miracle said to be performed by St 
Mungo, patron saint of the church of Glasgow. 

Upon the beautiful abbey of Paisley, as I am informed, are the arms of the 
Abbot GEORGE SHAW, a brother of Shaw of Sauchie, carrying, his arms, three 
covered cups ; and, to show his ecclesiastical dignity, a crosier behind the shields. 

On the abbacy of Holyroodhouse are to be seen the arms of ARCHIBALD CRAW- 
FORD, treasurer to King James III. He was a brother of Crawfurd of Henning, 
where are only his paternal bearing, viz. a fesse ermine, with a star in chief, and 
the shield adorned on the top with a mitre. 

I find none of our Romish prelates ever marshalled the figures of their respective 
sees (I mean the images of their patron saints, their crosses, crosiers, mitres, or such 
remarkable things belonging to them) with their paternal bearings, by impaling or 
quartering of them in one shield, though they have adorned the outer sides of their 
shields with such figures. And I am of opinion that the custom with us of mar- 
shalling arms of episcopal sees, ^and other ecclesiastical offices, with the paternal 
arms of the incumbents, is not much older than the Reformation from the Romish, 
church ; and the figures of which they are now formed and made up of are taken 
from the old seals ; such as the images of saints and bishops, their crosses, mitres, 
crosiers, pastoral staffs, and other such things, which will appear to the curious by 
their blazons : a few of which I shall here give. 

The arms now used for the ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE of St ANDREWS, azure, a St 
Andrew's Gross (2. e. a saltier) argent, taken from the old seal of that See, before 
described, which have been impaled with the arms of those that have been in 

The ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE of the Church of GLASGOW has for arms, argent, a tree 
growing out of a mount vert, with a bell hanging on a branch, and a salmon lying 
tesse-ways thwart the trunk of the tree, with a ring in its mouth, proper. The 
salmon, as I observed before, was carried by the Romish prelates, at the sides, and 
below their shield of arms. ALEXANDER CAIRNCROSS, by divine providence, Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, had on his seal of office the above blazon, impaled on the right, 


with his paternal coat on the left, viz. argent, a stag's head erased with a cross 
puteejitcbe, between his attire, gules. 

The BISHOPRICK of GALLOWAY has for arms, the image of St Ninian, holding in 
his right hand a cross. 

The BISHOPRICK or' DUMBLANE, a saltier ingrailed. 

The BISHOPRICK of ARGYLE, azure, two crosiers in saltier adosse, and in chief a 
mitre or. 

The arms of the BISHOPRICK of Ross are two men, the one on the right hand, 
representing St Boniface in a white habit, his hands lying cross on his breast ; the 
other a bishop pointing to St Boniface with his right hand, and by his left holding 
a crosier or, with a mitre on his head. 

The arms of these bishopricks are impaled with the arms of those who have pos- 
sessed these offices. 

The BISHOPRICK of EDINBURGH was erected out of the Bishoprick of St Andrews 
by King Charles I. anno 1633 ; so that that See has almost the same arms with 
St Andrews, and in chief a mitre or ; which were impaled with the arms of the 

I shall add no more of them here to incumber my reader, but proceed to a few 
v such bearings of those in England. 

The ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE of CANTERBURY has, azure, a pastoral staff in pale 
argent, topped with a cross patee or, and surmounted of an episcopal pall, (i. e. an 
episcopal ornament, and not an armorial pale), of the second, edged and fringed of 
the third, charged with four crosses fitched sable. 

The ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE of YORK, gules, two keys adosse argent ; and in chief 
an imperial crown or. 

The BISHOPRICK of LONDON, gules, two swords in saltier, points upward, proper, 
iked and pommelled or. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of WORCESTER, ten torteauxes sable, 4, 3, 2, and i. 
CARLISLE, argent on a cross sable, a mitre with labels or. 

The EPISCOPAL SEE of St ASAPH, sable, a key in bend sinister, and a crosier in 
bend dexter argent. 

The SEE of SALISBURY, azure, the Virgin Mary (being dedicate to her) crowned, 
holding the holy babe in her right arm, and a sceptre with her left hand, all 

All which ensigns are impaled on the right side of the shields, with the paternal 
arms of those in office on the leftside. For more ecclesiastical arms the reader 
n,ay see the British Compendium of Arms lately published in taille douce. 

As for these orders of knighthood, which are both spiritual and temporal, such 
as the Knights Templars and Hospitallers, and others of such institution, they com- 
pose, impale, or quarter the arms of their respective orders with their paternal ones ; 
as do at present the Grand Masters of the KNIGHTS of MALTA ; who quarter, in the 
first place, the arms of that order, being gules, a cross argent, with their proper 
but the rest of the knights of that order, in distinction from the Grand 
Master, do not quarter but compose them with > their own, by placing them in 
chief, or on a chief, which has occasioned one coat of arms to have two chiefs, the 
ene above the other. So much then for ecclesiastical arms. I shall now proceed 
to the arms of secular offices ; some of which I shall here mention. 

Seculars, who enjoy high offices, military or civil, sometimes impale or quarter 
the arms of their offices with their own. The electoral princes of the empire 
ter in their shields of arms, the arms or badges of their offices being the 
igures of the regalia they carry before the emperor, by virtue of their high posts 
:ckmannus says, dissert, cap. 5. " In insignibus suis seculares clinodium istud 
1 inserunt, cui ratione officii portando destinati sunt." 

The KING of BOHEMIA, as principal cup-bearer to the Emperor, charged the 
breast of his lion with a cup. 

The DUKE of SAXONY, as one of the electors of the empire, carried over his a- 
levement of many quarters, by way of surtout, an escutcheon parted per fesse, 
and sable, two swords in saltier gules, hiked and pommelled or, as Elector 
Manscnal or the empire. 


The Duke of BAVARIA and PALATINE carries three shields tied together, the ilr.t 
on the right side, sable, a lion rampant or, aimed and langued gules contour/it-, 
(i. e. looking to the other's shield on the left)tbr the Palatinate ; the second shield, 
fusile in bend, argent and azure, of twenty-one pieces, for Bavaria; the third shield, 
below the above two, jfitle.t, charged with the imperial mond or, which he carries 
in solemnity before the emperor. 

The Elector PAI.ATINI; of the RHINE carries parted per pale, first the Palatinate, 
second Bavaria, and in base a point gules, as third Elector. See book Jcu D\!> 
mories ds Sovereigns. 

The Duke and Marquis of BRANDENBURG, (now King of Prussia) as Elector, car- 
ries over his achievement of many quarters, by way of surtout, azure, a sceptre 
pale-ways or. 

The Duke of BRUNSWICK, (now King of Great Britain) as Elector of the Empire, 
carries over the fourth quarter of his majesty's arms, an inescutcheon, Charlemagne's 
crown; of whose imperial achievement afterwards. 

Other nobles in the empire, upon account of their employments or offices, 
carried figures to represent them ; as the Earls of OLDENBURG, principal architects 
in the empire, carried in one of the quarters of their arms two beams of wood, 
blazoned bars. The Earls of SFIGELBERG, as master-hunters, carry a hart, proper. 
And the Earls of WERNEGERODA, as master-fishers, carry in their achievement a 
fish; as Hoppingius de Jure Imignium: so that offices and employments are not 
only the causes of obtaining arms at first, but also of multiplying several arms in 
one shield ; which was a practice with the Romans, Germans, French, English, &c. 
In France those who had offices of the crown, of old, under the first, second, and 
third races of the Kings of France, not only took their names 'from their offices, 
but their arms, as Hoppingius de 'jure Insignium, cap. 4. " In Gallia, omnes offi- 
" ciales coronte Franciie sub regibus, imae, 2dae &. 3tiae generationis, non assume- 
' bant aliunde cognomina & insignia, quam ab officio quod gerebant ; cujus me- 
" moriam suis liberis &. descendentibus reliquerunt, qui eadem insignia &. cogno- 
" mina retinebant." And, for example, he gives the family of MUSSINI, who, of 
old, were Earls of SENLIS, and chief butlers of France, for which they carried, to. 
perpetuate their office, a shield quarterly, or and gules; the first to represent the 
king's gold cup, and the second the wine; so that the family had the name of 
Butlers of Senlis. To please some curious, I shall add our author's words, " In 
' cujus rei memoriam (Pincernae) portaverunt pro insignibus clypeum divisum in 
' quadras, ex auro & colore rubro, quod representabat poculum &. cantherium 
' regis, &t colore rubro, vinum hacque de causa appellati sunt Pincernae Silvanec- 
" tini, i. e. Bauteliers de Senlis." 

In England, another ancient family descended of ARGENTIUS, and BRIONINI a 
Norman, became chief butlers in the reign of William II. of England, and took for 
arms, gules, three cups or, to show their office, and introduced it as a surname to 
their posterity. The words of our author are, " Hi, a Davido Argentinio Nor- 
' mano viro militari, qui sub Gulielmo Secundo meruit, & nomen stemma duxe- 
runt;^ in hujus rei testimonium tribus scyphis argenteis in rubro clypeo usi 
sunt:" Which coat of office is quartered with their paternal coat, viz. or, a chief 
indented azure. From this noble stock of worthies, in a direct line, was descend- 
ed JAMES BUTLER Marquis of ORMOND,. and Earl of OSSORY in Ireland, of which he 
was Lord Lieutenant, and by King Charles II. created a peer of England, by the 
title of Lord Butler of Lanthony, and Earl of Brecknock, and the I3th year of 
that king's reign, Duke of Ormond in Ireland, and also a Knight of the Garter: 
He married the Lady Elizabeth Preston, daughter to Richard Lord Dingvvall in 
Scotland, and Earl of Desmond in Ireland, by whom he had three sons, Thomas 
Earl of Ossory, Richard Earl of ARRAN, and John. Richard died without issue, 
Thomas was summoned to the English Parliament by the title of Lord Butler of 
Moot-park, and was also a Knight of the Garter, and Rear- Admiral of his Majesty's 
Fleet : He married Lady Amelia Nassau, daughter to Lewis de Nassau, son to 
Maurke Prince of Orange, and Coirnt of Nassau; by whom he had issue three sons, 
James Duke of Ormond in England, Charles Earl of Arran, created Lord Butler of 
Weston m England, who carries the above quartered arms, with a crescent for dif- 
ference; and another, James, who died young. 


CARNEGIE Earl of SOUTHESK, whose arms are or, an eagle displayed azure, beak- 
ed, membred; and armed gules ; his predecessors, CARNEGIE of Kinnaird, were cup- 
bearers to our kings, for which, of old, they carried a gold cup on the breast of 
their eagle, to show their office. 

Many civil and politia offices, which have symbols and badges, are not placed 
within the shield of arms of those in office, as those above mentioned, but at the 
back, sides, or foot of the shield ; such as the marischal's battons, the constable's 
swords, the admiral's anchors, the master-household's battons, the chamberlain's 
keys, &c. Of which more fully in the Treatise of Exterior Ornaments. 

To put an end to this section, I shall mention here the arms of the Herald 
Offices in Scotland and England. Those of SCOTLAND are now argent, a lion seiant, 
full-faced gules, (being the crest of the royal achievement of Scotland) holding in 
his dexter paw a thistle slipped vert; in the sinister, an escutcheon of the second, 
and on a chief azure a St Andrew's cross of the first. Which arms are impaled on 
the right side with the paternal bearing of Sir ALEXANDER ERSK.INE of Cambo, the 
present Lyon King at Arms, being these of the Earl of Marr, with a crescent for 
difference, as a cadet of the family. This seal of office is no older than himself; 
for his father, Sir Charles, also Lyon King at Arms, had on his seal appended to 
patents ofarms given out by him, only his paternal arms; and any particular seal or 
badge our principal heralds had before, was the sovereign achievement of the 
kingdom, (called by other nations resmai/) which was hung by a chain of gold 
about the neck of the principal herald, and on the breast of his brethren heralds 
and pursuivants, by a ribbon, as their cognizance and badge : And the same, as I 
read, was practised by the heralds in England. 

The principal heralds in ENGLAND, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and especially 
the Garter King at Arms, wore a badge of gold daily, whereon were enamelled 
only the sovereign's arms; as Ashmole, in his Institution of the Garter, page 208, 
and 253, and had no proper seal for the office, till Sir EDWARD WALKER, then Gar- 
ter King at Arms, obtained a licence from the Queen to distinguish himself from 
the other Kings at Arms, to impale St George's arms, viz. argent, a cross gules on 
the right side, with those of the sovereign's on the left: And about that time the 
seal of the office was formed thus, argent, a cross gules, and, on a chief azure, a 
crown imperial, environed with a garter, buckled and nuved, betwixt a lion passant 
gardant, and a flower-de-luce or, which were impaled' with the arms of Sir Edward 
Walker, as they were afterwards with those of his successors in that office. 

The heralds in Germany, Flanders, and elsewhere, have the arms of their so- 
vereigns, enamelled or depicted on gold, affixed to their breasts : But I take them 
to be principal and learned heralds, by royal authority, and not such, as with 
us, who know nothing of the matter. As Sir John Baptista Chrystin, Chan- 
cellor of Brabant, in his curious book entitled Jurisprudentia Heroica, sive de 
jure Belgarum, circa nobilitatem et insignia, whose words are those, in the 
Spanish Flanders, from paragraph 8. after he had given an account of those of 
Germany and France, viz. " Quaslibet deinde provincia apud Belgas suum habet 
' fecialem, ejus titulo celebrem, qui tesseram sive laminam insignibus ejusdem 
' decoratam (vulgo 1'esmail d'office) pectori assutam gerit, & in festivo ' quovis 
' apparatu ejusdem provincial rege armorum tunica indutus (vuigo la cottee 
' d'arms du roy) dextra caduceum gestans assistit." But more of this afterwards, 
when I come to speak of the Rise, Nature, and Office of Heralds. 


BESIDES the arms of offices, as I said before, there are other causes of marshalling 

:oats of arms in one shield, given us by eminent lawyers and heralds which 

1 aimulatio, or msltipiicatio insignium. As Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, 

De quarterns sive sectionibus, campis sive areis," called with us mar- 

illed or quartered arms; and are marks of honour and greatness, esteemed by all 

i upon many accounts, especially upon honourable alliances, and succession 

feus: A practice frequent with the French; as Hoppingius, EfFectus 

lujus accumulations, sive conjunctionis insignium est augere dignitatem ; 


a etenim hie mos & usus, maxime receptus est Gallis, quo sciant & intelligant his 
41 mutationibus jure naturae, regnique legibus non derogari, sed augmentum esse 
" nobilitatis." 

A quartered coat of arms is when the shield is divided into four quarters, or 
areas, by a perpendicular and horizontal line cutting the centre; and sometimes 
again these quarters or areas are also divided into as many quadras by the same 
lines, and are filled up with the arms of different families upon several occasions 
by heralds and lawyers called cumulatio armorum, of old latined scutum quarteria- 
titm, and of late, scutum quadnpartitum: But Mr Gibbon, an English herald, for 
quartered arms, says, scutum in quatuvr paries, lineis ad crucis modum duct is, secturn ; 
after some old heralds, who blazoned a quartered shield, parted per cross. 

Heralds who write in Latin, call one of these quarters quarter la-., Chiffletius and 
Uredus make use of the word quadrant ; Jacob ImhotF the German, the word 
quadra; and others say area, for a quarter. 

Sir John Feme, in his Glory of Generosity, gives us three sorts of quartered 
coats of arms ; the first he calls a plain quartered coat, the second a quartered coat, 
and the third a quarterly qu irtered coat: Which 1 shall explain, and give examples 
by whom carried with us, and other nations. 

As to the first, a plain quartered coat is when the superficies or field divided 
into four quarters or areas; and when the first and fourth quarters contain one 
coat of arms, the second and third another: so that there are but two different 
coats of arms twice repeated in a quartered shield ; which, says our author, is a 
suitable disposition of the arms of the son and heir of a gentleman who had to 
wife an heiress: the father's arms are placed in the first and fourth quarters, and 
the mother's in the second and third. 

It is to be observed, that in marshalling arms with others, upon the account of 
alliance, and if both houses be cadets, their marks of cadencies must be continued 
upon both their coats. 

Alliances then by marriages has occasioned the multiplication of many arms in 
one shield, not only almost by all the princes in Europe, but even by nobles high 
and low, to show their noble descent; and especially by the issue of those who 
have married heiresses, to show the right they have to territories and lands. 

I shall begin with one of the ancientest examples of this kind I have met with 
in my reading. About the year 1117, FERDINANDUS, eldest son of Sanctius, to- 
named the Great King of NAVARRE, and Elivira, daughter of Ferdinand the VI. 
and last Earl of Castile, being the first that was honoured with the title of King of 
CASTILE, married Sanctia, daughter of Alphonsus King of Leon, sister and heir of 
Beremond who died without issue. 

This Ferdinand, upon account of his wife Sanctia, got the kingdom of Leon; 
so that he became both King of Castile and Leon about the year 1160, and quar- 
tered the arms of those kingdoms thus; first and fourth gules, a castie triple, 
towered and embattled or, masoned sable, for the kingdom of Castile; second and 
third argent, a lion rampant gules, armed or, for the kingdom of Leon. Thus 
blazoned by Hoppingius, " Reges Castelline & Legionis, m insignibus, ferunt scutum 
" in parte superiori dextra, & in inferior! sinistra Castellum auteum in campo 
" rubeo; in parte superiori sinistra &- inferiori dextra, leonem fulvum in campo 
" albo exhibens." 

The kingdom of Leon was a more ancient kingdom than Castile for many ages; 
for when Pelagias took that country and town from the Moors, about the year 
722, it was always called a kingdom; and he took for his arms a lion, because it is 
said to be the King of Beasts: As our author, " Pelagius Legionis rex primus, circa 
" annum 722, eripiens Legionem civitatem a Mauris, leonem pro insigniis assumpsit, 
" quia leo est, & interpretatur, rex omnium bestiarum." 

Many are of opinion, that the arms of Leon, being those of the ancientest king- 
dom, should be placed in the first and fourth quarters ; and so to have the pre- 
cedency of the arms of Castile. Ludovicus Molina, a famous lawyer, defends the 
method of marshalling, as above blazoned, imo, That the greatest kingdom 
should be preferred to the ancientest. 2^0, Ferdinand was King of Castile by 
right of his father, and got Leon by right of his wife, nomine dotis ; and that in his 
titles he was named first King of Castile and Leon, preferring the title of the man 


to the woman, and the mother's titles ought to follow the father's : His words are, 
" Turn quod virilis stirpis imperiiim prcel'erri debuit foemineo, maternaque insig- 
" nia paternis insignibus cedere debuerunt." 

The like practice was used in England by EDWARD III. the first of that kingdom, 
who quartered his arms with those of France. He placed France in the second 
and third quarters, as arms or" alliance, upon the account of his mother Isabel, 
daughter and heir of Philip IV. of France, and of her brothers, Charles IV. Philip 
V. and Lewis XI. successive kings of France, who died without any issue. Their 
cousin-gcrman Philip de Valois, as heir-male, ascended the throne : and, as Ed- 
ward Howes tell us, in his History of England, King Edward's ambassadors, who 
came to congratulate his accession to the crown, were questioned, Why the King of 
England placed the leopards of that kingdom in the first quarter before the lilies 
of France in the second ? To which Sir John Shorditch, the ambassador, made 
answer, That it was the custom of the times to set the title and arms of the fathers 
bd'ore those of the mothers ; which their king had, in reason and duty, done. 
From which it is to be observed, that arms of alliance, upon the account of ma- 
ternal descent, were then quartered with the paternal, which had the precedency 
of the maternal ; and which is yet the ordinary custom in Europe, excepting for 
some special reasons, as that of the same King Edward III. who, upon no other 
account, at first, quartered the arms of France, but upon the reason of his alliance: 
yet afterwards, in the i4th year of his reign, when he was encouraged by his 
allies, to claim the kingdom of France in right of his mother, he .placed those of 
France, as arms of dominion and pretension, in the first quarter, before the arm's 
of England ; which his predecessors have continued. 

About the latter end of this king's reign, the English nobility began, .in imita- 
tion of him, to quarter with their own arms coats of alliances. JOHN HASTINGS, 
i'arl of PEMBROKE, who married Margaret, youngest daughter of Edward III. was 
the first subject in England, (says Sandford, in his genealogical History of that 
kingdom) who, in imitation of his king, had quartered arms, viz. first and fourth 
or, a manche gules ; second and third barry of twelve pieces, argent and azure, 
with eight martlets orle-ways gules, as arms of alliance with the family of Val- 
lance : which quartered coat he impaled with the arms of his countess, being then 
the same with her father's, France and England quarterly. 

With us our great families did not all begin at one time to quarter their arms 
with other coats, upon account of alliance, and other considerations. The first 
practice of quartering I have met with upon seals, was in the reign of King Ro- 
bert II. who was crowned in Scoon the lyth of March 1371, as I have observed 
before. His sons, then, and Leslie, who married the heiress of Ross, with others, 
began to marshal their arms with those of other families ; of which, in the first 
part of this system. As also did DAVID LINDSAY, first Earl of Crawford, assume 
the coat of Abernethy, and quartered it with his own, upon the account he was 
descended of that family by the mother's side : for his grandfather, Sir David 
Lindsay, in the reign of King Robert I. married one of the three co-heiresses of 
Alexander Lord Abernethy ; whose arms wei'e or, a lion rampant gules, bruised 
with a ribbon sabls, quartered with his paternal, gules, a fesse cheque, argent and 
azure . Which figures were upon David first Earl of Crawford his seal ; and ever 
since have been continued by the family. 

A long time after, the Earls of DOUGLAS and ROTHES being descended of the 
other two co-heiresses of the above Alexander Lord Abernethy, marshalled the 
arms of Abernethy with their own. 

The great and illustrious house of Douglas, for what I have seen, had no quar- 
tered coats before William, the first Earl or Douglas, married Margaret, daughter 
of Donald, sister and sole heir, at last, to her brother Thomas, Earl of Marr : for, 
before this match, he had only his single paternal coat on his seal of arms, which 
I have seen appended to a charter of his, of the church of Meikle Cavers' to the 
abbacy of Melrose ; but after the marriage with Margaret Marr, countess and 
heiress of Marr, he quartered his paternal coat with that of Marr, viz. first and 
fourth argent, a man's heart gules, (not ensigned with a crown as now) and, on a 
chief azure , three stars of the first ; second and third azure, a bend betwixt six 
cross croslets fitched or, for Marr : which arms I have seen, on his seal, appended- 


to his charter, dated at the Castle of Kildrummy, the 22d of" July 1377, wherein 
he is designed Earl of Douglas and Marr, of the lands of Easter-Foulis, lying in 
the Earldom of Marr, and shire of Aberdeen, granted to James Mowat. Theii 
shield of arms on the seal was couche, and quartered, as 1 have said, with Douglas 
and Marr, supported by one lion seiant, holding up the shield, his head in a helmet, 
crested with a plume of feathers ; and, at each side of the shield, is a tree growing 
out of a mount, as a compartment, seme of cross croilets, and upon the compart- 
ment the right side of the shield rests. His son James, Earl of DOUGLAS and 
MARR, carried the same arms as his father, as is evident by his seals. He could not 
have carried Marr if he had not been the son of Margaret, Countess of Marr. 
It was this valiant Earl that overthrew Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, in a 
combat at Newcastle ; and again defeat him in the battle of Otterburn, which wa.> 
fought the 3ist of July 1388. After the battle, this noble Earl James died in his 
tent. He had no issue but two natural sons ; and was succeeded by his half- 
brother Archibald, Lord of Galloway, in the earldom of Douglas ; and by his full 
sister Isabel Douglas, in the Earldom of Marr. 

ARCHIBALD Earl of DOUGLAS and GALLOWAY carried three coats quarterly, first 
azure, a lion rampant argent, being the feudal arms of Galloway ; second, the 
arms of Douglas as above for his paternal coat ; third azure, three mullets argent, 
the arms of Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Murray, Lord of 
Eoihwdl, pa?iitarius Scotia, with whom he got the lordship of Bothwell ; and the 
fourth quarter as the first. It is to be observed, that this Earl and his father Earl 
William, quartered their wives' arms, being heiresses, with their own ; which it 
seems was our ancient practice, as well as to marshal them, as by impalement, or 
by way of inescutcheon. This Earl had nothing of the arms of Marr, so that they 
entirely belonged to Isabel Countess of Marr. 

Lady Isabel Douglas Countess of Marr, married Alexander Stewart, natural son 
of Alexander Stewart of Badenoch, Earl of Buchan, fourth son of King Robert II. 
He is nevertheless called the eldest son of the Earl of Buchan, in a charter granted to 
him anno 1404, by his lady Isabel Douglas Countess of Marr : by which charter 
she gives him the Earldom of Marr and Lordship of Garioch, in consideration of 
the marriage : and no doubt it was also in consideration of that marriage that 
he is said to be the eldest son of his father ; which does not follow that he was 
not a bastard : For if he had been a lawful son, he had certainly succeeded 
his father in the earldom of Buchan, which earldom went to John Earl of 
Buchan, a younger son of Robert Duke of Albany. ALEXANDER STEWART Earl 
of MARR, by right of his wife, as said is, carried for arms on his seal, which I have 
seen, quarterly, first and fourth or, a fesse cheque (for Stewart), between three 
open crowns gules, which were the figures of the lordship of Garioch, and in these 
quarters he had no mark of illegitimation ; second and third, the arms of Marr 
as before, azure, a bend betwixt six cross croslets fitched or : He was commander 
in chief at the battle of Harlaw anno 1411, a man of great honour, an ornament 
to his country, and died without issue anno 1426. The earldom afterwards fell 
into the king's hands, and the sons of the royal family were afterwards designed 
Earls of Marr. 

Many of our ancient families, since the reign of King Robert II. have been in 
use to quarter the arms of other families with their own, upon account of alliances 
and other considerations. Many of our ancient and principal families, as Keith 
Earl Marischal, Hay Earl of Errol, Ogilvie Earl of Airhe, Carnegie Earl of South- 
esk, Forbes Lord Forbes, and many great barons too numerous here to mention, 
have only been in use, and to this day, to carry their single paternal coats. Perhaps 
many of them have had no occasion to marshal their arms with others, and some 
of them have had good right to quarter the arms of other families, upon the ac- 
count of alliances and other considerations ; but upon what reason they have 
forborne them I cannot pretend to know. Perhaps, upon the mistaken notion, 
that the more single and plain the coat of arms be, it is the more honourable, and 
shows a principal family. But what does it lose of that appearance of honour, 
when marshalled plain and simple with other arms, upon the account of an ho- 
nourable alliance, noble feus, and other additaments of honour ? Since it has been, 
for many ages, the general practice of kings, princes, and nobles, to marshal other 



arms with their own, as rather an additament of honour than a diminution of it, 
and which does not in the least alter the quality of the bearer, according to the 
opinion of lawyers ; as Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, cap n. ' Cumulatio insig- 
" mum est argumentum aucti honoris; insignium siquidem auctione, honor et 
' dignitas persona: superveniens, ejus qualitatem nunquam mutat aut extin- 
" guit." 

That some of our ancient families, as I just now said, have had right to quarter 
the arms of other families with their own, upon the account of marriage, and have 
not clone it till of late, appears from what follows. 

The ancient and noble family of MAULE, who carry, for their paternal arms, 
parti, argent and gules, a bordure charged with eight escalops, all counter-changed 
of the same, is originally French ; and have their name from the Lordship of 
Maule, near Paris, their first and original lands, in latter times erected into a mar- 
quisate. [Description of the Generality of Paris.] 

ANSOLD .Lord of MAULE, and Rectrude his wife, made a donation to the priory 
of St Martine des Camps, at Paris, in the year 1015, mentioned by Laboureur in 
his History of Chamont ; and his son Guarin Lord of Maule, with Hersende his 
wife, is named in a charter of Robert King of France, to William abbot of St 
Germains, before the year 1031. (History of Montmorency by Du Chesne.) He 
was succeeded by his son Ansold, called by Ordericus Vitalis, for x his great riches, 
Dives Parisiensis ; who left Peter, his heir, and Stephen, grandfather to Grimald 
de Maule, who, says Ordericus, was at the taking of Jerusalem in 1098, with 
Godfrey of Boulogne. Peter, next Lord of Maule, made a very great figure, with 
consent of his proceres et milites, says the above author, who lived near that time. 
He founded a priory at his town of Maule, for Benedictine monks of St Euvroul, 
to whom he gave his churches of St Mary, St Germain, and St Vincent, with 
many lands ; by his charter dated in the 1077, printed at length in the Historic 
Normunnonim Scriptures, p. 587 ; and in the year 1098 he was general of the 
French army against King William II. of England, who had invaded France, and 
obliged that Prince to raise the siege of Mountfort, and conclude a truce and re- 
turn to England. (Du Moulin's History of Normandy, page 267.) By Guindes- 
moth his wife, of a noble family in Champagne, he had four sons and as many 
daughters. Of the last, one was married to Baudry Count of Dreux, son to 
Baudry Constable of France ; another to Gaudier Lord of Poissy, whose descen- 
dants were heritable Pantriers of Normandy ; and a third to Hugh Lord Voisins, pre- 
decessor to the Seneschals of Toulouse. Ansold Lord of Maule, his eldest son, 
was a great captain, and famous in the wars of Italy and Greece : he was with 
Robert Duke of Apulia at the siege of Durrazzo, and distinguished himself at that 
great battle where Alexis Emperor of Constantinople was overthrown, anno 1106. 
He confirmed his father's donations to the priory of Maule, in presence of his 
barons and knights, whom he caused do homage to his eldest son Peter. (Orderi- 
cus Vitalis, page 589, 590.) He married Odeline Mauvoisine, daughter to Ra- 
dulph Lord of Rony, Governor of Mante, and died anno 1118. His son Peter de 
Maule, was one of the powerfullest lords of that time ; he was one of the French 
generals at the battle of Brenville, fought in 1119 against King Henry I. of Eng- 
land, and, in the year 1138, he went to the siege of Breteuil, accompanied with 
iorty knights; but, his power rendering him suspected, King Lewis le Gros 
came and demolished his strong castle of Maule. (Ordericus and Du Moulin.) He 
married Ade daughter to the Earl of Guines, and niece to the Lord of Montmo- 
ency, and was succeeded by his son Roger, who married Idone daughter to Wa- 
lon Viscount of Chaumont, and Matilde de Montmorency his wife. She is men- 
tioned with him in an agreement he made with the Chapter of Paris in the 119^ 
Grand Pastoral of Paris.) He had Peter, Robert, and Simon de Maule, abbot of 
Jomville. (Galha Christiana). Peter III. of that name gave certain vineyard* 
lying in his Lordship of Maule to the abbacy of Joinville, by his charter in the 
year 1224. Ot which I have seen an attested copy from the writs of that abbacy 
having his seal appended to it, which is very large; and thereon a shield of hi< 
, being a parti, with a bordure of nine escalops, and the legend Sif ilium Petti 
He is also mentioned by De la Rocque in his treatise Du Ban et 
.drnereban, among the Seigneurs of France summoned to attend the King in his 


wars I2 3^> aru l again in 1242. He was succeeded by his brother Robert, 
who was in the expedition to the holy land with the Duke of Brittany and many 
French lords anno 1237, where he was taken prisoner by the Turks ; and, at hi-, 
return, founded the priory of St Leonard, in his barony of Panmuir, which lie-, 
ontiguou*. to Maule. His arms are done in ancient painting in the church of 
\laule ; the shield couche, parti, argent and gates, within a b< >rdu re sa hie, of twelve 
escalops of the first, v.'ith helmet, mantling, and wreath; upon which are three 
ostrich feathers or, for crest, and supported by two savages, proper, wreathed about 
the middle ; which ancient arms are cut in the Plate of Achievements. Below the 
arms is this inscription in old French : " Mes^ire Robert de Maule, lequel fut 
" prisonnier en Turquie, St a son re tour fonda le perieure de St Leonard, assis dan- 
" la Baronnie de Panmor, comme ill se veoit par les lettres de la fondation dudit 
" prieure datte' de 1'an mil. " 

The arms of his son Bartholomew Lord of Maule, are also painted in the church, 
differing nothing from his father's, save that the supporters are two lions, proper ; 
and below are the following words : 

" Messieur Bartholemy de Maule, filx de Robert, lequel dona aux religieux de 
" Joyenval le fief de Andeleu, assis en cette Baronnie, comme il se veoit par la 
" Chartre de don en L'Abbaye dudit Joyenval, datte de 1' an mil deux cent." 

He died in anno 1248, according to the obituary of the abbey of Joinville, and 
was succeeded by his son William, who to a deed in favours of that abbey, dated 
1263, appends his seal, of which I have seen a copy, being a shield a parti, as be- 
fore, and a bordure of eight escalops ; the fixed number now born by the family 
of Panmure, and the legend, S. Guill. de Maule Armigeri :\ He married Sidelene, 
daughter to John Lord of Torotte, Governor and hereditary Butler of Champagne, 
by whom he had Hugh, father to Peter Lord of Maule, who gives a charter to 
the priory of Maule, dated anno 1306 ; and has his arms also painted in the church, 
with lions for supporters, attended with an ancient inscription, such as those al- 
ready given. Another Peter, his grandson, married Julietta des Essars, daughter to 
the Lord of Ambleville, and had Bertauld his heir, and Robert de Maule, Master of 
Requests, and Counsellor to Charles VI. King of France, in his Parliament of 
Paris. (Extract out of the Register of the Parliament of Paris ad annum 1388.) 
Bertauld, in the inscription on his tomb, stiled Seigneur de Maule et Mon- 
tainville, is frequently mentioned in the wars during the reign of King Charles 
V. who beat the English out of France ; he married Jacqueline, daughter to 
the Seigneur de Blainville, Marischal of France, by whom he had Robert last Lord 
of Maule in France, whose arms are yet to be seen in the Notre Dame Church 
of Maule, with two eagles, proper, for supporters, accompanied with the following- 
inscription : 

" Messire Robert de Maule, filz de Berthault, lequel fut marie a Dame Anne, 
' d'Anguilliers, ainsi qui'l se veoit parle traite de leur mariage datte de 1' an mil' 
" 111"- 11IP X - VII. & mourut au voyage d* Hongrie." 

He died at the battle of Nicopolis in Hungary, fought against the Turk in 
the year 1398, being then possessed of the Lordships of Maule, Panmure, Mon- 
tainville, and Herbville : all which great estate went to his daughter and heir 
Reginolde de Maule, married to Simon de Morainvilliers, Lord of Flacourt* Pan- 
trier to the Dauphin, and Governor of Chartres and Mante. Her arms, in lozenge, 
are also painted in the church with those of her husband, which are argent, nine 
martlets sable, accompanied with an inscription ; part of which 1 have given 
in the first volume of this work, page 359. Her descendants the Morainvilliers 
Lords of Maule, carried the coat of Maule quartered with their own, from whom 
ir went, by marriage, to the Harlays of Sancy, stiled in their titles Barons of 
Maule : and their heiress again was married to the Marquis of Villeroy, grand- 
father to the present Marischal and Duke of Villeroy. This account of the Lords 
of Maule in France, beside the printed authors above cited, is taken from their 
charters, donations to abbeys, and other authentic deeds, to many of which their 
seals are appended ; whereof I have seen copies attested by the Sieur Clarembalt, 
Genealogist to the King of France : I have also seen draughts of their arms that 
are in the church, and the inscriptions given above, with a great many more on 
the glass-windows and tombs in the church, and others on the old castle of Maule, 


too long to mention here, all taken and painted upon the place, with an instru- 
ment thereupon by Mr Chevillard, Genealogist of Paris. 

A son of the Lo'rd of Maule came over to England with William the Conqueror; 
as appears by the list of that Prince's followers in Hollinshed, Vol. II. page 296; 
and was ivu'uJtd by the Conqueror with the Lordship of Hattoun de Cleveland 
in Yu-.kshire, out of which Robert and Stephen del Maule make donations to 
the abbey of \Vhitby, in the reign of King Henry I. about the year 1130. (Mo- 

licon Anglicarium, Vol. 11. page 75.) They were great barons of England, and 
Nourished several generations in that kingdom : The last of them I find there is 
Serlo de Maule, one of the peers at the coronation of King Henry III. anno 1216, 
mentioned by John Fox. 

This name having come out of England soon after the conquest, with several 
other Normans and French, is found among the earliest with us in Scotland. Wil- 
liam de Maute is witness to several charters in the chartulary of St Andrews, in 
the reign of King David I. before the year 1152. He got from King David the 
lordship of Foulis in Perthshire, out of which he made several donations to the 
priory ot St Andrews. (Chartulary of St Andrews.) Sir Richard de Maule is wit- 
ness to William Lord of Foulis's donations, who designs him Nepote meo ; and also 
to other charters in King William and King Alexander's reigns ; He seems to be 
father to Sir Peter and William de Maule, Archdeacon of Lothian, witness to some 
of King Alexander's charters in the chartulary of Newbottle. Sir Peter de 
Maule married Christian de Valoins, daughter and heir of William de Valoins, 
Lord Panmure, and great Chamberlain of Scotland ; and got with her the baronies 
of Panmure and Benvie; for which the family of Panmure carry, with their pa- 
ternal arms, those of Valoins, blazoned in the First Part of this Work. There is 
in the chartulary of Arbroath a solemn agreement of this Sir Peter de Manila, 
Dominus de Panmure, and Christian his wife, with the Abbot of Arbroath, in pre- 
sence of Alexander Earl of Buchan, Justiciar of Scotland, dated 1254. And that 
same year, after his death, Christian de Valoins granted a charter for homage and 
service, to John de Liddel of her lands of Balbenny and Panlathy, which Dominus 
Petrus de Maulia, her husband, had formerly granted to Thomas de Liddel his 
father: to which charter her seal was appended, having thereon a lady in a long- 
vesture, with a falcon on her hand, without any armorial figure, and the legend 
S. Christine de Valoins, D e de Panmore. They left two sons, Sir William and 
Sir Thomas de Maule, Governor of the Castle of Brechin, which Matthew West- 
minster says, " He long and gallantly defended against King Edward 1. of Eng- 
land, till he was slain in anno 1303." Sir William dc Maule, Dominus de Panmore, 
is one of the barons of Scotland who swore fealty to King Edward I. in the year 
1291. (Rymer's Fosdera, Tom. II. page 570.) In anno 1293 he grants a charter 
of his lands of Benvie and Ballruthene to Rodolph de Dundee ; which the Scrim- 
geours, Constables of Dundee, held long of the family of Panmure. He married 
Etham, daughter to John de Vaus Lord Dirleton, and Sheriff of Edinburgh, by 
whom he had Sir Henry de Maule, who sided with King Robert Bruce, by whom 
he was knighted, and is designed Henricus de Maule, miles, filius Wtllielmi de 
Maule, militis, Domini de Panmore, in a charter of that King's, dated at Dundee 
the 24*th year of King Robert 1. his reign. He gives his lands of Carmylie, lying 
in the barony of Panmure, to Alexander de Strachan, by a charter sine data, testi- 
bus Joanne Episcopo Brecbin, Wlllieimo de Montealto, &c. ; to which his seal of 
arms is appended, being of the same size with those of the barons, affixed to the 
letter to the Pope, anno 1320 ; and. thereupon a shield coucbe, the field parti, and 
a bordure of eight escalops, without any exterior ornament or legend. His son 
Walter de Maule, next Baron of Panmure, gave a charter of his lands of Carnegie, 
lying in the barony of Panmure, to John de Banhaird, to be held of him and his 
heirs, confirmed by King David II. (Haddington's Coll. p. 574.) He grants also 
i lands ot Moncur to Henry Strachan de Carmylie, by a charter, anno 1346, 
to which his seal is appended, being much larger than his father's, and thereon a 
eld couc/je charged with the same bearing, viz. a parti, and a border of eight 
escalops, and honourably trimmed with helmet, mantle, and wreath; upon which 
is a dragon's head spouting out fire, and the wings erected, and the legend round the 
mi, .!>. Guult. de Maull. The seal with which this was impressed, though much 


i, is >ct extant, being of silver, and cut in the Plate of Achievements, and 
is the most ancient seal that 1 have seen. He died in the year 1348. (Chartulary 
of Brechin.) William, Baron of Panmure, his son, married Marion Fleming, 
daughter to Sir David Fleming, predecessor to the Earl of Wigton, by his uV-t 
wile Jean, daughter to the Lord Brechin, and was father to Sir Thomas Maule, 
who was killed, with all his name, at the bloody battle of Harlaw anno 1411; 
by which this family would have been extinguished, if his lady, a daughter of the 
Lord Gray's, had not been with child, who, after her husband's death, bore a son, 
Sir Thomas Maule, designed Lord of Panmure in a deed betwixt him and John 
Lyon Lord of Glammis. It was this Sir Thomas, as heir to his grandmother, who 
laid claim, at the Earl of Athol's death, to the Lordship of Brechin ; which being 
included in Athol's forfeiture, Sir Thomas recovered only the lands of Hedder- 
wick, Jackstoun, and Staddockmoor, with Leuchland's part of the lordship of 
'Brechin ; but afterwards the family of Panmure cairs to enjoy the whole lord- 
ship, with the title of Lord Brechin, and carried the Lord Brechin's arms with 
those of Maule and Valoins ; as marshalled in the First Part of this Work. His 
son Sir Thomas, third of that name, was very eminent in the reign of King Jam .- , 
III. being stiled in many writs, Nobi/is et potens Dominus Thomas M,<ule, Domiiius 
de Panmure, and married Elizabeth Lindsay, daughter to Alexander Earl of Craw- 
ford ; whose mother was the L:idy Margaret, lawful daughter to King Robert 11. 
His eldest son, Alexander, married Elizabeth, daughter to Sir David Guthrie of that 
Ilk, Lord High-Treasurer of Scotland, and was designed of Camestoun and Hed- 
derwick, in several charters, (which I have seen) before the year 1491, to which 
his seal is appended, and on the shield a parti, with a bordure of eight escalops, and 
a label of three points in chief, as a difference; for he died before his father, who 
was succeeded by his grandson Sir Thomas Maule, fourth of the name, killed 
with King James IV. at the fatal battle of Flodden, anno 1513, whose son was Robert 
next Baron of Panmure, active in the wars during the minority of .Queen Mary, 
being of the French faction, and against the union with England. 

His great-grandson was Patrick Maule Earl of Panmure, Gentleman of the Bed- 
Chamber to King James VI. and King Charles I. Keeper of his Majesty's House and 
Park of Eltham in England, and Sheriff-Principal of Angus. He married three 
wives, first Frances Stanhope, daughter to Sir Edward Stanhope, Lord President of 
the North. Secondly, Mary Waldrum, Maid of Honour to King Charles I. his 
queen, and a near cousin of the great Duke of Buckingham: And, lastly, Lady 
Mary Erskine, daughter to John Earl of Marr, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland. 
His daughters were married to the Earls of Kinghorn, Linlithgow, and Northesk. 
His eldest son, George, second Earl of Panmure, served the king in the civil war 
as colonel of a regiment of horse, and married Lady Jean Campbell, eldest daugh- 
ter to John Earl of London, Chancellor of Scotland, by whom he had George Lord 
Maule, James Maule of Balumbie, afterwards Earl of Panmure, Mr Hary Maule of 
Kelly, and Lady Mary, married to Charles Earl of Marr. George, third Earl of 
Panmure, was one of the Lords of the Privy -Council to King Charles II. and King 
James VII. and married Lady Jean Fleming, only daughter to John Earl of Wig- 
ton; but, dying without surviving issue, was succeeded by his brother James, fourth, 
Earl of Panmure, who was of the Privy-Council of King James VII. and married 
Lady Margaret Hamilton, daughter to- William Duke of Hamilton. I have al- 
ready given the full achievement of the Earls of Panmure in the First Volume of 
this Work, page 360, which I here repeat again, viz. quarterly, first parted per 
pale, argent and gules, a bordure charged with eight escalops, all counter-changed 
of the same, for Maule; second argent, three pallets waved gules, for the Valoins; 
third quarter, quarterly, first and fourth azure, a cheveron betwixt three crosses 
patee, argent; second and third or, three piles issuing from the chief, conjoined by 
the points in base gules, for Barclay Lord Brechin; and the fourth grand quarter 
as the first: Which arms are adorned with crown, helmet, and volets, befitting 
their quality; and, on a wreath of their tinctures, a dragon vert, spouting out fire 
before and behind, proper, for crest; with the motto, on an escrol, dementia et 
animis ; and supported by two greyhounds, proper, collared gules, charged with, 
escalops argent. 

VOL. II. N. 


The branches of this noble family that I have found are these following, accord- 
ing to the time of their descent from the principal stem, though many ot them have 
neglected to register their arms with proper difference*. 

The first is MAULE of Boath, descended of William Maule, second son to Sir 
Thomas Maule of Panmure, killed at Flodden: This William married Janet Car- 

.,l si . ,;ii, whose wife was daughter of Lindsay of Kinnettles: His son, Hary 

Maulj of Boath, married Grissel Seaton, daughter of Seaton of Touch. The lineal 
ion continued till the reign of King Charles I. There are severals descend- 
ed -nilv, us the MAULES in Sweden, of whom James Maule was Preside'nt 
of the Police, and Intendant-General of the Mines of that kingdom; and another, 
a Major-General in the King of Denmark's service. Captain JOHN MAULE, whose 
father was a younger son of Boath, carried parted per pale, nebule, argent and 
gules, a bordiire of eight escalops, all counter-changed ; crest, a sheaf of corn, pro- 
per: motto, Industria ditat. N. R. 

MAULE of Melgum, parted per pale, argent and gules, on a bordure wavy eight 
escalops, all counter-changed. The first of this family was Hary Maule of Inner- 
pefter, eldest son of Robert, Baron of Panmure, by his second wife Isabel Arbuth- 
not, daughter of Sir Robert Arbuthnot of that Ilk. He had Henry Maule of Mel- 
gum : His son, James Maule of Melgum, married Marion Ogilvie, daughter to 
Ogilvie of Innerquharity. 

'THOMAS MAULE, who was a second son of Melgum, gave the partition line waved; 
thus, parted per pale wavy, argent and gules, on a bordure eight escalops, all coun- 

MAULE of Guildie. The first of this family was Andrew Maule, one of the Gen- 
tlemen Pensioners to King James VI. and second son of the second marriage to 
Robert Maule Baron of Panmure. 

MAULE of Pitlivie and Ardouny, descended of Thomas Maule, fifth son to 
Thomas, fifth of that name, Baron of Panmure. Of this branch there have been 
several honourable persons, as Robert Maule, Esq. Page of Honour to King 
James VI. and Gentleman of the Privy-Chamber to King Charles I.; and Thomas 
Maule, Esq. Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber to Prince George of Denmark ; and 
a flourishing family of the Maules in Ireland, whose arms are not registrate in our 

MAULE of Balmakelly, second son to Patrick Earl of Panmure, and Frances 
Stanhope his wife, was colonel of a regiment of foot in the service of King Charles II. 
He married a daughter of the Earl of Wemyss. 

JAMES MAULE of Balumbie, second son to George Earl of Panmure, before he was 
Earl, carried the simple arms of Maule, with a crescent for difference. 

And Mr HARY MAULE of Kelly, the third son, carried first the paternal arms of 
Maule, with a mullet, and afterwards the quartered coat of Panmure, w 7 ith a cres- 
cent for difference, \vith crest and supporters; the same with his brother the Earl 
of Panmure, being now the only representative of this noble family : motto, Cle- 
mcntia et animis. 

The second way of marshalling arms in one shield, called by Sir John Feme 
// quartered coat, is when there are more than two coats quartered together ; then 
the fourth quarter is not always the same with the first, nor the third quarter the 
same with the second, but different arms; which shows the bearer's alliance to 
.several families. 

The STEWARTS Earls of TRAQUAIR carry four coats, quarterly, first Stewart, 
second Buchan, as descended of a younger son of Stewart of Buchan, a branch of 
the Stewarts Earls of Athol ; third sable, a mullet argent; and fourth argent, an 
orle gules, and in chief three martlets sable, for marrying one of the heiresses cf 
Rutherford of that Ilk, in the reign of King James IV. 

CAMPBELL Earl of BREADALBANE carries three coats quarterly; first gironne of 
eight pieces, or and sable, his paternal coat ; second argent, a galley sable, her sails 
trussed up, and oars in action, for Lorn; third or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, 


;rs descended of one of the heiresses of Stewart of Lorn; the fourth quarter as the 

Quartered Arms have sometimes an inescutcheon surmounting them in the 
centre, which contain arms of alliance, paternal or feudal ones. Which little 
shield or inescutcheon was called, of old, by our heralds, a nioyen in fosse; by the 
English, an escutcheon of 'pretence ; and by the French, a surtout; because it covers 
some part of all the four quarters; and the Latins say, media rejioni incumbit 

As for the antiquity of bearing an inescutcheon over arms, we find it anciently 
used by the Emperors of Germany; for they always placed an inescutcheon of their 
paternal coat on the breast of the imperial eagle, to show that they were elective, 
and out of what family. 

Guillim observes, that in the reign of Richard II. of England, SIMON BURLY bare 
over his own arms an inescutcheon of the arms of Hussay. The first bearing of an 
inescutcheon over arms that Sandford gives us, is that of RICHARD Duke of YORK, 
who, in the year 1442, carried, quarterly, quartered, first France and England 
quarterly, with a label of three points argent, charged with nine torteauxes; 
second Castile and Leon quarterly; third Mortimer and Burgh, quarterly; and 
fourth as the first. Which first quarter were his paternal arms, as descended of 
King Edward III. and the third quarter was his maternal : And over all an in- 
escutcheon gules, charged with three lions passant gardant or, within a bordure 
argent, for Holland, being these of his grandmother Eleanor Countess of March. 

The ancientest bearing of an inescutcheon or surtout that 1 have met with, was 
on the seal of arms of JOHN Earl of FLANDERS, son and heir of Philip the Bold 
Duke of Burgundy, and his wife Margaret, Countess and heiress of Flanders. This 
Earl John carried the arms of his father, Burgundy modern and ancient, quarterly ; 
and the arms of his mother, being those of Flanders, on an inescutcheon over all, 
anno 1404, which were continued so marshalled by his son and successor till the 
good Duke of Burgundy added more quarters. 

The ancient and honourable family of the HAYS of Yester, now Marquis of 
TWEEDDALE, have carried anciently quartered arms; for, in the year 1420, Sir 
William Hay, Knight, Sheriff of Peebles and Lord Yester, carried then quarterly 
the coats of FRASER of Olivercastle, and GIFFORD of Yester, upon the account of 
marriages with the heiresses of these families, and placed his own paternal arms in 
an inescutcheon over all ; as appears by his seal of arms appended to the charter 
of foundation of the Collegiate Church of St Bathans, anno 1421. 

LIVINGSTON Earl of LINLITHGOW has his paternal arms quartered with those of 
CALLENDER of that Ilk, as a coat of alliance; and that anciently, upon the account, 
of marrying the heiress of Callender of Callender, viz. quarterly, first and fourth 
argent, three cinquefoils gules, within a double tressure counter-flowered -vert, for 
Livingston ; second and third sable, a bend betwixt six billets or, for Callendar ; 
over all,- on an inescutcheon azure, an oak tree or, within a bordure argent, 
charged with eight cinquefoils gules, as a coat of augmentation for the title of 
Linlithgow. This noble family had for some time of late gilliflowers, in place of 
cinquefoils; as in Sir George Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry. 

Sir Thomas Home of that Ilk, in the reign of King Robert III, married Nicola 
Pcpdie, heiress of Dunglass, with whom he got that barony, and impaled her arms 
with his own, which I have seen cut upon stone in the chapel of Dunglass. Their 
son and heir Sir Alexander Home quartered Home and Pepdie ; as appears by his 
seal appended to writs, anno 1445, which I have seen. His son and heir again 
married Margaret Landels, heir of the Lord Landels ; and his son ALEXANDER first 
Lord HOME, placed by way of surtout over his quartered arms, an inescutcheon of 
the arms of Landel, being or, an orle azure. 

As for the marshalled arms of the families of the Earl of Marchmont, Home of 
Wedderburn, and others of the name, I have given an account of them in the First 
Part of this System. 

It is to be observed, that in all arms quartered with coats of alliance, the paternal 
coat is either placed in the first quarter, or in surtout, as in the above examples of. 
Hay of Tweeddale, Home, &.c. 


The third way of marshalling many coats of anns ; fc ^e ^.^ the above- 
named author, is called arms qua,tc,ly fT^^^ar^ are again quartered : 
four areas of the shield, commonly called he g^ ^uarte , ar g J 
an instance of such counter.^arted ^8^ have ^n ^ arms rf S 

those ot Richard Duke ot York; an n,,.i. hv his second ladv. 

tliose or jxiciiaiu j_/ui%.^ w. - c 

Sri of SELKIRK, eldest son of WUham Marquis of 

rlaiiD-hter to the Marquis ot iluntiy, >. - 

IVliirV uOFQOn, Uduuuiti \.\j i ,_,,,-. , 

ars of the first Third grand quarter as the second, and the 

r&e fir* He th Barms' of Hamilton art? preferred to those of hi, own^ 

M n r ma^tn d in the first quarter, upon the account, as i think, ot the teuda 

Sutv be g invested in that dukedom only for lite, and obliged to take upon 

fS&SL of the family; upon which account the wife's or mother coati. 

or Marr Quarter tne anus ui rnnn -- . , i T ' j 

MONTGOMERY of Lainshaw, as representative of the tamily ot Lamshaw, and Lord 
Lyk Takes upon him the title of Lord LYLE, whose descent see in he First Part 
of this System, page 216, and page 377, where he carries, quarterly, first grand 
quarter quartered ; first and fourth azure, a bend betwixt six cross croslets focbc. 
I; for Marr Earl of Marr; second and third guks, a fret or for Lyle Lord. Lyle : : 
second grand quarter, argent, on a fesse azure three stars ot the first, for Minr of 
Skeldon: third grand quarter as the second, and fourth as the 5 first; and over ad, 
by way of surtout, the quartered coat of Montgomery Earl of Eglmton; crest, a 
cock rising; supporters, two leopards, proper: motto, An I may. 

This practice of placing the wife's or mother's arms before paternal ones is upon, 
account the wife or mother are of more eminent nobility than the husband or 
father I shall add some instances here of this practice in England, in marshal 
the arms of their wives and mothers as heiresses, on account, ot their eminency and 
dio-nity before those of the father or son, which has been done by Knights Com- 
panions of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, as appears by their plates ot arms 
on their stall in Windsor-Hall, so marshalled by the care, of the Garter, prmcipa 
King of Arms in England ; as Ashmole gives them in his Institution ot that )rder, 

chap. 26. sect. 4. p. 718. 

RICHARD NEVIL, who married Eleanor, daughter and heir of Lhomas B 
Enrl of Salisbury, being created Earl of Salisbury, after his father-in-law's decease, 
bore for arms, as on the back of his stall in Windsor, as a Knight of the Garter, 
first and fourth quarter counter- quartered, viz. first argent, three fusils in fesse 
gules, for Montacute; second or, an eagle displayed sable, for Monthermer ; third ; 
second, the fourth as first, being the .quartered arms of his father-in-law, with his 
paternal ones in the second and third quarters, viz. gules, a saltier argent,^ and in- 
chief a lambel of three points compone of the last, and azure . This Earl's eld 
son, with his wife Eleanor, having married Anne, sister and sole heir of Henry 
Duke of Warwick, marshalled her arms first, and next his mother's ; and both be- 
fore his own. After the same manner, William Nevil, who married Jean, daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Lord Falconbridge, placed her arms in the first quarter, or, 
a lion rampant azure; and his own in the second quarter, gules, a saltier argent, 
charged in the centre with a mullet sable , for his difference. He was also a Knight 
of the Garter. 

The first quartered arms that I meet with, as I observed before, were no sooner 
than in the reign of King Robert II. ; for, before that time, there were only single 
coats to be seen ; but after the custom of marshalling once began, those who mar- 


ried heiresses, and got honourable possessions by them, were fond enough to show 
their alliance , titles and dignities, and pietensums to the same. 

The ancient family of OGILVIE of tint ilk carried only, of old, or, a lion passant 
gardant gui'e^, collared and crowned vvitli an open crown, and not with an arched 
one, as now represented ; for there were none of that form either in Scotland or 
England when this family mate lied vvitli the daughter and heiress of Ramsay of 
Auchterhouvj, about the reign of King Robert il. and with her got the lands and 
designation of Lord OCII.VIE of A.ichteniouse soon atter, a^, appears by their seals 
appended to evidents, on which they quartered the arms or K ' . viz. argent, 
an eagle displayed sahle, beaked and mem bred gules, in the second and third quar- 
ters, with those of Ogilvie in the first and fourth: And many of the branches of 
this fani;ly carried the same, as Ogilvie of Innerquharity ; of whom before. OGIL- 
VIE of Lnchmartin, by marrying Christian Glen, one of the daughters and co- 
heiresses of Sir John Glen of Inchmartin, in the reign of King Robert III. quarter- 
ed the arms of Glen, viz.. argent, a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules, 
in the second and third quarters with those of Ogilvie. OGILVIE of Findlater, 
married the heiress of Sinclair of Deskford, in the reign of King James 11. carries 
now quarterly, first and fourth Ogilvie; second and third argent, a CT-HS in graded 
sable, for Sinclair. These arms are illuminated, with many other barons' anus in 
the House of Falahall, 1604, with this variation, that the lion in the first ami 
fourth quarters is not cro.uied, and below the lion, in these two quarters, is 
placed a crescent rides. The first of this family is said to be a third, son of Sir 
Walter Ogilvie of Lintrathan, predecessor to the Earl of Airly, now chief of that 
name, who carries only the plain coat of Ogilvie. 

WALTER OGILVIE of Banff gets a charter from George Earl of Huntly, (and is 
therein designed Armiger noster} of the lands of Auchannachy, in the forestry of 
Boyne, anno 1491, and confirmed by King James IV., having married one of the 
co-heiresses of Home of Ayton, carries, quarterly, first and fourth Ogilvie; second 
and third argent, three papingoes vert. 

Sir WILLIAM FORBES of Pitsligo, son to Sir John Forbes Lord Forbes, intherejgn 
of King Robert 111. married Margaret Fraser, only daughter of Sir William Fraser 
of Phdorth, and his wife Agnes Douglas, a lady of the family of the Douglasses; 
by her he got the 'barony of Pitsligo, whereupon that family have been in use to 
quarter the coat of Fraser with their own. This family was dignified with the 
title of Lord by King Charles I. anno 1633. 

FORBES of Tolquhon, in Buchan, a younger son of Forbes Lord Forbes, for mar- 
rying the daughter and heir of Sir Henry Preston of Formartin, quarters the arms 
of Preston, argent, three unicorns' heads erased sable, with their own : And, upon 
the same account, FORBES of Riras, for marrying one of the daughters and co- 
heiresses of Wemyss of Rires, quartered the arms of Rires with the arms of 

I think I have given a sufficient number of examples of arms of alliances. All 
the quartered arms that I have met with belonging to Scots families, do not exceed 
six different coats of amis, which are marshalled after these three ways, plain quar- 
tering, quartering, counter-quartering, of which I have given examples with their 
surtouts, or inescutcheons. With other nations, especially the Germans, we will 
find thirty or forty different coats of arms marshalled altogether in one shield ; of 
whose various dispositions and methods of marshalling I have treated elsewhere, 
and shall speak of them afterwards: But, first, I go on with the other causes of 
marshalling many coats of arms in one shield.. 


As THERE are many causes and occasions of obtaining at first a coat of 
arms, so are there several causes and ways of augmenting them, by marshalling 
others with them in one shield, as offices and alliances, of which before; and I pro- 
ceed to others ; and, first, of adoption. 

Anciently with many nations there was a custom, when the last person of a 
noble house died without issue or successors, and the family came to be extinct, 



the amis thereof were buried with him in the grave, as John Baptista Christyn, iu 
his Jurisprudentia Heroica, Art. 2. " Hinc recte institutum est, ut ultimo ejusdera 
" familice extinctae, ipsa insignia cum ipso cadavere inhumarentur;" of the prac- 
tices of which formality he gives several instances of old, and of late in Swedland ; 
and the reason he gives, " Ne ignobiles nobilium deferant arma, familiasque con- 
" turbent," i.e. that the ignoble should not assume the arms of an extinct fa- 
mily, lest they disturb and confuse others with a pretended nobility. 

A stranger, or ignoble person, according to our author, cannot assume the arms 
of an extinct farhily without the consent of the sovereign, or of being permitted to 
carry them by adoption, contract of marriage, testament, or other valid disposition 
from those of the said extinct families, having had power to make such concessions. 
I shall here add the second article about the same, from the edict of Albert, and 
Isabel Infanta of Spain, Archdukes of Austria, and Dukes of Burgundy, published 
the i4th December 1616, from the French copy. " We discharge all our subjects, 
" and the inhabitants of the countries under our obedience, of what quality or 
" condition soever they be, to carry or engrave the name or arms of other noble 
" houses or families, albeit the line masculine of the same be extinct, saving and 
" excepting the gentlemen to whom the same have been permitted by adoption, 
" contract of marriage, testament, or other valid disposition from those of the said 
" family, having power to make such concessions : Or those who carry the name 
" and arms of such extinct families, have from us obtained express consent, and 
" letters patent in due form, and caused registrate the same in the registers of our 
" officers of arms, as shall be after declared, under the pain, that who shall do 
" otherwise shall pay the fine of a 100 florins, over and above the reparation of 
" what shall be done in the contrary." 

Amongst the many ways of obtaining arms, of augmenting, multiplying and 
changing them, is adoption. 

Adoption, then, is a legal act, whereby one or many are brought into a family, ' 
as lawyers say, " Actus legitimus per quern quis in alienam recipitur familiam," 
invented for the comfort of those who have no isue; and in case of failing of one, 
others are substitute to succeed, according to the destination of the adopter. 
Adoption is commonly called by the French, adfiliation, sic adoptivi vocantur ad~ 

It is a great comfort and solace for one dying without issue, to have the benefit 
of a law or custom, to adopt other of his own kindred, or out of it, to perpetuate 
the grandeur of his family in his name and arms, lest they go to oblivion in the 
grave with himself. And, as the custom is agreeable to nature, so is it of a very 
long standing : For Josephus, in his History of the Jews, tells, that Abraham 
adopted the son of Aram, his wife's full brother, before she had a son : And the 
Scripture tells us, that the daughter of Pharaoh adopted Moses, and Mordecai 
adopted Esther, the daughter of his uncle, Esth. chap. ii. ver. 7. It was the cus- 
tom also of other nations, especially with the Romans, to adopt, and that those 
whom they adopted went often under the name of the adopter. Octavius was 
called Caesar, from Julius Caesar who adopted him. Pomponius Atticus was sur- 
named Cecilius, from Cv, Cecilius his adoptive father, and the two sons of Paulus 
/Emilius adopted by Fabius Maximus and Scipio Africanus, the one was named 
1-abius and the other Scipio; and the ensigns of the adopters, as well as names 
issed from the adopters to those they adopted, by the custom of the Romans, as' 
mt golden chain or collar used by the family of Torquati, from which they had 
the name : which name and ensign descended to their posterity, as is to be seen 
loman coins ; and that when one of another tribe was adopted into this 
iiy, he also did assume that badge or ensign of honour, as may be seen in 
mother medal relating to D. Junius Silanus, sometime Prator of Macedonia who 
was adopted into the Manlian family of the Torquati ; as in Ashmole's Instltu- 
>n chap. 7 sect. 6. page 219. And these adoptions were made by public 
rity, and many ceremonies, which were used in several countries according to 
erent customs, where many illustrious persons used this way of instituting 
1 naming their heirs to their estates, upon condition they take upon them the 
ime and arms of their families, and to use them on all occasions as they had 
aeen their lawful begotten children, by a fiction of law. As Hoppingius de Jure 


Iiisig nium, par. 5. speaking of adoption, " Quamvis fictionem inducut, tamen 
" quia fictio hsec legis est, & quidem accoramodata ad^actum favorabilem, de quo 
" ipsa lex disponere posset, dicendum videtur, hoc perinde haberi, ac si vere & 
" per naturam, nomen et insignia ista adoptatus ferret." So the adopted, may 
carry the name and arms, as if they were their own, and as sons by nature. Cas- 
san. Cut. Glor. Mund. part ist. says, " Such assumption of name and arms may 
" be regularly made to the adopted, when there is no heir in the family, nor any 
" other that can pretend right to the name and arms ; but if otherwise, the 
" adopted cannot use them without the consent of all those in the family who have 
" right to them." Other lawyers are of the first opinion ; and some say, that 
name and arms alone cannot be alienated, except the adopter and disponer give 
with them his estate : And they say, " Quod multa cum universitate transeunr, 
" quit singulariter per se prohibentur." 

By the general custom of Europe, he who has no children may give away his 
estate to a stranger, upon condition that he carry the name and arms of the 
granter ; as Junsprudentia Herolca, " Usu tamen obtinuit, ut qui liberos non ha- 
" bet, possit in alium transferre feuda sua & hereditatem, ea conditione, ut haeres 
" ille, seu totaliter adoptatus, nomen &- arma ferat adoptantis : " For which he 
gives us two eminent instances; one of them I shall here add, that is of the Prin- 
cipality of Orange, in so far, that he that is prince is obliged to carry the arms of 
Chalon, or lose the principality ; as appears by the testament of JOHN DE CHALON, 
first Prince of ORANGE of that family, of the date the 2ist of October 1417; as 
also by testament of William Prince of Orange, the son of Lewis, the son of the 
foresaid John, 1459 > a ' so by tne testament of John the son of William, dated the 
6th of April 1502 ; also by a testament of Philibert, the son of John, in-the year 
1520. Which ordinance was put in execution by Rene, the son of Henry Count 
de Nassau, and of Dame Clauda de Chalon, who leaving the name and arms of 
Nassau, retained the name and arms of Chalon; and, dying without issue 1544, 
with permission of the Emperor Charles V. instituted WILLIAM Count of NASSAU, 
his cousin-german, Prince of Orange, who carried his arms as his successors have 
done, quarterly, first azure, seme of billets, a lion rampant or, armed and langued 
gulet, for Nassau ; second or, a lion rampant gardant gules, (the French say for a 
lion in this posture, leopard lionrie") crowned, armed, and langued azure, for Catz- 
ellenbogen; third gules, a fesse argent, for Vianden ; fourth gules, two lions 
passant gardant, or, (the French call them leopards) langued and armed azure, 
for Brunswick, some say for Dietz ; over all, by way of an escutcheon, gules, a 
bend or, for Chalon, quartered with or, a hunting-horn azure, mouthed, ringed 
and stringed gules, for Orange : which arms are surcharged with cheque of nine 
points, or and azan- ; the French say Sur le tout du tout, cinque points a' or, equi- 
poles, a quanre d' azure, for Geneva. 

The other instance our author gives is from England, of the family of the name 
of PERCY, whose arms were sable, a chief indented or: William Lord Percy having 
only a daughter, Agnes, who was married to JOCELINE DE LOVAINE, a younger son of 
Godfred Duke of Brabant, who carried sable, a lion rampant or: Lord William 
Percy adopted his son-in-law, who was obliged to disuse his own name and arms,, 
and carry only the name and arms of Percy, which he and his issue performed, 
till the practice of marshalling many arms in one shield ; Then the family quar- 
tered the arms of Joceline de Lovaine with those of the name of Percy : And 
again, Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland married the sister and heires of An- 
thony Lord Lucy, for his second wife, and got with her a great estate, but she had 
no issue, to him ; he, with his lady's consent, gave that fortune to Henry Percy 
surnamed Hois;>ur, a son of a former marriage, upon condition that he marshalled 
the arms of Lucy, being gules, three lucy fishes, (i. e. pikes) haurient argent, with 
his own ; so that the Earls of Northumberland of the name of Percy carried after 
that, quarterly, first and fourth Joceline de Lovaine ; second and third Lucy ; and 
in an inescutcheon, by way of surtout, the arms of Percy. 

Lawyers tell us likewise, That when the adopter and the person adopted are 
both noble, the last loses nothing of his native nobility, Dignitas per adoptionem ac- 
tfuiritur vel augetur, non minuitur. 


If the adopter be ignoble and the person adopted noble, there is no detriment to 
the last, who still keeps the nobility of his blood, Aioptlo mutat gentem, non genus ; 
and here there is no question about arms. But, 

When a noble person adopts an ignoble one, the question is, Whether the ignoble 
becomes noble by adoption ? Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, cap. 7. is for the affir- 
mative ; but generally all lawyers are for the negative, and tell us, Nobilem ex ig- 
nobili (idvptio nonfacit ; and that the ignoble adopted has no right to use the armo- 
rial ensigns of the noble adopter. Sir John Kerne, in his Glory of Generosity, 
page 67. says, " That the ignoble cannot succeed more to the honours of their 
" adoptive fathers, than bastards to their fathers ; " and regrets such a succession 
in England, where many of a base and ungentle state, as adopted sons, do inherit 
the names, possessions,. and arms of their adoptive fathers, whereof some are in the 
counties of Hampton, Huntingdon, and Worcester. 

Adoption, says our last named author, is an alienation, and any man may give 
away his estate to a stranger ; but his arms, the ensigns of his nobility, he can- 
not, so long as any of his kindred are alive, yea, if there be but a bastard 
remaining capable of the King's legitimation ; as in his forenamed book, page 

299; . 

This author adds three observations, when a person leaves' his estate to another, 
upon condition to use his name and arms. " First, That he who is so benefited 
" and enjoined must carry both name and arms, and so fulfil the testament. 
" Secondly, If the heir, a stranger, be of more noble blood and family than the 
" adopter, he is then not obliged by the testament to disuse his own name and- 
" arms, but may quarter the arms of the disponer, if he pleases, after his own. 
" And thirdly, If the heir be of inferior blood and dignity, he is obliged to leave 
" his own name altogether, as also his proper arms, except he marshal them after 
" the adopter or disponer's arms." 

By our law we have no formal adoption, to speak properly, but materially, the 

same way of conveying of estates and possessions to strangers and others, who 

could not have otherwise succeeded but by alienation and disposition, with consent 

of authority, especially as to conveying of honours : which way I take for a kind 

of adoption, and call the arms of such persons who enjoy the estate, name, and 

arms of others so disponed to them, Arms of Adoption, to distinguish them from Anns 

of Alliances, treated of in the former title, which the bearers, as general heirs 

to them, may carry or not carry as they please : but here those who obtain estates 

by this way of adoption, are obliged, by the destination of the disponer, to carry 

his name and arms, or to marshal them with his own. What the learned Sir 

George Mackenzie says, as to this point, in his Science of Heraldry, page 80, I 

shall here add : " That the learnedest antiquaries and lawyers conclude, that when a 

' person leaves his estate to another, upon condition that he shall 'bear the disponer's 

t name and arms, he who is to succeed is not by condition obliged to lay aside his. 

own name and arms, but may quarter his own arms with those of the disponer, 

' except the disponer do, in the institution, prohibit the bearing of any arms be- 

1 sides his own, and the heir, in marshalling his own and the disponer's arms, may 

' use what order he pleases, by giving the first quarter either to his own or to the 

' disponer's, except the contrary be expressed in the institution." 

It is evident then, that adoption, and such way of leaving estates behind them 

said to have been the cause not only of disusing arms, by carrying those 

the adopter or disponer, but also of marshalling or quartering the heirs' arms 

those of the adopter's or disponer's, whether of kindred or strangers 

Some have relinquished both their name and arms, and only used those of the 

ters or disponer's, altogether strangers to one another; as of late with us 

BIGGAR of Woolmet, nominate as his heir, WALLACE, a nephew of Sir Thomas 

Wallace of Graigie, sometime one of the Senators of the College of Justice to 

1 him m his estate of Wolmet, upon condition that he use only the name 

1 arms of Biggar of Woolmet, which he and his successors continue to do ; the 

arms being argent, a bend azure, betwixt two mullets gules. 

same way RANKEN of Orchard-head, who carried gules, three boars' heads 

d argent betwixt a lance issuing out of the dexter base, and a lochaber-axe 

ing out of the snnster, both erected in pale of the last, was obliged to leave his 


name and arms, and use only, as heir adoptive of LITTLE of Over-Libberton, hrs 
name and arms, being sable, a saltier ingrailed argent, though he was near of kin to 
Little of Libberton. 

Sir WILLIAM BALLENDEN of Broughton, Treasurer-depute in the reign of King 
Charles II. and thereafter Lord BALLENDEN, having been unmarried, pas;;ed by his 
sister's son David Lord Cardross, and adopted JOHN KER, younger son of William 
Earl of Roxburgh, and settled his estate upon him, and got the title of honour 
conveyed to him ; and accordingly, upon the Lord Balleuden's death anno 1670, 
Mr Ker, as his adopted heir, did succeed him, and wore his coat of arms without 
any mixture or addition of his own paternal bearing, according to the destination, 
being gulfs, a hart's head couped, between three cross croslets, all within a double 
tressure, counter-flowered with flower-de-luces or ; and got likewise his heritable 
oifice of Usher to the Exchequer, which he officiate by a depute. 

Sir JOHN MAXWELL of Pollock, having no issue of his body, passed by his sister 
the Lady Kelburn, in the succession of his estate, and adopted Mr GEOKGE MAX- 
\V:.I.L, younger of Auldhouse, and accordingly put him in the fee of his estate in 
his own lifetime, whose son is the present Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, one of the 
Senators of the College of Justice, (and sometime Lord Justice-Clerk), carries 
argent, on a saltier sable, an annulet or, stoned azure ; of whom before in the 
First Part of this System. 

WILLIAM COCHKAN of that Ilk, having but one daughter, he married her to 
ALEXANDER. BLAH'., son of John Blair of that Ilk, and in so much adopted him, 
that he was designed Cochran in the lifetime of his father-in-law, and carried the 
arms of Cochran, and not those of Blair ; as did his issue the Earls of Dundonald ; 
of which ia the First Part of this System. 

HUGH MONTGOMERY Earl of EGLINTON, who died without any issue anno 161-2, 
had passed by his own nearest heir-male of the House of Montgomery, and settled 
his estate upon his cousin-german, ALEXANDER SEATON, son of Robert first Earl of 
Winton, and his Lady Margaret Montgomery, daughter of Hugh Earl of Eglin- 
ton, aunt of the last Earl, who accordingly succeeded ; and, as he was obliged by 
the Earl of Eglinton's destination, assumed the name and arms of Montgomery, 
which were then, quarterly, first and fourth azure, three flower-de-luces or, for 
Montgomery ; second and third gules, three annulets or, stoned azure, for Eglin- 
ton. Mr Alexander Seaton, who was adopted into the family, left his own name 
for that of Montgomery, and carried the above arms, and. placed over them an in- 
escutcheon of the arms of his father, viz.. or, three, crescents within a double tres- 
sure, counter-flowered gules, which are painted in a room in the house of Seaton: 
But though Montgomery Earl of Eglinton could dispose of his estate as he had a 
mind, yet he ^ could not make over his honours to Mr Alexander Seaton ; and 
therefore it was sometime before King James VI. was prevailed on to confirm to 
him the titles of Earl of Eglinton and Lord Montgomery, which was at last done 
by the intercession of the Queen, upon Mr Alexander Seaton's marrying Lady Anne 
Livingston, daughter to Alexander Earl of Linlithgow, who was one of the Queen's 
Maids of Honour, and the titles of honour and precedency of the Earls of Eglmtoa 
were confirmed to him, of whom is lineally descended the present Earl of Eg- 
linton : The inescutcheon with the arms of Seaton above mentioned, was dis- 
used, and the arms of the family were then marshalled as now, carried thus ; 
quarterly, first and fourth Montgomery ; second and third Eglinton ; all within 
a bordure or, charged with a double tressure counter-flowered gules.. See more of 
this in the first volume of this Treatise of Heraldry, page 375. 

Since I am speaking here of several ways and means of acquiring arms, and 
augmenting them, and since they are acquired by privileges, contracts, and dispo- 
sitions, I shall not altogether omit, but briefly speak of, these two ways. following, 
viz. Prescription, 


THESE have not only given new arms at first, but have been means of augment- 
ing and marshalling them with others ; for these things which are acquired, by 
VOL. II. p 


concessions, privileges, and contracts, can be acquired by Prescription ; as Hop - 
pingius, paragraph 2. " Qure enim privilegio sive pacto acquiri possunt, ea etiam 
" prase riptione acquiruntur ;" and again, N. 2,23. " Concessibile quod est per 
" principem, etiam prajscriptibile est." 

The time allowed by our author to complete Prescription of arms, is to be dis- 
tinguished ; if the anfts be used without the knowledge of authority, then time- 
immemorial is required ; but if exposed to public view, and known to authority, 
not interrupting them, then forty years time gives a- right to them. 

Nobility itself is acquired by immemorable prescription, much more the right of 
using arms in such a long time, " Cujus contrarii non extat memoria, acquiri et 
" pnescribi posse sine titulo ;" as also the regalia, parts of the sovereign authori- 
ty, in such a time, are piescribable, as our author, " Regalia majora, zeque ac 
" minora, indistin'cte immemorabili praescriptione acquiruntur," Ibid. N. J222. 
where he tells, Tiiat a bastard has no right to disuse his mark of illegitimation 
under the prescription of forty years. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, page 1,2. says, " By our law, 
" where prescription is not allowed, except in the cases wherein it is introduced 
" by a special and express statute, it is probable that prescription might well have 
" defended the using of arms before the I2th act, Parl. 12. James VI. But since 
" that time it should not, seeing the act ordains all arms to be matriculate in the 
" Lyon's books and registers." 

I think it very hard that a person cannot by right, jure antecessorio, carry the 
arms which his progenitors used, legally perhaps, the authority and warrant 
being lost through time; more especially when accounts of them were so indif- 
ferently taken and kept by our provincial heralds, and in latter times as indifferently 

By the customs and sfatutes of certain countries or cities, arms are acquired ; 
because a certain nobility is acquired by the same there, and arms necessarily fol- 
low : as our author, " Consuetudines & statuta insignia tribuere ; ratio, nobilitas. 
" enim, pro cujusque loci consuetudine, et statuta inducitur et asstimatur:" But 
this is only a nobility at home, according to the customs and statutes of the place, 
culled Nobilitas secundum quid, and not a general and true nobility in all places ; 
because it is not according to the laws and customs of nations, and their arms can- 
not be received without the consent and approbation of the sovereign, whose sub- 
jects they are : But more of this in another place. 


ARMS OF PATRONAGE are these of patrons and superiors, carried in part or in 
whole by their clients and vassals, to show their dependence. 

They formed of old their arms after those of their patrons and over-lords, or took 
a part of them to compose or quarter with their own, as soon as these ways became 

In many shires of our kingdom where our ancient earls, lords, and great men, had 
been patrons and superiors, there we find their armorial figures more frequent than 
others in the bearings of many of the present nobility and gentry, which show 
their progenitors to have been clients and vassals to them, though now living in- 
other shires, to have been originally from such shires, where such figures do pre- 
dominate, as in Annandale, where the ancient Lords of Annan dwelt, carried a 
^altier and chief: There the Bruces, Murray s, Johnstons, Jardines, Kilpatricks, and 
several others, carry such figures of different tinctures accompanied with other 
figures, to distinguish themselves from one another. In Douglasdale and other 
countries which the Douglasses possessed in property or superiority, there many 
families have stars. And in Fifeshire lions are carried upon account the lion 
was the armorial figure of the M'Duffs Earls and over-lords of Fife; and in Angus 
lions upon the account of their old earls. And in those shires where the Stewarts' 
1 interest, many families have their figures chequered, from the Stewarts' 
resse cheque .which they have been in use to carry upon the account of patronage, 
3 Ross Lord Ross, Semple Lord Semple, Houston of that Ilk, Brisbane of Bishop- 


ton, Hall of Fulbar, Fleming of Barrochin, Shaw of Bargarran, and those of the 
name of Spruel, with several others, whose possessions were in the shire of Renfrew, 
and other countries belonging to the Stewarts, where figures chequered are pre- 
sumed to be originally so curried, upon the account of patronage; and the same I 
observe in many other shires with us; and the same practice was anciently vised in 

(/.unden, in his Remains of Britain, page 118. says, " Gentlemen began to bear 
" arms, of whom they held in tee, or to whom they were most devoted ; so, where - 
" as the Earl of CHESTER bare garbs, (wheat sheaves) many gentlemen of that 
" country took wheat sheaves. Whereas the old Earl of WARWICK, bare cheque, or and 
" azure, a cheveron ermine, many thereabout took ermine and cheque* In Leices- 
" ter and the country confining, divers bare cinquefoils ; for that the ancient Earls 
" LEICESTER bore gules, a cinqucfoil ermine; from which the family of Hamilton 
" with us, who carry the same. In Cumberland and thereabout, where the old 
" Barons of K.ENDAL hare argent, two bars gules, a lion passant or, in a canton of 
" the second ; many gentlemen thereabout took the same, in different colours and 
" charges in the canton." 

The gentleman who wrote the introduction to the sixth edition of Guillim's 
Display of Heraldry, gives a handsome account of the Rise, Nature, and Prog 
of Arms, where, page 7. he citeth Camden, as I have done; and tells us, " That 
" there is no one acquainted in the History of England but knows, that, of old, 
" most of the great estates and commands of that kingdom were in the hands of 
" such families of the conqueror and his issue as they granted them to, who, by 
" tenure, in their persons, and with their tenants, servants and dependants, were to 
" attend their sovereigns in their wars. These great men granted parts of their 
" tenures to persons either related to them by match, service, or affection, upon 
" such terms as they themselves either were obliged to the first granter of them, 
" or else on other conditions of advantage to them; giving them also coat-ar- 
" mour, which were usually parts of their own, with the differences as best pleased 
" them : Thus, among others that bore arms by this bounty of lords, &c. or ac- 
" cording to Mr Camden's expression, by borrowing from their lords' arms, were 
" many of the principal gentry of England." And so our author goes on with 
several instances more than I have given above; and then tells us, " That now 
" touching the granting of arms from some great earls, and passing of coats from 
" one private person to another, which also was matter sometimes acted before the 
" reductions of the heralds under one regulation, the following precedents which 1 
" take, says he, from the learned Mr Camden, may not be impertinent:" And so- 
this gentleman gives us seven proper instances ; the last of which I shall here 
add in his own words. 

" Another example of the like nature with the former is, from a grant of arms 

4 from BARTON to BOOTH, which you now have in the family of Booth, from 

" whence the Right Honourable the present Earl of Warrington is descended. 

Their arms were, anciently, a cheveron ingrailed, and a canton charged with a 

' mullet; as appears by a charter of Thomas del Booth, bearing date 4}d Edward ILL 

1 but at present, argent, three boars* heads erased and erected sable; which coat 

4 was the ancient arms of the Bartons of Barton in Com. Lan. And granted to 

" John, the son of Thomas Booth of Barton, per chartam Tboma; Barton de Barton 

" Pnedict. anno 5. Hen. IV. 1404." 

Our author here does not tell upon what account arms were thus transmit- 
ted from one to another, whether upon account of alliance, adoption, or feudal 
right, &c. but merely, as I take it, that as great men could give their arms to 
whom they pleased without consent of the sovereign or his heralds; so that there 
could be no regulation about that time of marks of nobility in England.. But our 
author proceds: " Though it was usual for great men, both of the clergy and 
' laity, to give arms and titles, with places of dignity, to inferior gentry, or lesser 
4 nobility, who did acquire arms at that time, and did gain them by that means: 
;t yet Mr Camden informs us, that in this anl succeeding ages, at every expedi- 
4 tion, such as were gentlemen of blood would repair to the Earl Marischal, and 

by his authority take coats of arms, which were registered always by officers of 
* arms in. the rolls of arms made at every service, whereof many yet remair. 


" (sayeth Camden) as that of the siege of Carlaverock, the battle of Stirling, the 
" siege of Calais, and divers tournaments." 

In Italy and Spain the practice of marshalling the arms of patrons or over-lords 
with those of their clients and vassals, has been anciently very much in use; as 
Menestrier tells us, " That in Placenza, the four principal families there, viz. 
" Aneuini Fontani, Landi, and Scoti, had their arms impaled on the right side, as 
" coats of patronage, with those of other families in that country and city, who 
" associated and subjected themselves as vassals and clients to one or other of those 
" above-named four principal families." 

The book entitled Jeu des Armories des Soveraigns et Estats d' Europe gives us 
the blazon, and the reason of the armorial bearing of the Duke of MODENA and 
FERRARA, thus blazoned by the French, tierce in pale, first or, a double eagle 
displayed sable, beaked, membred, and crowned gules, (the armorial figure of the 
empire, because that prince is under its protection) coupe with azure, three ^flower- 
de-luces or, for France, within a bordure double indented, or and gules, for Fer- 
rara, (Nicolas Lord of Ferrara came under the protection of Charles Vil. of 
France) ; second gules, two keys placed in saltier, adosse, or and argent, lie azure, 
and in chief the papal tiara, (upon the account that Ferrara is a vicarage of the 
See of Rome) and over the keys an escutcheon azure, charged with an eagle dis- 
pjayed argent, crowned, beaked, and membred or, for the Marquisate of Este; 
third France, within the bordure of Ferrara, coupe with the empire, as before. 
These arms would, with us, be blazoned thus, quarterly, first and fourth the em- 
pire; second and third France, within a bordure double indented, or and gules ; 
and over all, a pale, charged with the papal ensigns, and surmounted with an 
escutcheon of Este. 

Cardinals have been in use to add to their paternal bearings, the paternal arms of 
the popes or other princes, by whose means they have attained to that dignity, and 
were called arms of patronage. 

The Kings of Sicily and Arragon quartered with their own the arms of the fa- 
mily of Suabia, as arms of patronage; as did also the Dukes of Parma, and the 
Princes of Mirandula, the arms of other potentates ; of which in another place. 


ARE observed by some heralds to be the cause of marshalling several coats of" 
arms in one shield : of which there are but few instances to be found with us. 

The arms of the benefactor are sometimes found quartered with those of the 
beneficiary, upon the account of gratitude. 

The double tressure flowered within and without with flower-de-luces, the ar- 
morial figures of France, granted by Charlemagne to Achaius King of Scotland, 
and after confirmed by many Kings of France to those of Scotland, and car- 
ried by them as a figure of gratitude and affection, to perpetuate the ancient 
und memorable league, the mutual friendship and assistance betwixt those kings 
and their subjects; which figure is still continued by their successors Kings of 
Great Britain, as one of the fixed and proper figures of the imperial ensign of Scot- 

Such other figures of gratitude and affection have been near these 600 years 
carried in the armorial ensigns of the Dukes of Brunswick ; as Hoppingius tells us 
in his Treatise de Jure Insigninm, cap. 87. page 308. " De variis acquirendi in- 
" signia modis," viz. That when HENRY Duke of BRUNSWICK came to England to his ally Henry II. of that kingdom, who then carried for arms, gules, five 
leopards or, King Henry gave two of them to be carried by his friend the Duke ; 
which figures have been constantly carried by his successors : For which our 
author cites an ancient author, John Bangen Thuringisch, in anno Christi 1143, 
page 58. Refert, Ricardum Angliae regem quinque aureos leopardos insignium 
" loco detulisse, ac veniente ad eum affine suo Henrico Brunsuicensium duce, 
' duos clypeo leopardos detraxisse, illique donasse ;" which are now marshalled 
with.other figures in the fourth quarter of the royal achievement of Gedrge, now 
King of Great Britain; of whose arms I shall be more particular afterwards. 


Anciently it was a great sign of affection and kindness, for princes to grant to 
other princes parts of their imperial ensigns, which was not allowed even to their 
lawful issue, as I observed before in the chapter of Marks of Cadency. 

Menestrier tells us, that the Prince of ANTIOCH addressing himself to Lewis XI. 
of France, for supply to recover his dominions out of the hands of the iniu!< I ., 
v.;i courteously received by that king, who supplied him with all things necessary 
for the recovering of his p;incipulity, for which he quartered the arms of Fi;, 
(which could not be without consent oi' the king) as a sii-'i '<;' i-ateiul a 
ledgment, with his own. 

The arms of the BOYLES of England, I may call them arms of affection, because 
David Karl of Glasgow quarters- them with his own, upon the account of atFection 
to Boyle Earl of Burlington, and other branches of that nam.: in England, who 
acknowledge their descent from his family in Scotland, which is of an old standing 
in the sheritilbm of Ayr: In the reign of Alexander III. they possessed- the lands 
of Kelburn; for, in charters about that, mention is made of Ricardiis /?M/ 
Dominus ds!burn, 1. e. Kelburn, and Walter us Cummin- Dominvsde fa 
Rowallen; as in the evidences of the charter-chest of Kowallen. 

Hugo Boyle, in 1399, makes a mortification to the monks of Paisley for the 
welf.ire of his soul. This family continued down in a direct male line till the 
reign of King Charles I. that John Boyle of Kelburn, having no m^le is,ue, mar- 
ried his only daughter and heir, Grissel Boyle,, to David Boyle of Halk.shill, a 
eadet of his o\vn family, his great-grandfather being a brother of it, whose gvand- 
child DAVID BOYLE of Kelburn was created Earl of GLASGOW, Viscount of KEL- 
BURN-, Lord BOYLK of Stewarton, and carries, quarterly, first and fourth or, an 
eagle displayed gules, as a coat of augmentation, upon his creation as Earl, being 
formerly the crest of his family; second and third parted per bend crenelle, argent 
and gu!es, for the surname of Boyle in England, as a coat of affection ; and over all 
an inescutcheon or, three harts' horns gules, the paternal coat of Boyle of Kelburn, 
as is to be seen in the plates of the First Volume of this Treatise. 


As I observed before, has given rise to many armorial figures, in the several 
crusades, holy expeditions for the recovery of Jerusalem, and the Holy Land, from' 
the Saracens, as crosses of divers forms, allerions, martlets, palms, escalops, plhs, &c. 
which are frequently borne inarms. But as for entire coats quartered with others,, 
merely upon account of religion, I find but few instances, the custom of quarter- 
ing many coats of arms in one shield not being generally so old as the crusades. 
However, I have mentioned religion as one of the causes of marshalling, because 
churchmen are in use to quarter the ensigns of their high offices (as patron saints, 
and other holy relics) upon account of devotion, with their own arms ; which 
knights also of religious orders also were in use to do. 

Besides, I observe kings have been in use to marshal arms, upon account of re- 
ligion, with their own, as the Kings of HUNGARY, barry of six pieces, argent and 
gules, with those of religion, viz. argent, a cross patriarchal gules, standing on a 
mount of three degrees simple \ which cross Stephen King of Hungary received 
from Pope Sylvester II. tor bringing his subjects into the Christian faith. 

Sandford, in his History of England, tells us, that King RICHARD II. having 
chosen King EDWARD the CONTESSOK. for his patron saint, impaled that holy king's 
arnu, being azure, a cross fleury between five martlets or, in the first place, with 
those of his own in the second, being France and England, quarterly. 

His grandfather King EDWARD III. made choice of several patrons, as Ash mole 
tells us, the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, whose figure he and his Knights- 
Companions wore on the right shoulder on their habits for some time; ST GEORGE 
of Cappadocia, a martyr, his ensign, argent, a cross gules, and St Edward the Con- 
fessor, sometime King of England, his arms as just now blazoned, under whose 
protection himself and all the Knights-Companions, together with the affairs of 
the Order, might be defended, conserved, and governed ; as is evident, says our 
author, by the charter of foundation of Windsor College, granted by that king : 


and that the two last were his special patron saints whom he invoked in his cry of 
war. Thomas Walsingham, in his History of England, page 159. tells, that at a 
skirmish near Calais, in 1349, King Edward seeing his soldiers put to a stand, and 
like to be worsted, in great heat of anger, drew his sword, and cried out, Ha St 
Edward! Ha St George! which the soldiers hearing, ran presently to him and 
gained the victory. St George became the sole patron of the Order of the Garter, 
and from him it was called Ordo Divi Sancti Georgii, and the Companions, Equites 
Georgian!; and that saint's picture on horseback, with a shield of silver, charged 
with a cross gules, became the badge of that Order, and these arms were advanced, 
both by land and sea, on the English standards. 

King HENRY VIII. ordained the Great Seal of that Order to have an escutcheon 
with the arms of St George impaled on the right side, with the quartered arms of 
France and England, ensigned with an imperial crown, and encircled with the 
garter; which seal of the Order so formed continued till the reign of King James I. 
of Groat Britain, who added to the arms of France and England those of Scotland 
and Ireland. 

It is to be observed, that in marshalling of arms, those of religion, and of patron 
saints, take place before other arms, and even those of dominion. 

Since I am here speaking of arms upon account of religion, and before of arms 
of churchmen, I thought it not far out of my road to add a paragraph (showing 
that in .England arms granted to the clergy ought not to descend to their children) 
from a discourse of the duty and office of a herald of arms, written by Francis 
Thynne, Lancaster Herald, 3d day of March 1605, in a letter to a peer, taken 
from the Ashmolean Library, No. 835, and printed in the Supplement to Guil- 
lim's Display, the sixth edition. 

" Arms appointed for bishops ought not to descend to their children, for they are 
" not within the compass of the law of arms, which only takes notice of bishops 
" as officers of the church, and not as military men, or persons to be employed in 
" offices or affairs of laymen, though some of them have been very great soldiers; 
" for both canons and examples do forbid the same, since in temporal actions in 
" time past it was alleged against them. For it was objected to Hubert Walter, 
" Archbishop of Canterbury, being Chief-Justice and Chancellor in the time of 
" King John, that he intermeddled in lay-causes, and dealt in blood. As also 
" the same was laid against other clergymen for having of offices in the exchequer, 
" and the king's house, when some of them were clerks of the kitchen, some 
" treasurers of the household, &-c.: yea, so much did our ancestors derogate' from 
" the arms of the bishops, as that the bishops which were interested in the arms 
41 of their ancestors, might not bear the arms of their house, without some no- 
" torious difference, not answerable to the differences of other younger brethren; 
" as did the Bishop of Lincoln, Henry Burgensche, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 

Thomas Arundel, the Archbishop of York, Richard Scroop, the Bishop of Nor- 
' wich, Henry Spencer, and many others, who did not bear the common differ- 
' ences of arms of younger sons, but great and notorious differences, as bordures, 
' some ingrailed, some with mitres, or such like, whereof I can show your Lord- 
' ship many forms. And that it was not, before the time of Bartolus, the lawyer, 
' in the government of Charles the IV. Emperor, permitted to gown-men (or as 
' the French termeth them, of the long robe, for under that name learned men, 
' clergymen, and others, are comprehended) to bear armories. Or else why should 

that great lawyer Bartolus argue the matter, Whether it were convenient that 

he should take arms, (the peculiar reward and honour of military service in an- 
' cient time) or whether he should refuse them at the emperor's hands ? For, if it 

had 'been then used that the long robe should have enjoyed the honour of arms, 

Bartolus would never have doubted thereof. But since it was not then accus- 
1 tomed, he made question whether he should take those arms or not ; but in the 
' end concluded, that the fact of the prince was neither to be disputed nor re- 
' jected, and therefore was willing to assume the arms the emperor had given 

him." I shall proceed to arms granted by sovereigns themselves, or their heralds 
empowered to grant them. 



ARMS are the proper ensigns of nobility, when they proceed from the concessions 
of sovereigns, or their principal heralds empowered to that effect. 

Sovereign princes, who acknowledge no superior, without doubt, have the only 
right, not only to nobilitate their well-deserving subjects within their respective 
dominions, but to give them arms suitable to their merit, which will pass for en- 
signs of nobility in all kingdoms, which they may expose to show their honour; 
as Hoppingius, " Is qui insignia a suo rege vel principe meruit, in- alterius regis 
" principisve regno deferre possit." 

The emperor, kings, the pope, and even independent commonwealths, are in use 
not only to grant arms at first to their well-deserving subjects, but after, upon 
some emergent merit, and advancement to nobility, to augment them, to confirm, 
to change and adorn them in the shield ; as also the timbre of the shield with 
noble helmets, mantlings, crowns, crests, and other exterior ornaments, and even to 
adorn and augment both shield and timbre with honourable figures at one time; 
of which afterwards. 

The above mentioned author Hoppin-gius, cap. 87. memb. 5. in his Treatise de 
Jure Insignium : " Non solum conferendi nova insignia imperator, papa, reges su- 
" periorem non recognoscentes, potestate uti possunt ; verum etiam certa de 
" causa augendi, mutandi, diminuendi, & confirmandi, vetera facultate excellunt, 
" non quoad clypeum solum, sive scutum solum, sed quoad galeam, sive timbrum 
" tantum, vel denique quoad utrumque, nunc propter bellicae virtutis gloriam, 
" nunc proper dignitatem & officium, nunc propter successionem, aliasve infinitas 
" causas, fieri solet." Of which practice our author gives several instances, where- 
of I shall add a few. 

The Emperor Charles V. added to the arms of the MENNENSI, (J^W sunt decent 
cubi sen scad, which I take to be cheque of ten pieces, argent and sable) who had 
fought valiantly for the House of Burgundy, the cross of Burgundy, being that of 
St Andrew, trunked vert, to be placed in the base of the shield ; as the words 
of the diploma, " Crucem Burgundicam, sive S. Andreae, viridis coloris, trun- 
" catis seu mutatis utrinque ramis, deferendam, & posteris transmittendam, dedit;" 
as also the shield of arms was to be adorned with a helmet, and, for crest, a dog's 

Alphonsus King of Arragon, in the year 1511, dignified WISTAN BROWN, an 
Englishman, with the Order of Knighthood, and added to his shield of arms a 
black eagle. 

As the shield of arms used to be augmented by sovereigns for special services, 
so they have been in use to adorn the timbre, helmet, and crest, with additaments 
of honour, of which I shall give one instance from our author. The Emperor 
Maximilian I. honoured the crest of ERIC Duke of BRUNSWICK (being the train of 
a peacock) with a star, for his eminent valour in a battle against the Duke of Ba- 
varia: And the same practice is with us, as the crest of the Earl of WINTON, be- 
ing a dragon vert , charged with a blazing star on its shoulder, for the eminent 
valour of the family; and the Duke of LAUDERDALE got from King Charles II. for 
crest, a lion seiant; of which more fully in the Chapter of Crests. 

Since I am here speaking of Arms of Concession, I must distinguish betwixt ge- 
neral and special concessions. By the first, I understand those which the principal 
herald is empowered to grant, by virtue of a general clause for that end, in 
many of the patents of our nobility: which ordinarily runs thus, or in such like 
words, " Mandamus Leoni nostro armorum, ut tale additamentum armorium prse- 
" sentibus insigniis praefati Domini, &c. ut in talibus casibus usitatis det &- prae- 
" scribat." 

Arms, again, of special concession, are particularly mentioned and blazoned in 
the diplomas, letters patent, or grants of the sovereign, and are ordinarily of some 
part of the sovereign's ensigns or regalia, which cannot be allowed or given by the 
principal herald without a special warrant from the sovereign. 

Both these arms of general and special concessions are commonly called coats of 
augmentation, because they augment the bearing. 


The practice of giving coats of augmentation, by the general clause in the patents 
of nobility above mentioned, is no older than the reign of King James VI. given 
to those who were advanced to degrees of dignity; and the lands from which they 
had their title of lord, viscount, earl, &-c. not being noble feus with arms annexed 
to them, desired coats of augmentation as best pleased them, to supply the want of, 
feudal ones; of which afterwards. 

The iirst that 1 have met with is that used by the Earls of Wintoiv, when 
ROEKRT Lord SKATON was created Earl of WINTON with till solemnity at Holy- 
roodhouse, the loth of November 1601, he got a coat of augmentation from the 
herald suitable to the merit of the family, viz. for the title of Winton, u-zure, a 
blazing st;ir df ten points, within a double, flowered and counter-flowered 
or, (having right before to the tressure by special concession) ; with the motto, 
Intaminatis fittget honoribus; to show the constant loyalty and heroic virtue of the 

The next coat of this kind I meet with, is that of the Lord LIVINGSTON, who, 
when he was advanced to the dignity of Earl of LINLITHGOW, augmented his arms 
with an iriescutcheon, azure, an oak tree within a bordure argent, charged with 
eight cinquefoils gules, \vhich he placed over his quartered arms of Livingston and 
Callender, by way of surtout, for the title of Linlithgow ; of which families in the 
First Part of this System, and elsewhere, in an Essay of the Ancient and Modern 
Use of Armories, 1 have given the several arms engraven on copperplate, with these 
following, viz. S EATON EARL of DUNFERMLINE, KER Marquis of LOTHIAN, who, 
when he was created Earl of Lothian in the year 1606, took for a coat of augmen- 
tation, azure, the sun in its splendour, proper, which is quartered with the paternal 
coat of the family. 

As also HAMILTON Lord BINNING, when he was created Earl of MELROSE, i3th 
March 1619, took for that title a coat of augmentation, viz. argent, a fesse waved 
between three roses gules, relative to his title of Melrose, which he quartered in 
the second and third quarters, with his paternal in the first and fourth quarters, 
and which are so earned by his successors, though he got his title altered to that 
of Earl of Haddington. 

Viscounts and lords of Parliament have also been in use, with us,, to add coats of 
augmentation to their paternal ones. Sir ALEXANDER SEATON, second son of George 
Lord Seaton Earl of Winton, and his countess, Lady Anne Hay, daughter to Fran- 
cis Earl of Errol, being created Viscount of KINGSTON, he quartered in the second 
and third places, with the paternal arms of Seaton, as a coat of augmentation, 
argent, a dragon vert, spouting out fire, being the crest of the family of Winton, 
which with others may be seen in my foresaid Essay. 

1 have observed, that all coats of augmentation of this kind, through Europe, 
give place to the paternal arms; which order has been observed with us, except 
in the achievements of the Earl of Lothian, and the Lord Cardross : But the heir 
of the last, David Erskine Earl of Buchan, has placed the coat of augmentation 
since more rightly in surtout ; which may be seen in taille douce in the First Part 
of this System. I can find no reason for such coats of general concession by the 
herald, to precede the paternal or other dignified feudal arms in one shield. 

Many of our nobility, who have the same right to assume coats of augmentation,, 
have never made use of them. 

But arms of special concession, being composed of the figures of the royal arms 
or regalia, have precedency in composing or marshalling to all other sorts'of arms. 
Of which, 

Arms of special concession are those granted by princes and free states, not only 
to- their subjects, but also to strangers, by a particular grant or patent, containing 
the blazon of such a coat, made up of some part of the figures of the sovereign's 
ensign, or regalia, to be added to the receiver's own proper arms. 

I am not here treating of the first grants of arms, as marks of honour, which I 
have said before, in the definition of arms, to have been granted by sovereigns, for 
distinguishing person and families, as their proper ones : But here I understand 
them new coats or additaments of honour, by special concessions of sovereigns to 
be joined with their proper ones. 


Such have been very frequently granted by our sovereigns, and those of other 
nations, to well-deserving persons, both of the high and low nobility; as also upon 
communities ecclesiastical and secular. 

Sir John Feme tells us, in his fore-cited book, that when Charlemagne erected 
the six ecclesiastical peers of France, he granted to them arms of the same tinc- 
tures and figures with the royal ensign of France; which, though they have been 
.uriecl, as I have shown before, yet I doubt very much of the antiquity of them. 
As for secular communities, there are several instances which may be given of such 
grants of other nations, and with us at home, which have been honoured with the 
favour of such royal badges; and I shall here but give one instance: The Town of 
A KUDEEN got the double tressure, a part of the royal bearing, added to their arms, 
by the order of King Robert the Bruce, for their fidelity and loyalty to him, being 
gules, three towers embattled argent, and masoned sable, within a double tressure. 
flowered and counter-flowered of the second. 

In this manner, sovereigns and free states have honoured and rewarded their fa- 
vourites and well-deserving subjects with a part of their arms, as additaments of 
honour; of which I shall give some instances. 

Charles IV. Emperor of Germany and King of Bohemia, honoured his Chan- 
cellor BAK.TOLUS, the great lawyer, with a concession to him and his issue, for to 
carry the royal arms of Bohemia, or, a lion with two tails gules, as Bartolus tell, 
himself, in his Treatise de Insigniis, thus, " A Carolo Quarto, clarissimo principe, 
" Romanorum imperatore, nee non rege Bohemia?, mihi, tune Cancellario ejus, 
" concessum est, inter caetera, ut ego &- omnes de agnatione mea, leonem rubeum 
" cum caudis duabus in campo aureo portare." 

There are many ancient families in Germany who marshal with their own bear- 
ings the imperial eagle, by special concession from the emperor: But it is to be 
observed, that these eagles granted by the emperor have but one head ; and lawyers 
tell us, that the emperor, and other sovereign princes, cannot grant their entire 
imperial ensigns to any person; ns John Limneus, " Licet ab imperatore sit insig- 
" nia concedendi potestas, ilia tamen limitata, ne alicui integram aquilam, maxime 
" vero imperialem, concedant." 

The Emperor Charles V. King of Spain, not only augmented the arms of RO- 
BERT DE CLUSIS within the shield, but also adorned the shield with exterior orna- 
ments, marks of a true nobility, as by letters patent loth of October 1543, with 
the complete achievement illuminate in the middle of the patent, which I thought 
fit here to blazon in English, and after give it in Latin, for its singularity, as in the 

Quarterly, first and fourth sable, three oak branches leaved and acorned or; 
2 and i, his paternal arms; second and third azure, three stars of six' points or; 
2 and i, his maternal ones; and, on a chief or, an eagle displayed with one head 
sable: the shield is timbred with an open helmet, mantling of the tinctures of the 
arms, and the wreath of the same colours; upon which, for crest, are two wings 
expanded sable, and betwixt them proceeds the Burgundian cross of St Andrew 
trunked or. Amongst several diplomas of nobility and arms which John Baptista 
Christyn, Chancellor of Brabant, gives in his excellent book, Jurisprudentia He- 
lo'u-a, I shall add a part of the above-mentioned Robert's, that the curious may 
know somewhat of the form of blazon by concessions. After the titles of the 
emperor, and introduction, the diploma goes on thus, " Tibi praefato Roberto de 
' Clusis gentilitia arma & insignia tua, tarn paterna quam materna, non modo con- 
' firmanda &- approbanda, verum etiam augenda & ornanda, duximus, ac tenore 
' pnesentium, confirmamus, approbamus, &. augemus, & ornamus, atque ad hunc 
" mod urn deferenda &- gestenda concedimus. 

" Videlicet, scutum quadripartitum, cujus superior dextra, & inferior sinistra, in 

" campo nigro, tres ramusculos quernos transversos, cum binis foliis, & glande in 

" meclio florum aurei sive crocei colons, sursum conversis, triangulari forma positos, 

' qiue arma tua posita sunt; inferior vero dextra, &- superior sinistra partes, in 

" area azurei seu coelesti coloris, materna tua armorum insignia, nimirum tres 

" Stellas sex radiis, singulas aurei sive crocei coloris, triangulari similiter forma 

' collocatas (/. e. 2 and i) nempe unam in basi, reliquas duas in superioribus an- 

" gulis, singular complectuntur. Et in vertice scuti aurei seu crocei coloris, aqui- 



: - 

mends haudiis, bellis duellis frc. By such royal concessions the receivers 
are not onlv nobihta e, but qualified to be admitted into military exercises, serious 
or in dispo.-t; such as combats, joustings and tournaments, where none are allowed 

"umber of old families which enjoy the like 
favour, in carrying flower-de-luces, the imperial figures ot 1 ranee, by letters patent ; 
for which see Menestrier and other French heralds. _ 

The Dukes of Savoy have made concessions of several quarters of their armorial 
cnsiens to several families; as to the House of VILES of Ferrara, who carry, quar- 
icrlv first and fourth the wild horse of Saxe, which belongs to Savoy, as his original 
arms; second and third the proper arms of the House of Viles, and over all, by 
\vav of surtout, the cross of Savoy. 

The REPUBLIC of VENICE has made several concessions to their own subjects of 
their symbolical figure, the winged lion of St Mark, the armorial figure of that re- 
miblic ; as also to strangers, as by that one granted by the senate to I 
VOYF.R DE PAULINY, Count de ARGENSON, the French king's ambassador to that re- 
public which are to be seen on the monument erected tor him there at 1st Jo 
'hurch; as Menestrier gives us; quarterly, first and fourth azure , two leoparus or, 
for Voyer de Pauliny; second and third argent, a fesse sable, for the House de 
genson and by way of surtout, the arms of the republic, viz. azure, a uon taaat 
winged, and diademated or, holding a book open, with these words upon it, I ax 
tibi, Marce, tu evangelist a mem. . 

Other potentates have been in use to do the same honour, not only 1 
subjects, but to strangers. The Kings of France have honoured several Scots fa- 
milies for their valour, with their arms, as the Stewarts of Lennox, the Douglasses, 
and the Kennedys. 

Sir HUGH KENNEDY of Ardistanshire, who, for his valour in t wars 
against England, being under the command of John Stewart Earl of Buchan, was 
honoured by the King of France with his arms, viz. azure, three flower-de-luces 
or; which he and his successors marshalled in the first and fourth quarters with 
those of Kennedy in the second and third quarters, as those descended of him, viz. 
the Kennedys of Bargeny, the Kennedys of Kirkhill and Binning in the shire ot 
Ayr ; of which more particularly in the First Volume. 

Sclden tells us, in his Titles of Honour, " That when Gustavus Adolphus King 
" of Sweden received the investiture of the Garter from Henry St George, Rich- 
" mond-Herald, and Peter Young, Gentleman Usher, at Darsaw in Prussia, the 2yth 
" of September 1627, he conferred the honour of knighthood upon them ; and, 
" by a particular grant- in their patents of honour, allowed them to quarter the 
" arms of Sweden with their proper arms." 

King James I. of England, and VI. of Scotland, was graciously pleased to confer 
solemnly the dignity of knighthood upon NICOLAS DE MOLINE, a noble senator ot 
Venice, sent by that state to his majesty; as also, for a further honour, to ennoblish 
the coat-armour of the said Nicolas de Moline, being azure, the wheel of a water- 
mill or, (by way of augmentation) with a canton argent, charged with the badges 
of the two kingdoms, viz. of the red rose of England, and thistle of Scotland, con- 
joined pale-ways; as by letters patent under his Majesty's Great Seal of England, 
appeareth in these words, " Eundem dominum Nicolaum de Moline, in frequenti 
" procerum nostrorum prsesentia, equitem auratum merito creavimus, &. insuper 
" equestri huic dignitati in honoris accessionem adjecimus, ut in avito clypeo gen- 
" tilitio cantonem gestet 'argenteum, cum Angliae rosa rubente partita, & Scotix 


" cardtio virentc conjunctum : GMKK, ex insignibus nostris regiis special! nostra 
" gratia, disc'jrpsimus, ut virtuti bene merenti suus constaret honor; &- nostra; in 
' tantiim benevolentue testimonium in perpetuum extaret." 

As I liinted before, though sovereigns cannot grant thejr entire annoj'.al cn^ign^ 
(being marks of their authority) to subject! or strai , .Inch cannot but!) 
prejudice or dishonour ot their throne and kingdom, as lawyers teii as; yet v> 
they hav'_- granted their shields of arms to be quartered with the paternal cua: 
those they favoured: So that, in that case, they were not imperial arm , IJLI; 
of honour and gratitude to the receivers. It is true the cmp-jrur seldom or never 
granted the eagle with two heads to any prince, but with one head only; neither 
properly could Jie with two, because they are the proper and fixed figure 
empire, and not these of his paternal family out of which he is elected: lint .</ 
hereditary princes seem to be at more freedom to give their own [xiternal bear., 
though ensigns of their sovereignty, to be marshalled with others; but neither the 
emperor nor other princes ever did adorn the shields of their favourites with thei; 
royal timbre, /'. e. helmet, crown, crest, &c. Ot late we find that the Em[ 
Leopold 11. when he made JOHN CHURCHILL Duke of M.UCLBOROUGH and Manjui.- 
of liLANuroiiD, one of the Princes of the Empire, by the title of Prince of MIN- 
DELIIKIM in Swabia, anno 1705, he allowed to him and his heirs-male to cam 
the emperor's crest, viz. the imperial eagle diplayed with two head's diademate or, 
i. c. the heads encircled with rounds, or orbits of gold, as that of the emperor's; 
but he placed his arms on the breast of the eagle as a supporter, being, as" said i>, 
a prince of the empire: But in Britain, as a peer thereof, he had his achievement 
otherwise ; as in the sixth edition of Guillim's Display, at the title of Dukes, page 
99. thus given us, sable, a lion rampant argent, a canton of St George, viz. argent, 
a cross gules, suriounded with the Order of the Garter; crest, on a wreath, a lion 
gardant couchant gules, sustaining a banner argent, charged with a hand of Ulster, 
viz. an hand sinister erect, and couped at the \\nstgules; supporters, two wiverns 
Cities, that on the right having St George, or the English ensign, viz. argent, a c , 
gules, that on the left, St Andrew, or the Scot's ensign, viz. azure, a saltier argent 
depicted on targets, or oval shields, upon each of their respective breasts, and sus- 
pended on their necks by collars of gold. He was first dignified with the title of 
Baron of Churchill of Eyemouth in Scotland, 1682, and after, Baron Churchill of 
Sandridge in England, 1685, Earl of Marlborough 1689, and Marquis and Duke 

Menestrier, in his Treatise of Arms, in the chapter of Grants and Concessions, 
gives an instance of a woman receiving a coat of augmentation, which was when 
the Emperor Charles IV. passing from Padua to get himself crowned at Rome, 
with his empress, who took in her train JEAN BEANCHITTIE, the widow of a famous 
lawyer: Amongst other favours, the empress gave her a grant to carry in the 
middle of her arms, in a lozenge shield, those of Lithuania, viz. gules, a chevalier 
armed in all points, on horseback argent, brandishing a sword ; and on his left arm 
a shield azure, charged with a cross, with double travesses of the second, being a 
part of the empress's bearing, a daughter of the King of Poland, and Duke of Li- 
thuania: which grant was confirmed by the emperor. 

Henry VIII. of England honoured his wives with additional arms; of which 
afterwards: and of late Charles II. of Great Britain granted a coat of augmenta- 
tion to ANNE CLARGES, wife to George Monk Duke of Albemarle, viz. azure, a 
flower-de-luce or, within a bordure of the last, charged with eight roses gules, 
quartered in the first place, with her paternal coat in the second, being barry of 
twelve pieces, argent and azure; and, on a canton sable, a ram's head couped ar- 
gent, with four horns or, as being descended of the family of Clarges in^Hainault in 

It is only sovereign prmces and republics that can make such concessions of 
their public ensigns, being more sacred than those of subjects, which may be more 
freely assumed, with less authority, upon the accounts before mentioned, by mar- 
riajr>>, al liance, adoption, &c. 

Which additaments of honour are either placed in one quarter, with the proper 
arms of families, or marshalled with them in distinct quarters: Which last way is 
the proper subject now in hand. 


But since anciently there has been, and still continues a frequent practice of 
composing some one part or other of the royal ensigns or regalia with paternal 
arms, I shall here insist a little on them with their proper situation, with paternal 
ligurcs in one shield or quarter, before I proceed to give further instances of mar- 
shalling arms of special concession with paternal ones in distinct quarters. 

The pieces or figures of sovereign ensigns or regalia claim a precedency in the 
most honourable place of the shield or quarter before the paternal figures, and are 
to be placed in chief in a dexter canton; and sometimes sovereigns ordain their 
achievement as a crest or supporters, if they be convenient for that end : Of which 
afterwards when I speak to exterior ornaments. 

Menestrier tells us, " That it is the general practice of Europe to give the most 
" honourable place of the shield to those royal figures; and that some princes, in 
" their concessions of them, expressly ordain them to be so placed; as John King 
" of Arragon and Sicily, rewarding two knights for there good services, and to 
" put a particular mark of respect upon them, allowed them to carry the armorial 
" figures of Arragon, Navarre, and Sicily, on condition they should place them on 
" a chief above the arms of their families; and though they had a chief before, 
" they behoved to add another." And this is the reason we see foreign arms oft- 
times have two chiefs ; of which I have given instances in the First Volume of this 
System, and shall here add another. 

The Princes of MASSA in Italy, of the name of CIBO, have their paternal arms 
honoured with two concessions, placed upon two chiefs, the one soutenu of the 
other ; that below contains the arms of GENOA, granted for the successful negotia- 
tion of William Cibo for that republic with Pope Clement VII. 1532; and above, 
another chief, with the arms of the empire, viz. the eagle with one head, granted 
by Maximilian the emperor when he made Alberick Cibo a prince of the empire, 
%vht)se blazon is thus, quarterly, first and fourth or, a bend cheque, argent and 
azure, (the paternal coat of Cibo) a chief argent, charged with a plain cross g ules, 
(the arms of Genoa) surmounted of a chief of the empire or, a double eagle display- 
ed sable, and, (for diminution, and to difference it from that of the empire) on its 
breast, a scroll fesse-ways; on it the word Libertas; second quarter azure, an 
eagle displayed argent, crowned or, for Este, quartered with Ferrara, azure, three 
flower-de-luces or, within a bordure indented of the same, gules; third quarter, 
coupe, or and gules, the branch of a thorn tree sable, flowered argent in pale, for 
the family of Malespine; and over all, by way of surtout, on a lozenge escutcheon 
or, five torteauxes gules in orle, surmounted of the sixth azure, charged with three 
flower-de-luces or, as a coat of alliance with the Medicis Dukes of Tuscany : 
Which arms are to be seen engraven in Jen $ Armories, and in my Essay of the . 
Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, with several others, which I may have oc- 
casion here to mention. 

The Dukes of TUSCANY and the MEDICI placed the arms of France upon one of 
their torteauxes above the rest, as all the families and cities in France, who carry 
flower-de-luces as additaments of honour, by concessions of the sovereign, place 
them in chief, or on a chief; and the same practice is used in Britain, by the fol- 
lowing examples. 

Sandford, in his before-mentioned History, tells us, " That Henry VIII. of 
England honoured the arms of THOMAS MANNERS, whom he created Earl of RUT- 
" LAND, upon the account he was descended from a sister of King Edward IV." 
his paternal bearing being, or, two bars azure, and a chief gules; the chief was then 
formed, quarterly, azure and gules, on the first two flower-de-luces or; on the se- 
cond a lion passant gardant or; the third as second, and the fourth as first which 
were parts of the armorial figures of England. 

Guillim says, " Sometimes these augmentations are found to be borne upon 

cnietot the escutcheon above the paternal coat;" for which he gives the 

Cample ot the Ear! of Rutland; and then adds, " It is a form of bearing of 

tin part; for here is, says he, abated one flower-de-luce of the arms of 

:e and two lions of the arms of England, and both on the chief part of the 

Yet we meet with sometimes the augmentation in the centre of 

eld, as ,n the arms of COMPTON Earl of NORTHAMPTON, viz. sable, a lion passant 

gardant or, between three helmets argent, garnished gold : which lion, being one 


of those of England, is an augmentation. And he who adds the Blazons of the 
Nobility to Guillim's Display, gives us, page 314. an example of a coat of arms 
worthy to be mentioned, whose words i shall here add, " viz. azure, a naval 
" crown, within an orle of twelve anchors or, borne by the name of LENDON, and was 
" granted by Sir Edward Walker, Garter King at Arms, by patent, dated at 
" Brussels the loth of May 1658, in the loth year of the reign of King Charles If. 
" to Captain Robert Lendon, bom of tamest parents at Allington, in the county of 
" Devon, who, in his youth, actively applied himself to navigation; and being an 
" officer in the royal navy, anno 1648, (which, for some years before, had been, 
" and then was, possessed and employed by the usurped power of a rebellious par- 
" liament) had thereby the happy opportunity, out of a due and loyal sense of his 
" duty to his laui'ul sovereign king Charles II. to be the prims and active instru- 
" ment to induce twelve ships (which his anchors resemble) of the said navy, to 
" their duty and obedience, and to embrace his majesty's service against, his re- 
" bellious subjects." 

There is no part of the imperial ensigns of sovereign princes, and even their re- 
galia, but have been granted i>y special concessions, as by our kings, to honour the 
arms of some of the bt-st. families of the kingdom, which have also been granted to 
strangers, as a testimony of our king's favour: Of all the pieces of honour in the 
arms of Scotland, the double tressure most frequently has been allowed to be car- 
ried, as a badge of a royal maternal descent, loyalty, and virtue; of which I shall 
give in short a few instances. 

THOM \s RANDOLPH Earl of MURRAY, Lord ANNANDALE and MAN, as a nephew to 
King Robert Bruce by his sister, was the first of his family who was allowed to 
place the double tressure round his paternal figures, the three cushions gules in a 
field or; as is evident by his seals of arms appended to charters. And Sir Alex- 
ander Seaton of that Ilk, being son of Sir Christopher Seaton, and Christian, sister 
to King Robert Bruce, was the first of the progenitors of the noble family of the 
Earls of VVinton and Lord Seaton, who encompassed the three crescents, the pater- 
nal figures of Seaton, with the double tressure counter-flowered gules, in a field or, 
upon account of his royal maternal descent. There are many other noble fa- 
milies, upon the same account, on whom I cannot insist here, as Lyon Earl of 
Strathmore : Nor of those who carry it upon account of merit and favour of our 
kings, as Douglas Duke of Queensberry, Erskine Earl of Kelly, Gordon Earl of 
Aberdeen, Gordon Earl of Aboyne, Scott of Thirlestane, &-c. of whom before in 
the First Part of this System. 

The arms of several strangers have been honoured by our kings with the double 
tressure: King James V. knighted and honoured one NICOL COMBET, a Frenchman, 
with it, as did King James VI. JACOB VAN EIDEN, a Dutchman, and several others; 
as their patents bear in the Chapel Rolls in England, titled, Diversi tract fit us amici- 
tiarum tcinpore Jacobi regis. 

Sylvester Petra Sancta, an Italian, in his Treatise of Arms, speaking of the double 
tressure, says, " Celebris est duplaris limbus, quern paralellae linese duae, ac simul 
' florentes, describunt in tessera regis Scotorum;" and gives us the arms of a 
Dutch and French family with the tressure. 

Another piece of our sovereign arms, I mean the lion, the figure of the ancient 
ensign of Scotland, has been allowed to be carried by several families of this king- 
dom, as a sign of their royal favour, within three shields; as that granted to Sir 
ALEXANDER. CARRON, who carried the banner of Scotland before King Alexander I. 
in his expedition against the rebels in Mearns and Murray: Where, by Sir Alex- 
ander's conduct and eminent valour, the king obtained a notable victory over the 
rebels; for which his name was changed from Carron to SCRYMGEOUR, which sig- 
nifies a hard fighter, (as our historians) and got a coat of arms suitable thereto, 
viz. gules, a lion rampant or, armed and langued azure, holding, in his dexter paw 
a crooked sword, or scimitar, argent. (See Plate of Achievements, and more of 
this family in the Appendix.) And, in later times, favourites have been allowed 
to embellish the shield of arms with a lion as a crest or supporter; as that allowed 
to the Duke of Lauderdale. And the same may be said of the unicorn, the sup- 
porter of the achievement of Scotland, the St Andrew's cross, the thistle, crown, 
sword and sceptve, the ensigns and regalia of the kingdom, have been granted by 



;,ith their paternaffigures in one area, but also by d.stmc. areas 
fhetll tt, ?j2?.t ot qua with the paterna, a,, I 


nstance the arms of MURRAY the Earl of ANNANDALE, being azure, 
crescent in the centre, all within a double tressure flower- 
or-, and, for an additament of honour, a canton o the 
thistle vert ensigned with an imperial crown. And the 

ththne . 

of Barn; for his fidelity and real preservation of the regalia of Scotland, to the 
bss of h! ady, and his long imprisonment in the usurpation of Oliver Cromwell. 
Kna Charles I was pleased to raise and advance Dame ELIZABETH BEAUMONT, then 
i& of Su THOMAS RICHARDSON, Lord Chief Justice ot the Common Pleas in 
E, Jand to the honour of Baroness of Cramond in Scotland, and continued the 
ame honours to her and Sir Thomas's heirs-male, by letters patent the 28th Fe- 
b 1628; which was the only female creation to be met with m this realm. 
Hehonom-edthe arms of Sir Thomas with the additament ot a canton azure, 
charged with a St Andrew's cross argent, the ensign ot Scotland 
' But to leave such pieces joined in one field with the paternal ones, I shall pro- 
ceed to give a few examples of those who carry some of the royal figures, which 
make up entire quarters by themselves. 

The ancientest coat of special concession which I meet with in books of heraldry, 
is that memorable one, viz. a sword supporting an imperial crown by King F 
bert I. with the barony of Barns, to his nephew Sir ALEXANDER SEATON, for ..his 
own singular service in Scotland and Ireland, in the service of Edward Bruce, the 
king's brother, and in consideration of his father's loyalty and near alliance to the 
royal family; of which before. 

In latter times our kings have been in use to honour their well-deserving sub- 
jects with such pieces of their imperial ensigns as King James VI. did to the 
deliverers of his person from the pernicious attempts of John Ruthven Earl 
Cowrie his brother Alexander Ruthven, and their accomplices, on the 5th ot Au- 
eust 1600 viz. to Sir John Ramsay, Sir Thomas Erskine, and Sir Hugh Hernes, 
who killed the chief assassins, and delivered the king, who gave them special < 
cessions, as follows. 

Sir JOHN RAMSAY of Wyliecleugh, a cadet of the family of Dalhousie, who car- 
ried for his paternal arms argent, an eagle displayed sable, beaked and membred 
yules and, on his breast, a crescent of the last, for his brotherly difference, was no- 
bilita'te by the said king, with the title pf Viscount of HADDINGTON, and with an 
additament to his arms, viz,, azure, a dexter hand holding a sword in pale arg-ent, 
hiked and pommelled or, piercing a man's heart gules, the point supporting an im- 
perial crown, proper ; which he impaled on the right, with his paternal on the left, 
side of the shield. And when King James VI. was advanced to the crown of 
England, he created him Lord Baron of KINGSTON upon Thames, and Earl of 
DERNESS,' with this special post of honour relative to his coat of augmentation, that 
upon the 5th of August annually,, (which was a day appointed to be kept holy for 
that king's happy delivery from the hands of his enemies) he and his heirs-male 
for ever should bear the sword of state before the king and his successors. This 
Earl married Elizabeth, daughter to Robert Earl of Sussex, and with her had. two 
sons and a daughter. 

Sir THOMAS ERSKINE, eldest son of Sir John Erskine of Gogar, immediate 
younger brother to John Lord Erskine, first Earl of Marr, and regent of Scotland 
in the minority of King James VI. being one of the deliverers of that King, was al- 
so honoured with a coat of special concession, viz. gules*, an imperial crown within 
a double tressure, counter-flowered with flower-de-luces or, which he quartered in 
the first and fourth places with the paternal coat of Erskine, and was by the King 
created Lord DIRLETON, and after Viscount of FENTON, the i8th March 1606, and 
then Earl of KELLY 1619 : and, upon that King's accession to the crown of Eng- 
land, he was made Captain of the English Guards, Groom of the Stole, and Knight 
of the Garter. From him is lineally descended the present Earl of Kelly, who 


carries the above arms, as do the descendants of his family ; as Sir ALEXANDER. En- 
SK.INE of Cambo, Lyon King of arms, with a crescent for his difference, whose 
father was the second son of the family of Kelly. 

The other deliverer, Sir HUGH HERRIES of Cowsland, a cadet of the Lord HERKII.-?, 
was also honoured with another coat of augmentation by King James VI. which 
he quartered in the first and fourth quarters with his paternal arms, thus, azure, a 
hand in armour issuing from the right side of the shield, holding a sword support- 
ing an imperial crown, proper ; second and third argent, three urcheons sable. 

SANDILANDS Lord ToRPHlCHSN carries quarterly, first and fourth parted per fe- 
azure and or; on the first an imperial crown, proper ; and, on the second, a thistle 
vert, as a t coat of augmentation ; second and third grand quarter, quarterly, first and 
fourth argent, a bend azure, the paternal bearing of the name oY Sandilands ; se- 
cond and third, the arms of Douglas, arms of patronage as some will. 

Sir JAMES SANOILANDS Baron of SANDILANTDS and WJSTON, in the upper ward of 
Clydesdale, descended ot Sandilands of that Ilk, in the reign of King David Bruce, 
married Eleanor Bruce, uterine sister to William Earl of Douglas, who, upon the 
account of the suid marriagi, gave to the said Sir David the barony of West-Calder, 
called Calder-Comitis ; upon which that family ever since have quartered the arms 
of Douglas with their own, as arms of patronage : Of which family was Sir JAMES 
SANDILANDS, Lord of Sr JOHN, Great Prior of the Knights of Rhodes, in the king- 
dom of Scotland ; and as such he carried the thistle and crown, as the badge of 
that high office. He was sent by the Parliament of Scotland ambassador to Fran- 
cis and Mary, King and Queen of France and Scotland. This Sir James became 
protestant, and was created Lord Torphichen : which honour, for want of heir-male 
of .his body, fell by inheritance to the Baron of CALDER his cousin, whose successors 
enjoy the same with the coat of augmentation. 

King Charles I. when he advanced Sir JOHN HAY of Netherleif, descended of the 
family of Errol, into high places and dignities, as Clerk-Register, High-Chancellor 
of Scotland, Lord HAY of KINFAUNS, Viscount of DUPLIN, and lastly Earl of KIN- 
NOUL, 25th March 1633, honoured- him with a coat of augmentation, viz. azure, an 
unicorn salient argent, horned, maned, and unguled or, (the supporter of the royal 
achievement) within a bordure of the last, charged with half thistles vert, and half 
roses gules, joined together by way of parti per pale, being the badges of Scotland 
and England, to represent the union of these kingdoms in the person of King James- 
VI. ; which coat of augmentation was quartered in the- first and fourth quarters with- 
these of the paternal coat of Hay, argent, three escutcheons gules : Unto which- 
honour and arms, Hay Viscount of Duplin, by descent and tailzie, has of late suc- 
ceeded, and carries the same arms ; of which, with others above mentioned, see in 
the plates of the Essay of Ancient and Modern Use of Arms. 

It is to be observed, then, that Arms of Special Concession have precedency of 
Paternal Arms, when marshalled with' them, as well as the pieces -of the royal 
ensign, when composed with others in one area, possesses the honourable and chief 
places ; which is clear by the above practice, and by that of England in the fol- 
lowing examples. 

Richard II. of England is the first King that I have observed to have granted 1 
such arms of augmentation to his subjects ; and, as I observed before^ added to his 
imperial ensign the arms of Edward the Confessor, upon the account of religion, 
being azure, a cross rleury between five martlets or; which bearing also he granted, 
out of his mere grace, (as Camden in his Remains tells us) to THOMAS Duke ot 
SURREY, with the addition of a bordure ermine, to impale with his proper arms; and' 
the same again without the bordure to THOMAS MOWBRAY Duke of NORFOLK, to be 
impaled on the riglrt side, with his own on the left. 

The same King, the ninth year of his reign, granted a coat of special concession 
to his favourite ROBERT VERE, Earl of OXFORD, Marquis of DUBLIN, and Duke of 
IRELAND, that he should bear with his own arms, during life, azure, three imperial 
crowns or, within a bordure argent, as the words of that concession bears, given us 
by Sandford in his Genealogical History ; " Rex coneessit Roberto de Vere facto 
' Marchione de Dublin, quod ipse, quandiu viveret & terram do ninium Hiber- 
1 niae habuerit, gerat anna de azuro, cum tribus coronis de aureo, & una circum- 
' ferentia vel bordura de argento:" These he quartered in the first place with his. 


paternal, being, quarterly, gules and or, on the first a mullet argent. He was the 
first that bare the title of Marquis in England. He died without issue, and was 
succeeded into 'the fortune and honours of the earldom ot Oxford by his uncle 
Aubrey de Vere, who carried the" paternal arms of the family, and transmitted 
the n to his successors. The mullet or star on the first quarter, some English he- 
ralds, such as Leigh, Guillim, and Morgan, say, represents a fallen star, or meteor, 
which fell down from heaven upon the shield of one of the progenitors of Vere 
Earl ot" Oxford when he was at the siege of Jerusalem, and has been so carried by 
the family since : But that ingenious gentleman who wrote the Introduction. 
to the sixth edition of Guillim's Display, looks upon it as a fable ^about the star;, 
and tells us,." That it was only a distinction in the arms of that family, from the 
" arms of the Lord SAY'S family, (a flourishing house at that time in the same ser- 
" vice) which, excepting the star, did bear quarterly gules and or, the same with 
" Vere, who was obliged to difference from the Lord Say ; for two different farai- 
" lies in one nation could not bear one coat without some addition. 

He gives us a late concession of arms to Sir CLOUDSLY SHOVEL, one of the Admi- 
rals of England, viz. a cheveron betwixt two flower-de-luces in ch ef nd a cres- 
cent in base, indicating two victories by the flower-de luces over the French, and 
by the crescent another over the Turks. 

And, in the fore-mentioned 6th edition of Guillim, at the title of Civil Honours, 
page 66. there is another occasion than those mentioned of quartering other coats 
of arms: " Thus, if an Englishman in the field, when the banner royal is dis- 
" played, do put to flight any gentleman which is an enemy to his prince, from his 
" banner of arms, the English soldier may honour his own coat in the sinister 
" quarter with the proper coat of the gentleman he has so put to flight. An in- 
" stance of this kind (says our author) is the coat of Sir JOHN CLARK, who took 
" prisoner Lewis de Orleans, Duke of Longueville, at the Journey of Bomy by 
" Cerovenes, Henry VIII." 

Some carry their prisoner's coat as a part of their crest ; thus did RICHARD WAL 
LER of Gromebridge in Kent, who took prisoner John Duke of Orleans, at the battle 
of Agincourt, and hung the entire coat of the said Duke by a string, upon a branch 
of a walnut tree, his own proper crest. 

In the blazon of the arms of WILLIAM FERDINAND GARY, . Baron of HUNSDON, 
by patent first EHz. 1558, argent on a bend sable, three roses of the first, the arms 
of a vanquished Arragonian knight ; the proper arms of Gary being gules, a che- 
veron between three swans argent. 

Women are also honoured by titles of honour and concessions of arms, as addi- 
taments to their paternal ones ; of which last I have spoke before, page 34. As 
for their additaments of honour, I shall here add some few examples with the 
English, who say, as in Guillim, " Women in England are noble according to their 
" husband's quality (as also in Scotland) and so are either honourable and noble, 
" or ignoble ; their honourable dignities are princesses, duchesses, marchionesses, 
" countesses, viscountesses, and baronesses." 

The noblesse are all knights' ladies, who, in all writings, are stiled dames ; all es- 
quires' and gentlemens' wives, only gentlewomen. 

The third sort comprehends the plebeians, and are commonly called good- 

Noblewomen are so by creation, descent, or marriage. 

Of women honourable by creation are divers examples ; of which the first (as 
our author remembers) was Margaret Countess of Norfolk, created by Richard II. 
Duchess of Norfolk ; and many of them had their honours granted by patents to 
themselves, and the heirs-male of their bodies to be begotten ; with special clauses, 
That their heirs-male shall have voices in parliament, creation-money, their mo- 
' ther's titles, as if she a dutchess, he a duke ; and if a countess, he an earl ; with 
' the ceremony of mantle, surcoat, arms, and coronet, &-c." The like grant had 
Lady Margaret, daughter to the Duke of Clarence, created Countess of Salisbury 
by Henry VIII. Thus also the Lady Elizabeth Finch, being by King James I. 
created Viscountess of Maidstorfe ; and by King Charles I. Countess of Winchel- 
sea, the dignity entailed on the heirs-male of her body begotten. Not to instance 
any more, I shall only mention the wives of Henry VIII. who was very liberal in 


bestowing such titles and arms upon his favourites, and especially his wives.. His 
second wife ANNE BOLEYNE, before he married her, to qualify her for his bed, he ad- 
vanced to the dignity of Marchioness of PEMBROKE ; and to honour her paternal 
bearing, which was to be impaled with his royal one, he added three noble coats of 
arms of the families of the royal blood, and those of dignilied feus, to wit, those of 
Lancaster, Angoulesme, and the Dulchyof Guienne, which wereall marshalled in the 
chief places before her own in one shield : as Sandfbrd in his Genealogical History 
of England. 

His third wife being JANE SEYMOUR, daughter of Sir John Seymour, he honoured 
her family with arms composed with figures of the royal ensign,, and created her 
brother Edward, Lord BEAUCHAMP ; and the additament of honour to the arms 
was, or, on a pile gules, betwixt six flower-de-luces azure in pale, three lions passant 
ffardunt of the first, being those of England, which were quartered by his succes- 
sors in the first and fourth quarters, before the paternal arms of Seymour, viz. 
azure, two wings conjoined in lure or, as carried by the family of SEYMOUR Duke 

His sixth wife, KATHARINE PARR, sister of WILLIAM Marquis of NORTHAMPTON, 
was not only honoured in her own person, but her father's family also, with such 
another coat of concession, viz. ardent, on a pile gules, betwixt six roses of the 
last, three roses of the first, which were marshalled in the first place before the 
paternal ones of PARR, viz. argent, two bars a&ure, within a bordure ingrailed 

Queen Elizabeth was more sparing in granting such concessions of the royal 
ensigns ; nay, on the contrary, resented, the using of them with their own, by 
those who had right to them to show their maternal descent, albeit agreeable to 
the approven practice of England. 

This resentment was specially remarkable on the descendants of Henry VII. as 
particularly MARX Queen of SCOTLAND, great grand-daughter to that king, by his 
eldest daughter Margaret, wife to King James IV. of Scotland, for showing the 
maternal descent of King James V. her father; and to Frances Brandon, Dutchess 
of Suffolk, also grand-daughter to the same King, by his younger daughter Mary, 
widow of Lewis XII. of France, afterwards married to CHARLES BRANDON Duke of 
SUFFOLK. This Dutches* durst not, during her lifetime, show her maternal descent : 
but the Queen was pleased to honour her funerals with a coat of augmentation, as 
by her order and warrant; which I have inserted verbatim in my Essay of the 
Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, page 148. 

Fro n. which may be observed, first, That Arms of Special Concession are 
the ensigns of sovereignty, or pieces of them, which cannot be granted by heralds 
without a special warrant from the sovereign. Secondly, That such arms shall 
take place before all other sorts of arms. And thirdly, Heralds are to record them 
in the registers, and, to pass them in all solemnities. 

I shall only add, for a conclusion of this section, some general -observes from 
Ashmole, in his Institutions of the Garter; " That the Kings of England, as sove* 
" reigns of that order, have been of late in use to grant to the Clinodial Knights 
' additional arms in distinct quarters from their paternal ones on their banners, 
" (which ought to hang over their stalls, lest otherwise they should seem too na- 
" ked), as King James I. of Great Britain was pleased to give to ROBERT CARR 
" Viscount of ROCHESTER, afterwards Earl of SOMERSET, whose paternal coat being 
" gules, on a cheveron argent, three stars of the first, he first added a lion passant 
" gardant or, in the dexter chief point, as a special gift of favour, being one-of the 
" lions of England. And then, says our author, a new invented coat to be borne 
" quarterly, being quarterly or and gules." He also tells, chap. n. sect. 7. 
' King James granted to Sir Thomas Erskine a coat of augmentation to be quar- 
" with his paternal, when he was made a knight of that order:" But, with sub- 
mission to that learned author, that coat of augmentation of Sir THOMAS ERSKJNE 
Earl of KELLY was granted long before, upon another account than to fill up his 
banner when made a Knight of the Garter, as I have shown before. The same 
learned author tells us, chap. 7. sect. 2. " That the Garter, the principal ensign of 
' that order, has been given by way of armory (but without the motto) in sun- 
" dry bearings; as on the seal of arms belonging to the office of Garter Principal, 



" King of Arms, where the garter surrounding a crown, (of which before in the 
section of Offices) is placed in chief between one of the lions of England and 
a flower-de-luce of France. And, to instance families, says he, we find argent, 
three demi-gartevs azure, buckled and garnished or, granted by King Henry 
VII to his servant PETER UARBON, and sable, a garter between three buckles of 
the same, to be borne by the name of BUCKLAND or BOWLAND, in the county of 

" Northampton." _ . 

Having I suppose, already satisfied my reader with a sufficient number of in- 
stances of Arms of Special Concession, and showed their nature and right of pre- 
cedency to others, as being originally parts of the ensigns of sovereignty, and only 
granted by sovereigns, I shall proceed to speak of Feudal Arms. 


AMONGST the many ways of acquiring arms, that of noble feus and territories is 
one ; the possessors of which have right to carry those figures which seem to be 
annexed to dignified feus; such as those of dukedoms, marquisates, earldoms, and 
old baronies, which the possessors carry to show their dignities by possession of 
them, by right of succession, or grant of the sovereign ; as Hoppingius de Jure 
Insignhtm, paragraph 2. " Cum feuda nobilia titulo successionis vel beneficio 
domini'jus fit voluntatem habentis, insignia conferri & perfecte acquin palam 

" est." 

Feudal Arms, in my humble opinion, were originally either those that were 
granted by sovereigns upon the erection of dignified feus, or the arms of the old 
possessors, which, by a long continuance, seemed to be annexed to the feu^ : as in 
France, Guienne, an appanage, the dukedoms of Burgundy Ancient and Modern, 
the counties of Vermandois, Dreux, Evereux, Aubigny, &-c. all appanages of old 
of the sons of France, and have for arms annexed to them those of their ancient 
possessors the sons of France, who failing by want of issue, or otherwise, their suc- 
cessors into such noble feus, though strangers, marshalled the arms of those feus 
with their own, by the favour of the sovereign. 

With us I shall mention some feudal arms which seem to be annexed to earl- 
doms and lordships, before I proceed to give examples of others, with their blazons, 
and by whom now carried. The earldom of Arran, lordship of Lorn, Orkney and 
Caithness, afterwards earldoms, the arms properly belonging to them of old, and 
now still, are ships, lymphads, or boats, the emblems of their inhabitants, trade, 
and the service which they were obliged to perform to their sovereigns, by the 
reddendos of the charters of those noble feus; some of which I have seen, as that 
of LORN, viz. unam navini viginti remorum si petatur tcmpore belli: being obliged to 
futnish a ship of twenty oars for service m time of war, when required. 

_ Some lawyers are of opinion, that ignoble persons, in possession of noble feus, 
are nobilitate by them, and may carry arms at their pleasure without authority, 
providing they assume them not (in e mulationem alterius} to the prejudice of others^ 
because, say they, every man may choose a name for himself, seeing this is not 
forbidden in any law; as Bartolus, lib. i. Cod. de Dignitate; and Segoin in his 
Treatise de Regno Italico, lib. 7. tells us, " That about the year of God 937, the 
" Emperor Otto brought in a custom to Italy, by which the ignoble became noble, 
" by possessing noble feus, and had right to carry arms; but still this was thought 
" to be done with the special consent of the sovereign, and is so understood by the 
" law and customs of all nations." Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, in the fore- 
cited paragraph 3. proposes the question, and answers negative thus : " An autem 
" ignobilis, per feudi nobilis consecutionem, & talis qui ejus feudi arma deferendi 
" potestatem habeat effkiatur? Respondetur non." Joan. Gallus tells us the same, 
and that it was so decided and determined in France in the year 1282, " That 

' none could carry marks of dignity and honour without the approbation of the 
" sovereign." And the anonymous author of Observationes Genealogies, lib. i. 
cap. 39. tells us, by the custom of Flanders and other countries, though noble 
feus be alienable by the ancient possessors to strangers, the dignity cannot pass to 
them, but returns to the sovereign: And the same holds in Britain, that those who 


acquire noble feus, the dignity of them must be granted by the sovereign; without 
which grant the purchasers cannot use the arms of those noble feus; for arms, 
these many ages, being hereditary marks of honour, and in place of the Roman 
statues, cannot be assumed without the consent of the supreme power. 

Though arms in their first acceptation, as symbol a t were anciently the only way 
of expressing things, and used to distinguish persons, families, and communities, or 
taken up at pleasure by any man; yet hath that liberty for many ages been de- 
nied, and made the rewards and ensigns of merit, or the gracious favours of princes, 
regularly formed and disposed in a comely dress, first by the Germans, where arms 
are said by some to have begun, as their terms, regular descriptions, and blazons, 
did iii !' ranee,: whom all Europe have imitated therein.. 1 shall pass by their an- 
cient practices, having spoken before of them, and where 1 have omitted in Bri- 
tain, 1 shall insist a little on those in England and more fully of their practice in 
Scotland. As to the present subject, in England, none were allowed arms by the 
laws of gentility, but those that have either right to them by descent or grant, or 
purchased them from the badge or body of any prisoner they, in open and lawful 
war, had taken ; of which 1 have given some instances before. 

Therefore Henry V. of England did publish by proclamation, " That no man 
" of what estate, degree or condition soever, shall assume such arms, or coats of 
" arms, except he hold, or ought to hold them by right of inheritance, or by the 
" donation of some person who hath sufficient power to give them; and that he 
" shar|[ make it appear to officers appointed by us for that purpose, by whose right 
" or gift he enjoys them, except those that bare arms with us at the battle of 
" Agincourt." From that ingenious gentleman that wrote the Introduction to 
Guillim's Display, of the sixth edition, I shall here add the words of the law, which 
the author gives us from the archives in the Tower of London. " Quod nullus 
" cujuscunque status, gradus, seu conditionis fuerit, hujusmodi arma, sive tunicas 
" armorum in se sumat, nisi ipse jure antecessorio,vel ex donatione alicujus ad hoc 
" suificientem potestatem habentis, ea possideat aut possidere debeat, &. quod ipsa 
" arma, sive tunicas illas ex cujus dono obtinet, demonstrationis sure personis ad 
" hoc per nos assignatis seu assignandis manifeste demonstrat, exceptis ilhs qui no- 
" biscum apud bellum de Agincourt arma portabant," &.c. 

By which it is plain the voluntary assumption of arms is denied by the Kings of 
England; and which is. also done by the Kings of Scotland, by the 1251!] act, 
12. Pail. Jacob. VI.; of which more particularly, in, another place. But to return 
to feudal arms, and their particular practice.. 

Arms, as 1 have said before, were anciently taken, not only as marks of noble 
descent, alliances, offices of merit, and royal favour, but also of right to feus, terri- 
tories, jurisdiction, and other valuable things in possession, or of pretension to 

Those who had or pretended to such arms, did not of old place them in one 
shield, but carrying sometimes one, and sometimes another, (which I have de- 
monstrated in the Essay of the Ancient and Modern Use of Arms, chap.. 3. and 
elsewhere:) They came in, use to carry these arms in different and distinct shields 
and other military furniture ; v, Inch gave occasion for seals to be made with two 
sides, a face, and a reverse: the face where a man is represented in a throne, 
or on horseback, with a shield of arms, called the royal or equestrian side of 
the seal, and the other side, called the reverse, another shield of different arms. 

Ordinarily, before the use of marshalling many arms in one shield, there were 
distinct arms on the equestrian side, where a man is represented on horseback in 
his surcoat, upon which were arms different from those on. the caparisons of his 
horse ; and they again from those on the shield or buckler which he carried upon 
his left arm: And, upon the other side of the seal, called the reverse, ordinarily 
the paternal or principal coat of arms, accompanied with other shields of arms, 
commonly called collateral shields, because placed at the sides, or below the prin- 
cipal or paternal ensign, which they did accompany upon the account of al- 
liance, oflice, or territories; as may be seen on foreign seals and coins, especially 

To illustrate this practice I shall bring a few examples from Olivarius Uredus's 
Colitctiuns of the Seals of the Earls of Flanders; and I shall mention the like in. 


England and Scotland. BALDWIN Count of HAINAULT and Marquis of NAMUR, his 
seal had two sides, face and reverse; on the first was a man on horseback brandish- 
ing a sword, and about his neck hung a shield of arms, bendy sinister of six pieces, 
for the earldom of Hainault; and, on the reverse, a shield of arms charged with 
two cheverons, as Marquis of Namur, in anno 1178. He married Margaret, sister 
and heir of Philip Earl of Flanders; she bore to him Baldwin Earl or Flanders, 
who left two heiresses, Jean and Margaret; the first married to Ferdinand son of 
SANCTIUS King of LUSITANIA, anno 1211: He had on his seal of arms, upon the one 
side, a man on horseback in his coat-armour, or surtout, barruly of ten pieces, 
the arms of Lusitania, and on his left arm a shield charged with the Lion of Flan- 
ders; and, on the reverse, or other side of the seal, the ancient arms' of Hannonia, 
three cheverons; so that there were three coats of arms upon one seal; which 1 
have mentioned before, with others, page 30. 

Other great men in that country, and in the countries near thereto, continued 
all the arms they had right to, but placed them at the sides, or round their proper 
arms in the middle; and in later time they have heaped them up in one shield 
by way of marshalling. I shall here add what the German Hoppingius de Jure 
Insignium, paragraph 3. says, " Vix enim ullus in & extra imperium invenitur 
" princeps, comes, baro, qui non suum, ex diversis feudis regalibus, in quibus 
" ipse vel majores ejus successerunt, auctum habeat clypeum." 

Sandford, in his Genealogical History, gives us several instances of this practice 
of old in England; some of which I have given in this Treatise, chap. 2. and of 
the same in Scotland, and shall here add one from Sir George Mackenzie's 
Science of Heraldry, chap. 27. page 88. viz. the achievement of the Lord BRE- 
CHIN, of old, being three shields, one upright, the other two collateral ones lying 
horizontally, all conjoined at three points; the uppermost argent, an eagle dis- 
played, with an arrow through its breast, gules; the second shield, on the right 
side, argent, three piles (or rather the passion-nails of our saviour) conjoined in 
point gules ; the third shield, azure, three garbs or, the feudal arms of the earldom 
of Buchan. 

I shall add here a deduction of the ancient and great family of Brechin Lord, 
Brechin, and how it came to terminate into the family of Maule Earl of. Pan*. 


DAVID Earl of HUNTINGDON in England, and Earl of GARIOCH and Lord BRECHIN 
in Scotland, brother to King William the Lion, both grandsons to King David I. 
carried, according to Sir John Feme, argent, an escutcheon within a double tres^ 
sure flowered and counter-flowered gules. What authority Sir John Feme had for 
assigning these arms to Earl David I know not, but to several of his charters 
(Collect, of Charters in the Cotton Library) his seal is appended, having the pic- 
ture of a man on horseback, and on his arm a shield, charged with three piles 
issuing from the chief, and conjoined by the points in base. He died in England, 
,:vo 1219, (Dugdale's Baronage) and left his lordship of Brechin to Henry his 
natural son, from which he took his surname. 

This Henry Lord Brechin, and his descendants, used for their armorial bearing, 
ur, three piles gules, as still carried by the Earls of Panmure; as appears by an an- 
eient collection of ordinaries in the Cotton Library. He is witness to a charter of 
king William to Malcolm Earl of Fife, where he is called Henrico filio comitis 
David fratrumei; and JOHN Earl of CHESTER, his brother, in a donation to the 
canons of St Andrews, designs him Henricus de Brecbin, films comitis David; and the 
Earl John, in a mortification to the monks of Aberbrothock, calls him 
Henrico de Brcchinfratremeo. (Register of St Andrew's Priory, and Chartulary of 
Aberbroth.) By Julian his wife he had, 

William Lord Brechin, who founded the Maison Dieu, or St Mary's Hospital of 
Brechin, for the salvation of the souls of William and Alexander Kings of Scotland 
trl of Chester and Huntingdon his uncle, Henry his father, and Julian his 
mother And in the foundation-charter designs himself Wllelmus de Brechin, films 

nnci de Brechin filn comrtis David. (Confirm, by King James HI in 1477- 
Scn e tL e nVn e Hn gina ; hs transumed.) He is a witness with Alexander Stewart of 
Scotland, and D*rid de Graham, to a charter of David Bishop of St Andrews to 
the monks of Parley, m 1247, and stiled Willdmo de Erechm, 


(Chartul. of Paisley.) Anno 1254, he was an arbitrator betwixt the Abbot of 
Aberbrothock and Peter de Mauie Lord of Panmure, concerning the marches of 
the baronies of Aberbrothock and Panmure, which the Earl of Buchan, Justiciar 
of Scotland, by the kind's special command, had perambulated. (Chart, of Aber- 
broth.) Further, in 1255, he was one of the Magnates, with whose counsel, et 
aliot urn plurium buronum, the king gave commission to the Earls of Monteith, 
Buchan, and Marr, to treat with the English. (Rymer's Fredera.) He was also 
one of King Alexander III. his Privy Counsellors, and one of the regents of the 
kingdom in his minority, deputed ad gubernationcm regni, et custodiam carports re- 
gis et rcgina. (Ibid.) And, in the year 1283, one of the Proceres Scotia, who 
obliged themselves to receive Margaret of Norway as heir of the crown, failing 
issue-male of the king's body. (Ibid.) This great lord married a daughter of 
William Cumin Earl of Buchan, Justiciar of Scotland. (Andrew Winton's MS. 
Hist.) And most probably those are his arms given by Sir George Mackenzie in 
his Science of Heraldry, page 88. which he calls Lord Brecliin, of old, with an an- 
tique mantling, where there are three shields of arms; that on the right has the 
arms of Lord Brechm, as blazoned above; that on the left the arms of Buchan. 
his wife's family; and the third shield is charged with an eagle displayed, pierced 
with an arro\v, which perhaps were his mother's arms, whose family is not well 
known : And this practice of collateral shields was frequent in Scotland before the 
use of marshalling; for which see my Essay on the Ancient and Modern Use of 
Armories, page 55. But the similitude of the Lord Brechin's bearing with that of 
the name of W'isehart, has led Sir George Mackenzie into the mistake of calling 
Lord Brechin the VVisharts, whose arms are carried by the Marquis of Douglas ; 
whereas none of that name ever wer<j concerned with the lordship of Brechin, or 

used that title. By Cumin, his wife, William Lord Brechin had for his 

son and successor 

David Lord Brechin, who is found in the Ragman's Roll among those who 
swore fealty to Edward I. King of England in 1296, (Prynne's Hist.); and was one 
of the great barons of Scotland whom King Edward required to attend him with 
their men, horses, and arms, into France, 1297; but the same year he was allowed 
to return home, upon giving his obligation to arm himself, and return again to the 
kind's service, dated at Maghefeld 3<Dth of May, and 25th of King Edward's reign. 
(Fnedera Anglic.) He was at many of the battles fought after Baliol's renuncia- 
tion, particularly at that of Methven in 1306, where he took Sir Simon Fraser 
prisoner. (Fcedera.) And in 1308 he was one of King Edward's council, from 
whom he gets a letter thanking him for his past services, and encouraging him to 
continue consilium et auxilium suum in his service. (Freuera, Vol. HI.) He con- 
tinued on the English side, with his relations the Cumins, till the battle of In- 
verury, where this Lord Brechin, the Earl of Buchan, and Sir John Mowbray, 
commanded the army, which was routed by King Robert: Upon which the Lord 
Brechin retired to his castle of Brechin, which he had garrisoned; but .being be- 
sieged by the Earl of Athol he made his peace with the king, (BarbouVs Life of 
Robert Bruce, p. 1 68.) and ever after continued most loyal, having married a sister 
of King Robert I. and daughter of Robert de Bruce Earl of Carrick, (Buchanan) 
by whom he had David his successor, Thomas Brechin of Lumquhat, forfeited 
with his brother, (Inventory of the Registers) and a daughter, Margaret, married 
to Sir David Barclay, knight, in 1315; as appears by his charter of that date, " Mar- 
" garetae filiae domini David de Brechin, de terris de Cairny, Barclay, &-c. pro ma- 
" trimonio inter eos contrahendo." (Penes C. de Panmure.) 

Which David Lord Brechin, his son, called the Flower of Chivalry, in his youth 
went to the Holy Land, and signalized himself against the Saracens. (Buchanan.) 
In the 1320 he is one of the barons who wrote that bold letter to the pope, in be- 
half of King Robert Bruce, and the independency of Scotland ; but next year, viz. 
1321, he was unhappily made privy to the Countess of Strathern and the Lord 
Soulis' conspiracy against the king his uncle; for not discovering of which he was 
tried at the Parliament, called the Black Parliament, and suffered death, to the 
universal regret of the people, being the king's nephew, " Et omnium a:tatis suae 
" juvemim, St. belli, & pacis artibus longe primus," says Buchanan. This power- 
ful lord, at his forfeiture, possessed the lordship of Brechin, the barony of Rothe- 



may, the lands of Kinloch, and part of Glenesk; all which were given by King 
Robert Bruce to Sir David Barclay, (Inventory of the Registers) who had mar- 
ried the Lord Brechin's sister. 

Which David Barclay Lord Brechin had, for his paternal estate, the barony of 
old Lindores, and lands of Cairny in Fife, out of which he and Margaret Brechin, 
his wife, gave a fishing in pure alms to the monks of Balmerino. (Regist. of Bal- 
merino.) He was High Sheriff of Fife, (Sibbald's Hist, of Fife) and was famous 
in the wars of King Robert Bruce, with whom he was present at most of his 
battles, particularly Methven, where he was taken prisoner. (Barbour, p. 32.) 
He is also frequently mentioned in the wars of King David Bruce, whom he faith- 
fully adhered to; and, in 1341, by that king's command, seized Sir William 
Bullock, Chamberlain of Scotland, suspected of treason, and committed him to 
prison ; but afterwards having a feud with the Douglasses, he was murdered at 
Aberdeen in 1350 by John of St Michael and his accomplices, at the instigation of 
William Douglas of Liddesdale; as related by Fordun, who calls him Nobilis 
vir et potens dominus David de Barclay miles. (Hearne's Scotichronicon, Vol. IV. 
p. 1040.) By Margaret Brechin, his wife, he left David his heir, and Jean, mar- 
ried to Sir David Fleming of Biggar, by whom he had a daughter, Marion, 
the wife of Sir William Maule of Panmure; as appears by a charter of this Wil- 
liam to Marion Fleming, his wife, the daughter of Sir David Fleming, of his lands 
of Scryne, &c. confirmed by King Robert II. ad annum 1381. (Penes C. de 

David, next Lord Brechin, by his charter sine data, grants his lands of Kyndest- 
lyth, to be held of him and his heirs, to Hugh Barclay his cousin, son to David 
Barclay his uncle, from whom CULLERNY is descended : (Chart, penes Hen. Barclay 
de Cullerny) And in 1363, he grants a charter of confirmation of. the lands of 
Dunmure, lying in his barony of Lindores, to ROGER. MORTIMER. (Penes C. dz 
Panmure) He went to the wars of Prussia, for which he obtained a safe conduct 
from Edward III. of King England, to pass through his dominions, attended with 
twelve esquires, and their horses and servants, dated in 1364, the 3yth of Edward III. 
(Extract from the Tower of London.) And after his return he is also mentioned 
in the wars of King David Bruce. By Jean his wife he left one daughter, Mar- 
garet, his heir, who was married to Walter Stewart, second son to King Robert II. 
by Euphame Ross his queen. (Chart, in pub. Archiv) 

This Walter is first designed in charters Lord Brechia only ; but afterwards he 
comes to have the titles of Palatine of Strathern, Earl of AthoJ and Caithness, and 
Lord Brechin : And by the foresaid Margaret, his wife, he had David Stewart, who 
died an hostage in England for the ransom of King James I. and Allan Earl of. 
Caithne-s, killed at the battle of Inverlochy in 1430, without issue. (Scotichroni- 
con.') But the Earl of Athol, though his lady died before himself, kept possession 
of this lordship till the 1437, when he was executed for the murder of King 
James I.; at which time Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure laid claim to the estate of 
the Lord Brechin, as heir to Margaret Countess of Athol, heiress of Brechin, to 
\vhose heirs it had been provided by a charter ipth October 1378 ;. (in pub. Archil}. \ 
and took instrument upon the Earl's declaration, before his execution, that he pos- 
sessed the lordship of Brechin only by the courtesy. (lustrum. Penes C. de Pan- 
mure) And that same year- Thomas Bisset of Balwylo makes oath judicially, 
That David Lord Brechin, father to the Countess of Athol, had no brothers, and 
but one sister, Jean Barclay, the wife of Sir David Fleming, and grandmother 
" to Sir Thomas Maule, killed at the Harlaw." (Penes C. de Panmure.) And the- 
said Sir Thomas Maule, in 1442, takes a notorial transumpt of the above charter 
of Dunmure by David Lord Brechin, to preserve and show his right to the su+ 
penority of those lands, as heir to the said Lord Brechin; notwithstanding of 
which the tamily of Panmure got possession only of the lands of Hetherwick, 
^uchlands, Jackston and Staddockmuir, parts of the Brechin estate; and the 
Privy Council in King James II. his minority, caused annex the lordship of Bre- 
to the crown, on pretence of Athol's forfeiture; (Acts of Parliament) and in 
1487, James, the king's second SQJI, amongst other titles, was created Lord Bre- 


But this lordship being sometime after again dissolved from the crown, has now 
been a considerable time enjoyed by the family of Pantnure, who are heirs of 
olood to the ancient Lords BK.ECHIN, whose title they carry, together with their 
arms, viz. quarterly, first and, fourth azure, a cheveron betwixt three crosses patee 
argent, for Barclay; second and third or,, three piles issuing from the chief, con- 
joined by the points in. base gules, for Brechin, which are placed in the third 
quarter of the Earls of Panmure's shield of arms, as blaz.jni.-d page 49. of this 

Most of our ancient earldoms, and some of our old lordships have, as it were, 
armorial ensigns annexed to them ;: which were either those granted upon their 
erection, into noble feus, or those of the ancient possessors, and, by the favour of the 
sovereign^ are transmitted with the dignity of the feu, to other different families, 
who, by modern, practice, quarter the arms of these dignities conferred on them 
with their proper arms, merely as feudal ones, and not upon the account of descent 
or alliance witht the ancient possessors of these dignified feus, nor upon the ac- 
count of special concession, patronage, or otherwise, but only as invested in these 
noble feus : So that we meet with distinct families carrying one coat of arms, but 
upon different accounts ;, as by many instances in the former, and in this Vo- 
lume, to which- L shall add a considerable number here, to show the honour and 
dignity of our ancient and modern families. 

I begin with the name CUMING or CUMIN, once a numerous and powerful fami- 
ly, whose arms were azure, three garbs or. The most eminent family of the name 
was dignified with the Earldom of BUCHAN ; which noble family came to a period 
in the reign of Robert Bruce, upon the account of their rebellion in adhering to 
the interest of England; (a branch of which family now remaining is CUMIN of 
Coulter, who carries the above arms to show his descent ; see Appendix, page 58. 
and Plate of Achievements) and their arms ever since became the feudal ensigns of 
the earldom of Buchan, to several different families who were honoured with the 
title of that earldom. 

The first that I have found, to carry them, as such, was ALEXANDER, STEWART, 
fourth son of King. Robert II. when created Earl of BUCHAN by luVfather, who, by 
our old books of blazon, carried, quarterly, first and fourth Stewart, or, a fesse 
cheque, azure and argent ; second and third azure, three garbs or, as the feudal 
arms of the earldom of Buchan : After his death, having no lawful issue, that 
dignity, returned again to the crown. Afterwards King Robert III. invested JOHN, 
second son to ROBEK.T Duke of ALBANY, Earl of FIFE and MONTEITH, in the earl- 
dom of Buchan, who carried then the arms of Scotland, quartered with the feudal 
arms of Buchan, ^ as in the First Volume, page 48. 

King James II. bestowed the earldom of Buchan upon his uterine-brother James 
Stewart^ second son to James Stewart, called the black Knight of LORN, and* his 
Lady, Jean Beaufort, Queen Dowager of King, James I. 

Which James Earl ot Buchan married Margaret, daughter and heiress of OOII.T 
viE-.of AUCHTERHOUSE : By her he had ALEXANDER Earl of BUCHAN, and Lord 
AUCHTJERHOUSE, who carried, as in our old books of blazon, quarterly> first and 
fourth or, a fesse cheque, azure and or; second and third azure, three garbs or, for 
the Earldom of Buchan : But the German writer Jacob Imhoft^ upon what reason 
I know not, speaking of this family, makes the fesse cheque sable and argent, and 
accompanies it with three wolves' heads erased gules. Alexander Earl of Buchan's 
grandson, viz. John, Master of Buchan, was killed at the battle of Pinky : His 
estate and dignity came to Christian his daughter and sole heir, who was married 
to Robert Douglas, son of William Douglas of Lochleven, a younger brother of 
William. Earl of Morton. Their son was JAMES DOUGLAS Earl of BUCHAN. who 
carried, quarterly, first and fourth Douglas of Lochleven, viz. argent, three piles 
issuing from a chief gules, charged with two stars of the first; second azure, three 
garbs or, for the earldom of Buchan; third or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent t for 
Stewart. And he having but one daughter^ Mary, his heir, who was wife to JAMES 
ERSKINE, eldest son of John Earl of Marr, by his second lady Mary Stewart, daughter 
of Esme Duke of Lennox : James Erskine, in his wife's right, was Earl of Buchan, 
and carried, quarterly, first Buchan; second Stewart; third Stewart of Lennox, 
upon the account of his mother ; and fourth Douglas of Lochleven, upon the ac- 


count of his wife, as just now blazoned ; and over all, by way of an inescutcheou, 
the arms of Marr and Erskine, quarterly; as in Plate 7. fig. 3. in the Ancient and 
Modern Use of Armories : so that he carried both feudal coats of arms, arms of 
alliance and descent. The issue of this family failed, and David Erskine, eldest son 
of Henry Erskine Lord Cardross, whose progenitor was Henry, immediate younger 
brother of James Earl of Buchan, by his wife Mary Douglas, heiress of the earldom 
of Buchan as above, was, by the Parliament of Scotland, declared Earl of Buchan, 
and took his place in Parliament according to the seniority of the Earls of Buchan. 
But more of him and the cadets of the family with their arms, in the First Volume, 
page 40. and his achievements in taille douce, Plate IV. 

The old Earls of ATHOL carried paly of six pieces argent and sable. This an- 
cient and noble family, for want of issue-male or otherwise, came to the CUMINS, 
and, upon their forfeiture, returned to the crown, the fountain of all honour. Ro- 
bert II. conferred that earldom upon Walter Stewart his second son. He carried 
the arms of Athol, quartered as feudal ones with his paternal : but being forfeited 
as one of the murderers of King James I. that earldom was again annexed to the 

King James II. bestowed that earldom upon his uterine-brother John Stewart, 
the black Knight of Lorn, and Jean Q^ueen Dowager : JOHN the then Earl of 
ATHOL carried, quarterly, first and fourth Stewart; second and third paly of six 
pieces, argent and sable, for the title of Athol ; as did his descendants, till that 
dignity came to MURRAY Earl of TULUBARDIN, now Duke of ATHOL, who now 
carries those arms as feudal ones ; of which before, Volume First, page 50. and 

The old Earls of MARR, of the same name, had for arms azure, a bend between 
MX cross croslets filched or, which became feudal ones to other families, who 
were honoured with the earldom of Marr ; for which see Volume First, page 

The arms of the old Earls of MARCH andDuNBAR became the feudal arms of that 
earldom to other families that were honoured with that dignity, after it was an- 
nexed to the crown by King Robert III. upon the forfeiture of George Dunbar 
Earl of March. King James II. created Alexander his second son Duke of Al- 
bany, Earl of March, Lord Annandale, and of the Isle of Man : Upon which ac- 
count he carried the arms of those dignities quarterly ; first the arms of Scotland, 
entire; second gules, a lion rampant argent, within a bordure of the last, charged 
with eight roses of the first, for the earldom of March ; third gules, three legs of a 
man armed proper, conjoined in the centre at the upper parts of the thighs, flexed 
in a triangle, garnished and spurred or, the arms of the Isle of Man; fourth or, a 
>altier and chief gules, the feudal arms of the Lordship of Annandale, which were 
on his seals; .and at this day are to be seen entire on the College-church of Edin- 
burgh, to which he was a benefactor. This duke was twice married ; first to Ka- 
tharine Sinclair, daughter to William Earl of Orkney : she bore to him a son 
Alexander, who married Margaret, daughter of the Lord Crichton, and had adaudi- 
r married to David Lord Drummond. Alexander Duke of Albany, &c. after his 
marriage, entered into religious orders, was abbot of Inchaffray and Scoon and 
Bishop of Murray. He resigned his temporal honours in favours of his 
unger brother John Duke of Albany, son of the foresaid Alexander Duke of 
Albany, by his second wife, a daughter of the house of Bologne. This John Duke 
Albany, Earl of March, Lord Annandale, of the Isle of Man, Count of Bolojme 
md Count of Auvergne, was Governor of Scotland for several years in the minority 
He earned on his seal of arms as his father, before blazoned 
-e seen a large piece of gold, coined in the year 1524 ; upon the one side is an 
e displayed, and diademate, and below it an escutcheon, quarterly as before 
impaled with the arms of his dutches*, Anne de la Tour and Auvergne v ' 
utterly first and fourth seme of France, a tower, for the Count DE 5 TOUR : 

church a whh r TH^^' a S fannon <^. the gonfannon (i. ,, the banner of the 

hi have described in the First Volume, page 406, and caused cut it 

IX. fig. 20.), and over all an inescutcheon, charged with three 

orteau: es , f or Bologne ; which shield of arms was adorned wifh a ducal To! 


This duke died without issue and his dignities returned to their respective so- 
vereigns ; but the titles of March and Man were given, with the arms of thus'.- 
dignities, to the family of Lennox and Lord Darnly ; so that I shall here add briefly 
these ensigns as an example of feudal arms. 

HENKY Lord DARKLY, the eldest son of Matthew Earl of Lennox, before he V 
married to Mary f^uecn of Scotland, being created Duke of ROIHSAY, Earl of 1<< 
and Lord of the ISLE of MAN, had the arms of the last two dignified feus marshall- 
ed with those of the family, and as husband to Qjieen Mary, viz. quarterly, first 
and fourth azure, three flower-de-luces or, within a bordurc gules, charged with 
eight buckles of the second, for AUBIGNY and EVEREUX in France; second and 
third or, a fesse cheque azure and argent, for Stewart ; over all, by way of surtout, 
urgent, a saltier ingrailed, cantoned with four roses gules y for the cailcl )in of Lennox. 
But 1 shall here give Prince HENRY'S arms, as they stand cut and illuminate on his 
mother's tomb in Westminster, viz. quarterly, first quarter counter-quartered, Au- 
bigny (or Evereux as before) with Stewart, and in surtout the arms of Lennox, as 
his father before ; second quarter the anus of the Isle of Man, as before blazoned; 
third quarter gules, three lions rampant argent, for the earldom of Ross ; ami in the 
fourth quarter the arms of Douglas Earl of Angus, being those of his mother. Upon 
what account the English placed them there I know not,, for she was not an 
heiress; but with us, in .our books of blazons illuminate, they were counter-quar- 
tered as the first. All which are impaled with the royal arms of Scotland, sup- 
ported on the right side with a wolf, proper, and on the left by the unicorn of 
Scotland, and the achievement ensigned with the imperial crown of Scotland. 
The arms of the family of Lennox, more fully deduced, may be seen in my 
book of the Ancient and Modern Use of Arms, and there cut in copperplate, 
chap. 15. 

The estate and dignities of the earldom of Lennox devolved by right of succes- 
sion on Robert, who was Bishop of Caithness, and after him on his nephew CHARLES, 
second son of MATTHEW Earl of LENNOX, who, as Earl Matthew's brother and 
successor, carried both quarterly ; fi*st Aubigny ; second Stewart ; third the arm-; 
of the earldom of March; fourth as the first; and over all, in surtout, the arms of 
the earldom of Lennox, before blazoned, being feudal arms ; which may be seen 
in my forementioned book. So, as I observed before, feudal arms have been much 
frequented and used by our nobles. This Earl Robert resigned the earldom of 
Lennox into the King's hands ad remanentiam, who confirmed the earldom of March 
to him : but he died soon alter without any issue, and that earldom returned also 
to the crown. 

King James VI. conferred the earldom of Lennox upon his cousin Esme Stewart, 
Lord Aubigny in France, son and heir of John Lord Aubigny, brother of Matthew 
Karl of Lennox, grandfather of King James VI. ESME was High-Chancellor of 
Scotland, and created Duke of LENNOX, and carried for arms, quarterly, first and 
fourth the feudal arms of Aubigny in France, second and third Stewart, and, by 
way of surtout, the feudal arms of Lennox; which may be seen in my forecited 
book, Plate VI. fig. 6. He married CATHARINE DE BALSAC, sister to the Sieur D'Eisr- 
TRAGNES, who bore to him two sons and as many daughters ; Ludovick his successor, 
and Esme Lord Aubigny ; Henrietta married to John Gordon first Marquis of 
Huntly, and Mary to John Earl of Marr ; who had to their husbands many chil- 
dren, matched with noble families in Scotland ; which is the reason why we see 
so frequently the arms of Sieur d' Entragnes, viz. quarterly, first azure, three sal- 
tiers couped argent, and, on a chief or, as many saltiers couped of the first ; second 
argent, a fret sable; third gules, three buckles or ; fourth as the first, and in sur- 
tout argent, a serpent gliding in pale azure vomiting out of its mouth a child gules : 
Which arms, I say, with these of Lennox, are frequently to be met witli on the 
funeral escutcheons of our nobles, as proofs or branches of their maternal descent 
from the houses of Huntly and Marr. 

The male line of Esme Duke of Lennox failed in Charles Duke of Lennox and 
Richmond in England, who died without issue in the year 1672, and the honours 
returned to King Charles II. who was served heir to him ; so that these noble feus 
with their arms returned to the crown. 



Of late the honours and arms of the earldoms of March were conferred upon 
WILLIAM DOUGLAS, second son to William Duke of QUEENSBERRY 1703; upon 
-. liich account he quarters the arms of that earldom with those of his father's. 

The arms used by the RANDOLPHS Earls of MURRAY, being argent, three cushions 
within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces gules^ 
became the feudal arms of that earldom, when possessed by other families, with the 
title of Earl of Murray. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, brother to James Earl of Douglas, who was, by King James 
II. created Earl of MURRAY 1449, carried, quarterly, first and fourth the above 
blazon of the earldom of Murray, second and third the paternal coat of Douglas:. 
He was forfeited for his rebellion 1455. 

King James IV. bestowed that earldom on his natural son JAMES STEWART, be- 
got on Jean Kennedy, daughter to the Earl of Cassilis, who carried, first and 
fourth, the ensign of Scotland, bruised with a batton sinister; second and third 
argent, three cushions within the double tressure gules, tor the earldom of Murray : 
He had no sons, but two daughters, and the earldom being a masculine feu at the 
time, returned to the crown. 

Mary Queen o f Scotland conferred the dignity of the earldom of Murray on her 
natural brother JAMES STEWART, Prior of St Andrews, by letters-patent of the date 
loth February 1563, to him and his heirs whatsomever. The Earl of Murray, 
who was Regent of Scotland, carried the same quartered arms as his predecessors 
in that earldom. He was killed in the town of Linlithgow, and left behind him. 
only one daughter, Isabel, his heir, who married JAMES STEWART Lord DOUNE, who, 
in her right was Earl of Murray, of whom is descended the present Earl of Mur- 
ray, who carries, quarterly, first the arms of Scotland, within a bordure, gobonated 
argent and azure, as descended from the regent ; second or, a fesse cheque, azure 
and argent, for Stewart of Doune ; third argent, three cushions within a double 
tressure counter-flowered gules, for the earldom of Murray ; and the fourth as 

The ancient Earls of DOUGLAS, when dignified with the titles of noble feus, as that 
of the Earldom of GALLOWAY, carried the arms of that country, being azure, a lion 
rampant argent; and when dignified with the title of Duke of TOURAINE in France, 
and with the lordship of ANNANDALE in Scotland, quartered the arms of those 
dignities with their paternal ones thus, quarterly; first azure, three flower-de-luces 
or, for the dukedom of Touraine in France ; second Douglas ; third azure, three 
stars argent, for MURRAY Lord of BOTHWELL ; fourth argent, a saltier and chief^ ules, 
for the lordship of Annandale; sometimes they left out of their achievement the arms 
of Galloway, to a branch of the family dignified with the title of Earls of Gallo- 
way : And other younger sons of the family, who were Lords of Liddisdale, quar- 
tered the arms of that lordship, being sable, a lion rampant argent, with the pater- 
nal coat of Douglas with suitable differences. 

But I cannot omit to give an account, in short, how this ancient and noble 
family of Douglas branched out in many honourable families, who carried all 
feudal arms, with which they were dignified, and marshalled them with their pa- 
ternal one. 

WILLIAM first Earl of DOUGLAS had three wives, the first, Margaret, heiress of 
Marr, of whom James Douglas Earl of Marr ; which branch did not continue 
long, as I showed before. The second wife was a daughter of D unbar Earl of 
March; of her came the Earls of Douglas and Lords of Galloway, and their 
branches : And by the third wife, Margaret Stewart, daughter and heir of John 
Stewart Earl of Angus, their son was George, the first of the Douglasses Earls of 
Angus, in right of his mother. He married Mary, daughter to King Robert III. 
*ho bore to him JAMES Earl of ANGUS, who carried, and his successors, by our old 
books of blazon, and on their seals of arms, quarterly, first gules, a lion rampant 
argent, for the earldom of Angus ; second Douglas ; third or, a fesse cheque azure 
and argent, surmounted of a bend gules, charged with three buckles of the first, 
for STEWART of Bonkill; fourth or, a lion rampant gules, surmounted of a bendlet 
table, tor ABERNETHY. This noble family of the Douglasses, Earls of Angus car- 
imetimes the same coats of arms otherwise marshalled ; on which various 
marshalling of arms I cannot now insist, but give you the arms of that noble fa- 



rally as they have been more constantly used, and now carried by the Duke of 
Douglas, viz. quarterly, a-zure, a lion rampant argent, for Galloway (if the field 
were red, as 1 think it should be, it would stand for the earldom of Angus, to which 
they had more right than to Galloway); second or, a lion rampant gules, sur- 
mounted of a bendlet sable, for Abernethy ; third argent, three piles issuing from 
the chief gules, for Wishart, and not for the Lords of Brechin, as some say ; 
fourth or, a fesse cheque, argent and azure, surmounted of a bend gules, charged 
with three buckles of the first, for Stewart of Bonkill ; of which family were the 
Stewarts Earls or Angus ; and over all, by way of surtout, the arms of Douglas, 
which I have blazoned before, and caused them to be also engraven in the above 
mentioned book, the Ancient and Modern Use of Arms. 

The Town and Barony of MONTROSE carried arms relative to its name, viz. 
argent, a rose gules ; and from that barony David Lord Lindsay Earl of Crawford 
was honoured with the title of Duke ot Montrose, by King James III.; which dig- 
nity did not continue in the family. 

King James IV. honoured WILLIAM Lord GRAHAM with the dignity of Earl of 
MONTROSE in the year 1445, upon which he and his successors, Earls of Montrose, 
carried, quarterly, first arid fourth argent, on a chief sable, three escalops or, for 
Graham ; second and third argent, three roses gules, for the title of Montrose, now 
carried by the present Duke of Montrose. 

The arms of the lordship of BADENOCH, or, three lions' heads erased gules, as 
arms belonging to that, feu ; which dignity was given by King James II. to the Lord 
Gordon for his special services, and have been marshalled in the achievement of 
his bearing, and is now carried by the Duke of Gordon ; of whom L have deduced 
the descent of the family in my former writings. 

To come to a close of this section of Feudal Arms, I shall only mention these 
of the earldoms of Arran, Orkney, Caithness, and lordship of Lorn. 

The arms properly belonging to these feus are ships or boats ; of which I spoke 
before at the beginning of this section. 

The arms of the Isle of ARRAN, argent, a ship with its sails furled up sable. 
King James III. erected that isle into an earldom, in favours of THOMAS BOYD, 
son of Robert Lord Boyd, Chancellor of Scotland. Whether he quartered the 
arms of Arran with his own, I know not; for he enjoyed that earldom but a short 

King James IV. bestowed that earldom upon JAMES Lord HAMILTON, who was 
created Earl thereof the ninth of January 1503 ; for which the family since have 
been in use to quarter the arms of the earldom of Arran, as feudal ones, with their 

The Lordship of LORN'S arms are, a lymphad (an old-fashioned ship with one 
mast) sable, with flames of fire issuing out of the top of the mast, and from the 
fore and hinder parts of the ship; as by our old paintings and blazons called St. 
Anthony's fire. This Lordship belonged anciently to the M'DOWALLS, who carried 
those arms for want of male issue, which came to an heiress, who was married to 
one of the name of Stewart of the family of Darnly, whose posterity were pos- 
sessors of Lorn : King James II. 1445, created JOHN STEWART Lord of LORN, who 
carried for arms, quarterly, first and fourth these of Lorn, as above ; second and 
third or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, with a garb and chief azure. Lord John 
had no lawful sons, but a natural one, Dougal, predecessor of the Stewarts of 
Appin, and three daughters heirs-portioners ; the eldest, Isabel Stewart, was mar- 
ried to Colin Campbell Earl of Argyle ; Margaret, the second, to Sir John Camp- 
bell of Glenorchy ; and the third daughter to Archibald Campbell, the first of the 
family of Ottar. 

WILLIAM STEWART of Innermeath, as heir-male to John Stewart Lord Lorn, 
claimed the lordship of Lorn, and accordingly, as heir-male, was seised in that 
lordship the 2ist of March 1469 : and in the month of November, the same year, 
resigned that lordship in King James III. his hands, in favours of Colin Earl of 
Argyle, for which the Earl gave him other lands, and the King dignified him with 
a title of Lord INNERMEATH. 

Since which time, the Earls of Argyle, as Lords of Lorn, have always been in use 
to quarter the arms of that lordship, as before described, (without the flames of 



fire issuing from the mast) as feudal arms with their own, and carried by his Grace 
the present Duke of ARGYLE, thus, quarterly, first and fourth, gironne of eight 
pieces, or and sable, second and third argent, a ship withhersails furled up, and oars 
in action, sable. 

Sir JOHN CAMPBELL of Glenorchy, who married the other sister, Margaret, and 
whose issue \vas honoured with the title and dignity of Earl of BKEADALBANE, 
quartered the whole bearing of John Stewart Lord of Lorn, with the paternal 
arms of Campbell, to show their descent from the Stewarts of Lorn, viz. quarterly, 
first, girony of eight pieces, or and sable, for Campbell ; second, argent, a ship 
with her sails furled up, and oars in action sable , for Lorn ; third, or, a fess cheque, 
azure and argent : which coats of arms are to be seen cut in copperplate in the 
above-mentioned book of the Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, chap. XV. 

The armorial figures of the ancient Earls of ORKNEY and CAITHNESS were ships, up- 
on the account before mentioned. TORPHIN is said (as by Sir J ames Dairy mple in his 
Collections, page 164.) to have been the first Earl of ORKNEY, and created by King 
Malcolm II. His grandchild Renavald, to whom King David I. directs a mandate thus : 
To RENEVALI>EARL OF ORKNEY, i? omnibus probis hominibusCataneiset Orcbadia, in fa- 
vours of the Monks of the Abbacy of Durnacb in Cataneis; as our above-mentioned au- 
thor, page 269. Another Torphin, Earl of Orkney, Zetland and Caithness, (Sir James 
Balfour in his manuscript says) married a natural daughter of King William the Lion, 
and she bore to him John, his son and successor. Alexander Ross, in his Annals, says 
he has seen this Earl John's seal of arms, which he describes thus, Navis circa li- 
iiis intexto, \. e. a ship within a double tressure ; which last figure, it seems, was 
allowed upon the account of his descent from the royal family. Which arms are 
often painted and blazoned in our old herald books, and, as a feudal coat, quartered in 
the armorial bearings of those who were dignified with the titles of Earls of Ork- 
ney and Caithness, thus blazoned by some ; and, as in Sir George Mackenzie's 
Heraldry, quarterly, first, azure, a ship at anchor, her oars erected in saltier within 
a double tressure, counter-flowered or, for the title of Orkney ; second and third, or, 
a lion rampant gules, by the name of SPAR ; fourth, azure, a ship under sail 
or (by some argent}, by the title of Caithness; and the SINCLAIRS of Roslin of old, 
and now, have been in use to carry these coats, when dignified with those noble 
feus, by placing their cross ingrailed sable over them : But see more of this ho- 
nourable family with their arms, and those of their cadets, in the First Volume of 
the System of Heraldry, chap. XV. page lift. 

SINCLAIR Lord SINCLAIR of Ravensheugh marshals with his paternal coat the 
feudal arms of the Earldom of Orkney and Caithness, as being the lineal heir- 
male of William, Earl of Orkney, upon the .account of his pretensions to these 


PRETENSION is another cause of marshalling arms in one shield, by those who 
pretend a right to sovereign dominions and feudal dignities, though possessed by 

The Kings of Spain have been in use to show their right of pretensions to the 
kingdoms of Portugal and Jerusalem, though in the possession of others, not only 
m using their titles, but their arms on their seals and ensigns, and in marshalling 
the arms of those kingdoms with their own. Upon the same account, the Dukes 
of Savoy have quartered the arms of the kingdom of Cyprus with their own, and 
the English have not been wanting to do so with these of France. 

CHRISTIAN III. King of DENMARK, about the year 1546, quartered the arms of 

SWEDEN, viz. azure, three crowns or, with his own ; which gave ground of jealousy 

Swedes thinking that the Danes, by usurping those arms, pretended right to 

kingdom of Sweden; as Beckmanus says, " Tantum insigniorum istorum usur- 

ie, quoque jus ahquod in regnum Swedias, Dani pratexerunt :" so that a 

bloody war broke out between these nations. King James IV. of Scotland inter- 

r a peace by his two ambassadors, Sir Robert Anstruther of that Ilk and 

Spence ot Wormiston, who happily accommodated the contest between 


these two kingdoms, by four articles relating to the bearing of these arms, 
account of which 1 have given bc-kjre in the i6th chap, in tiie Essay of Armo- 

Currying arms upon tlie account of pretended right to kingdoms, dignified 
feus, and other things, has be::n the occasion of mucii blood>hi:d, enmity, and 
discord almost everywhere ; so that, Hoppingius iL- J >,'i, cap. 87. 

speaking against assuming or u^urpinp; the arms of citheis, -ays, " l^uis autem 
" alienus a civili conversatione in vent us imquain, qui non oh indin ,1 in- 

" signium delationem, dissidia, rixas, odia, injunas, certamina orta vident, le- 
" geritve," 

The Kings of Denmark, amongst other reasons of preteiv Ut to the supe- 

riority of the city of Hamburgh, has one, that the city had, on its public places, 
anciently the arms of HOLSTEI^, and was a part of their dominions, vi/.. j;i:les, a 
nettle stalk of three leaves expanded, and, on its middle, an escutcheon urgent ; as 
Beckmanus tells us, " Inter rationes prastensionis regum Daniaj in civitatem Ham- 
" bergensem, uua fuit, quod folium urticae, principum Holsatia: insignia, a tempore 
" Christiani tertii passim urbis insignibus, in Curiae portis, sigillo publico, ac moneta, 
" scripserunt;" which being the arms of th ( > princes of Holstein, and the kings of 
Denmark succeeding to them, have had a pretension to that city by law ; for arms 
being fixed upon moveables or immoveables, presume a right of property or 
superiority to these things : But how tar that pretension will reach, I leave to law- 

The Swedes and Polanders engaged in a war upon the account of carrying the 
arms of Sweden, which Sigismund 111., of Sweden used after he was deposed; and, 
when elected King of Poland, marshalled with the arms of Poland, to show, as it were, 
his right and civil possession of Sweden, and natural one of Poland : which was so 
hotly resented by the Swedes, that he was, forced to come to an accommodation at 
the treaty of Oliva, in the year 1662, where he renounced his right to Sweden, its 
titles and arms, and that he should not use them in any affairs and letters to that 
kingdom ; but, as being once their king, he had liberty to use the title and arms 
of Sweden in his writs to; other foreign states, princes, and private persons ; and 
that, in all time coming after his death, the kings of Poland should forbear the 
titles and arms of Sweden. 

As the use of arms of pretension has been troublesome; so the omission of using 
such has been no less prejudical to some. It was objected to Richard Duke of 
York, when he claimed the crown of England, as heir to Lionel Duke of Clarence, 
that he did not carry Clarence his arms, as heir to the crown. He answered, That 
he might have done it, but he forbore them, as he did also the claim to the crown; 
which he also missed at the time : But he and. his posterity were more careful to 
use them afterwards. 

The Dukes of ANJOU^ who were Titular Kings of Jerusalem, Sicily, Arragon-, 
and Naples, quartered the arms of those dominions with their proper ones, upon 
the account of pretension ; and the Princes of ORANGE have been in use to do the 
same with the arms of Geneva. 

Many of our noble families in Scotland have been in practice anciently and now 
to quarter the ensigns of dignified feus with their own, upon account of right of 
pretension. MALISE GRAHAM, though he was deprived by King James I. of the 
earldom of Strathern, and, in place of it, got the earldom of Monteith ; yet he 
and his successors, Earls of Monteith, carried the armorial figures of the earldom 
of Strathern, viz. or, a fesse chequd, azure and argent, and, in chief, a cheveron 
gules, which were quartered with their paternal arms argent, on a chief gules, 
three escalops or, as always pretending right to that earldom. 

The Lords ER-SKINE of the same name, upon their right of pretension to the 
earldom of Marr, quartered these of that earldom with their, paternal arms, long 
before they attained to the possession and dignity of that earldom. 

The Lords of SEATON have been in a constant use to quarter the feudal arms of 
the earldom of Buchan, viz. azure, three garbs or, upon the account of pretension 
to that earldom, since the reign of King James II. being lineal heirs by descent to 
John Stewart Earl of Buchan, High Constable of France, second son of Robert 
Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland. George Lord Seaton married Lady Jean 
Stewart, only daughter and heir of the said John Earl of Buchan, from whom were 

VOL. 11. " Y 



Descended, in a right line, all the Lords of Seaton and Earls of Winton, who have 
been in use to quarter the arms of Buchan to show their right ; but more of this 
Jfamily in the first volume, page 231. 

Having treated of the various occasions and causes of marshalling many coats of. 
-irms in one shield, I proceed to these of dominions. 


As to arms of dominion, I have already given a full account in my Essay on the 
Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, chap. XIV. But that book being now al- 
most out of print, for the benefit of such of my readers as have not seen it, I think 
myself obliged to give a repetition of several things there advanced, and necessa- 
rily to be known in this System of Heraldry ; and particularly the variations of 
the armorial ensigns of Scotland and England, to which 1 shall add these ensigns 
after the union of the two kingdoms, as they were borne by our late sovereign 
Queen Anne ; and lastly, as they are now borne by his present Majesty. 

Arms of dominion are these which belong to sovereign princes and common, 
wealths by right of sovereignty ; and these may be said, in a strict sense, not to be 
properly arms, as I have before defined them, but rather ensigns and badges of 
public authority, and of a longer antiquity ; for of old, the Persian, Grecian, and 
Roman monarchies had fixed ensigns of their sovereignties, as other monarchs 
have since used. 

In carrying such ensigns, there are three specialties to be observed, rising from 
the different way of obtaining sovereignty, by succession of blood, election, and con- 
quest ; of which in order. 

And first, The person who ascends the throne by legal succession, must be either 
a sovereign, or a subject descended of a private family ; if the first,, he marshals 
his own sovereign ensigns with the anus of the dominion he succeeds to : and it is 
the opinion of some, in marshalling of them, to give the first quarter to the arms 
of the ancientest sovereignty, as the kings of England carry in the first quarter 
the arms of France before those of England. 

But the first practice I meet with in marshalling arms of dominion, is in the 
achievement of the kings of Spain, where the latest kingdom is preferred to the 

About the year 1017, FERDINAND, eldest son of SANCTIUS, to-named the Great, 
King of NAVARRE, and Elivira, daughter to the sixth and last Earl of Castile, who 
carried, in a red field, a castle of gold, because in a battle against Miramolin, 
King of the Moors, he recovered that country ; as Hoppingius tells us, " Castilise 
' sive Castelke insignia castrum aureum, rubro in campo, eo quod magno illo prse- 
' lio contra Miramolinum Maurorum regem victor extitisset perhibitur." 

This Ferdinand was the first that was honoured with the title of King of Cas- 
tile, and married Sanctia the daughter of Alphonsus, King of Leon, arid sister to 
Beremund, who died without issue. Ferdinand, by this marriage, became king of 
CASTILE and LEON, and marshalled the arms of both these kingdoms in one shield, 
viz. first and fourth, Castile; second and third, Leon, argent, a lion rampant gules \ 
thus blazoned as by the above author, " Reges Castellae et Legionis quadriparti- 
tum in insignibus offerunt scutum, in parte superiori dextra et in inferiori sinis- 
tra castellum aureum in campo rubeo; in parte superiori sinistra et inferiori dex- 
' tra leonem fulvum in campo albo exhibens." 

The kingdom of Leon was a more ancient kingdom than Castile for many ages; 

for, when PELAGIUS took that country and town from the Moors about the 722, 

t was called a kingdom, and he took for his arms a lion, because it is said to be 

the king of beasts ; as our author, " Pelagius Legionis Rex primus circa annum 

722, eripiens Legionem civitatem a Mauris leonem pro insigniis assumpsit, quia leo 

' est et mterpretatur rex omnium bestiarum." 

Many are of opinion, that the arms of Leon, being those of the ancientest king- 

e placed in the first and fourth quarters ; and so to have the prece- 

the arms of Castile. Ludovicus Molina, a famous lawyer, defends the 

f marshalling as above blazoned : imo, That the greatest kingdom should 


be preferred to the ancientest : zdo, Ferdinand was king of Castile by right of his 
father, and got Leon by right of his wife nomine dotis; and that in his title he was 
named first King or" Castile, and then by his wife, Leon, preferring the title of the 
man to the woman, and the mother's title ought to follow the father's : His words 
are, " Turn quod virilis stirpis imperium preferri debuit roemmeo, maternaque m- 
" signia paternis insignil)iis cedcrc dcbuerunt." 

King JAMES VI. of SCOTLAND succeeded by his maternal descent to the king- 
dom of England, and these two kingdoms being united in his person, marshalled 
their arms quarterly, giving the precedency to the arms of Scotland as the ancient- 
est sovereignty, and as his paternal. bearing on his ensigns and coins. 

If he who ascends the throne by succession be of the quality of a subject, de- 
scended of a private family, he then lays aside his own paternal arms, and uses on- 
ly these of the dominion he succeeds to. 

As ROBERT the BRUCE, when he, as first heir-male of David Earl of Huntingdon, 
brother to King William, succeeded to the crown of Scotland, disused his own pa- 
ternal bearing, or, a saltier and chief gules, and carried only the sovereign ensigns 
of the kingdom- of, a lion rampant gules, armed and languc-d azure, within a dou- 
ble tressurc, flowered and counter-flowered of the second ; which were so carried 
by his son King David II. Whose grandson, ROBERT STEWART, .by his daughter, 
Marjory Bruce, when he succeeded as heir to the crown-, laid' aside also his pater- 
nal arms, the fesse cheque, and carried only those of the kingdom, being the second 
Robert of that name, King of Scotland, and first of the surname of Stewart; and 
from him are lineally descended the Kings of Britain. 

The second way in attaining to sovereignty, which I have mentioned, is by elec- 
tion : these who ascend the throne that way, retain their own proper arms, and 
commonly place them . in an inescutcheon by way of surtout, over those of the 
dominions to which they are elected ;.as the elective Emperors of Germany, and 
as the Kings of Poland have been in use to do, to show out of what family they 
were chosen; and WILUAM Prince of ORANGE placed his arms over these of Eng- 
land and Scotland, as an elective king, by way of surtout. 

The third way of ascending the throne is by conquest. It has been the ordinary 
custom for conquerors to beat down and bury in oblivion the ensigns of the con- 
quered dominions, and, in place of them, to set up their own ensigns to show their 
right and power. The Count of BARJOLOU, when he conquered the kingdom of 
Arragon, pulled down his arms, argent, a cross gules, cantoned with four Moon' heads, 
proper, and erected his own or, four pallets gules. And one of his successors, 
JAMES King of ARRAGON, in the year 1229, when he conquered the islands of 
Majorca and Minorca, erected his standard with the pallets ; and having given 
those islands with the title of King to his younger son, he placed over the pallet a 
bendlct, the brisure of s. younger son : and when another JAMES King of ARRAGON 
conquered Sardinia, he gave for arms to that dominion the old : conquered ensigns 
of Arragon, with these words for device, Trophaea Regnj Arragcnum, to show that, 
when conqueror, he might give what ensigns he pleased. 

The family of SWABIA, being in possession of the kingdom of Sicily, erected 
their arms, viz. argent an eagle displayed sable, which continued the ensign- of Si- 
cily, till CHARLES of ANJOU, a brother of France, conquered that kingdom with 
that of Naples, and beat down the foresaid arms of Swabia, and set up . his own 
azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, with a label of five points gules, for the sove- 
reign ensign of those kingdoms ; which arms continue there yet : But the Arra- 
goris having cut off the French in Sicily, pulled down the arms of Anjou, and 
again erected their own, as before blazoned, which afterwards they quartered per 
saltier with these of Arragon ; of which afterwards : And for which practice of 
conquerors, see Favine's Theatre of Honour, and Jen d' Armories des Sovera/gr,.-. 

But to return from foreign territories and come nearer home, there is as large a 
field in South Britain for instances of depredations, extirpations, and revolutions, 
which have attended and subjected the inhabitants to the different armorial bear- 
ings of their conquerors and pretenders, as any ; who, as witness the historians of 
that country, John Speed, Sir Winston Churchill in his Divi Britannici, and many 
others, in whose histories, and particularly in those two mentioned, are to be found 
many different armorial ensigns in tattle douce plate, according to the various sub- 


jections the English have been under. I shall only mention three, and insist 
upon the fourth, in a detail of the succession of the Kings of England, and their 
arms from William the Conqueror, in their variations and augmentations, to the 
time of King James I. of Great Britain, according to their best writers, and fo- 

1 shall pass the fabulous story of Brutus, who is said by some to have possessed 
this island, from him called Britain; and that he divided it among his three sons a 
thousand years before the Incarnation of Christ: As also their ensigns, which are 
as uncertain as the story, and were beat down by the Romans when they conquer- 
ed the south part of Britain, since called England, having set up their own im- 
perial eagle in their place: But times of lesser antiquity will give us some more 
certainty of imperial ensigns. 

First, then, when the South Britons were overcome by, the Saxons, as some 
reckon, about the year 475 of the Incarnation of our Saviour, who possessed the 
country now called England, the SAXONS set up their ensigns, which were, by the 
most learned writers, said to be azure, a cross forme or; by some a cross fleury, 
which is the same; as Speed, Churchill, Gerard Leigh, GuillLm, York,. Morgan, 
and other English heralds. 

Secondly, the Danes began to molest the English Saxons about the year of God 
787, and to take possession of England. At last SUENO the Dane conquered 
England, so that four Danish kings successively did reign: They beat down the 
Saxon ensign, and set up their own, being or, seme of hearts, three leopards gules ; 
as Spencer's Opus Heraldicum, and Chamberland in his Present State of England, 
and the learned German and famous antiquary, Jacobus Imhofi", in his Treatise 
entitled Blazonia: Regum Pariumqite Magna Britannia, says, " Ex Danis autem 
" ortos reges, iisdern insignibus illo jam sxculo, usos esse, quibus Daniae reges hodie 
" uti solent, viz. leopardis tribus in area aurea, rubris cordibus sparsis, dictus 
" (Spencerus) Notitias Angliae auctor, cum aliis affirmari solent." 

Thirdly, the Danish kings being dethroned, the English Saxon kings were again 
restored with their imperial ensign as before, azure, a cross forme or, with the ad- 
dition of four martlets or; as the above-cited Chamberland: And were carried by 
King EDWARD the Confessor, with a martlet in base, which made five. 

After his death, .HAROLD, the son of the Earl of KENT, usurped the crown : 
His arms were, as by the English books, argent, a bar betwixt three leopards' 
heads sable. 

WILLIAM of NORMANDY invades England, defeats and kills Harold, and takes 
possession of the kingdom. EDGAR ATHELING, the lineal heir-male and representer 
of the Saxon English kings, was put aside from his just right : For .being the son 
of Edward, the son of King Edmund Ironside, elder brother to King Edward the 
Confessor, he was the undoubted heir of the crown of England, where, not being 
in safety to stay, he came to Scotland with his two sisters, Christian and Mar- 
garet. The last was married to MALCOLM CANMORE; her arms being the same 
with Edward the Confessor's, are to be seen in the monastery of Dunfermline, 
of which she was a founder. Her brother and sister dying without issue, she 
was the only heiress of the Saxon race, and from her are descended the Kings of 

Let these ^then be a sufficient number of instances of the great revolutions and 
conquests of England, (besides lesser ones) and of their ensigns. 

The fourth period in which the English were obliged to receive the arms of a 
conqueror, was about the year of God 1066, when WILLIAM, the seventh Duke of 
NORMANDY, being a victorious conqueror over England, his arms were set up being 
.< les t two leopards or, derived to him from his progenitors ; and, upon the conquest 
received as the banner and ensign of England, according to all historians and 
heralds, domestic and foreign. 

WILLIAM II. succeeded his father in the kingdom of England, and had the same 
tandard; and he again was succeeded by his younger brother HENRY I 
in Me kingdom of England, and dukedom of Normandy, who carried the same 
He married Maude, eldest daughter of Malcolm Canmore King of Scotland 
and bis queen, Margaret, S1 ster and heir of Edgar Atheling, the representative of 
the English Saxon monarchs. By this marriage the Saxon English blood was united 


with the Norman; and, in testimony of it, King Henry, on his seal, I mean h,* 
Sigiilttni Imaginis, is represented in a throne, holding in his right hand a mond, 
or globe, with a bird upon it, being the martlet before mentioned in the arms of 
of the SaM>n king-!. And Sandford takes notice of it accordingly, saying, " It 
" v, as ;i token or emblem of the restoration in some sort of Edward the ConJ 
" kin and laws." 

This king survived his male issue, having only one daughter, Maude, named after 
her mother, and was married first to Henry Emperor of Germany, for which she is 
called Maude the Empress, though she had no issue to him. And, secondly, she 
took for husband Geoffrey Plantagenet Earl of Anjou, and bore to him a son, Henry. 
The king, being solicitous to secure the succession of the crown to his daughter 
and grandson, made all the estates of England swear fealty to them, as those \\-\-.n 
were to reign after him. 

Nevertheless STEPHEN Earl of BOULOGNE, son of the Earl of Llois, by Adela, 
William the Conqueror's daughter, got the crown ; and it is not likely that the 
English would have received him contrary to their oaths, unless the law had been 
for him; for Henry the son of Maude, having the title by a woman, and Stephen 
the same, affirmed himself to be the first in succession, (William the Conqueror's 
male issue being extinct) because he was again the first male, though descended 
from a woman, the conqueror's daughter; and though Maude had been alive, he 
ought to have been preferred to her, much more to her son Henry; and, as being 
the first male, he ought to be preferred, being conform to the constitutions of se- 
veral nations besides that of England. By which we may discover the unjust sen- 
tence of Edward I. in preferring Baliol to the Bruce, who had the same, if not a 
better right than Stephen, who was looked upon by the English as the lawful heir 
and King of England. He carried the above royal ensign, with the two leopards, 
and, for a device, the sagittary, because he ascended the throne at that time when 
the sun entred that celestial sign ; and had for his queen, Matilda, daughter of 
Eustace Earl of Boulogne, by his countess, Mary, second daughter of Malcolm Can- 
more, and his queen, Margaret, with the same design to unite the Saxon and Nor- 
man blood together in his issue, which failed before himself; so that room was 
made for Henry, son of Maude the empress. 

HENRY II. grandchild of Henry I. son of Geoffrey Plantagenet Earl of Anjou, in 
the reign of King Stephen, whose titles were Henricus, Dux Normannorum et Aqui, 
tanorum-y and when he succeeded to Stephen King of England, anno 1135, Hen- 
ricus Del Gratia Rex Anglorum, -Dux Normannorum et Aquitanorum, et Comes Andi- 
gavorum. His banner was as his predecessors, with the arms of Normandy, for the 
ensign of England, as almost all the English writers do affirm, except two that I 
have met with ; of whom afterwards. 

He married Eleanor of Aquitaine and Guienne, the eldest daughter and heir of 
William the fifth of that name, ninth Duke of Aquitaine, by Eleanor of Chatel, 
herault, his wife; and, upon account of that marriage, he added his queen's arms 
to his own, by way of composition, as the English tell us. 

Sir John Feme, one of the learnedest heralds in his time, in the reign of Q_ueen 
Elizabeth, in his book entitled the Glory of Generosity, page 218. says, " The 
" escutcheon of Normandy was advanced as the ensign of our English kings, by 
" William the Conqueror, William Rufus, Henry 1. and Henry II. the last having 
' married Eleanor the heiress of Aquitaine, whose arms were gules, a leopard or, 
" which being of the same field, metal, and form, with his own." The same 
author adds, " These two coats, viz. Aquitaine and Normandy, were joined in 
" one, and by them the addition of the inheritance of Eleanor, heiress of Aqui- 
' taine, to our English crown; and therefore are borne as a quadrate royal by our 
" sovereign lady Queen Elizabeth." The same says Guillim, Chamberlayne, and 
others. And those arms, so composed, were placed on his funeral monument, 
where he lies interred in the abbacy of Fonteward in Anjou, adorned with other 
shields of arms; as those of the Saxon race; upon the account that in him the 
Saxon blood was restored by his grandfather's marriage, as before. The structure 
of which monument is given to us in Sandford's Genealogical History, page 64. 
This king had five sons : William and Henry, who died before himself; Richard, 
who succeeded him; the fourth son, Geoffrey, Duke of Bretagne, and Earl of Rich- 



mond, whose son was cut off by his uncle; John, the fifth son, who became King 
of England. 

RICHARD, third son of Henry II. was Earl of POICTIERS during his father's reign, 
and. after his death, was King of England, by the name of RICHARD I. He was in 
the wars in the Holy Land; an excellent prince. In his return home he was 
taken prisoner by Leopold Duke of Austria, who unworthily sold him to the em- 
peror for 6000 merks; and he again as unworthily took 100,000 pounds. This 
king, as his father, carried for his royal ensign, gules, three leopards or, and the 
same on his seal of arms, which Sandford gives. On the one side he is enthronized 
with a crown on his head, heightened with flowers, holding in his right hand a 
word erected, and in his left a mond topped with a cross patee, with this circumscrip- 
tion round his effigies, Ricardus Dei Gratia Rex Anglonim: On the other side he is 
represented in his coat of mail on horseback, and his helmet adorned with plant a 
genista:, i. e, a stalk of broom, relative to his surname, being the second king of the 
Plantagenet; on his left arm was a shield charged with three leopards, with this 
circumscription round, Ricardus Dux Normannorum et Aquitanorum, et Comes Andi- 
gavorum. He is said to be the first king of England that took the motto Dieu et 
7o droit, upon a great victory he obtained over the French at the battle of 
Guysors, by his saying, Not we, but God and our right has got the victory. These 
I think are sufficient documents of the origin of the arms of England. 

JOHN, fifth son of Henry II. and his queen, Eleanor, in his brother King Richard's 
life, on his seal of arms, is represented on horseback, with a sword in his right 
hand, and on his left arm a shield, upon which were two lions passant gardant, 
evidently apparent, says Sandford, which he has seen appended to grants, where- 
in he is stiled Comes Moritaniie: Which two lions passant gardant were certainly 
those of Normandy ; but could not then add the third of Aquitaine, as not 
representing his mother, till after the death of his brother King Richard, who 
died without issue ; then he carried on his seal of arms, when King of England, as 
Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, an escutcheon charged with three lions passant 

HENRY III. upon the death of his father King John, was crowned King of England 
the 28th of October 1216. His seal of arms was as his predecessors, himself en- 
thronized upon one side, and on the other side represented on horseback ; on his 
left arm a shield charged with three lions passant gardant: But in this he was 
singular, in having a crown placed upon his helmet on his head, being the first of 
the race of the kings of England that were so represented with a crown on horse- 
back. The legend round his seal was Henricus Dei Gratia Rex Anglicc, Dominus 
Hibernite et AquitanicE. 

EDWARD, the eldest son of King Henry III. during his father's reign, carried the 
arms of England, with a label of three points, and on shields where the field was 
large, a label of five points, for his difference ; as by his seal of arms appended to 
writs, in which he is stiled Edwardus Illustris Regis Angliee primogenitus. He was 
the first son of the royal family of England that carried such a difference as a 
label of three points, and ,of five points. The different number of points lets us 
see the mistake of some heralds, who write, that a label of three points is the pro- 
per difference for an eldest son and heir, when the father is alive ; one point re- 
presenting the father, the other the mother to be alive, and the third himself; and 
when the grandfather and grandmother are alive, the label then should have five 
points. But here Prince Edward had neither grandfather nor grandmother alive, 
and yet he carried a label of five points on his seal of arms ; which that learned 
gentleman Sandford gives, as appended to evidents of the date 1267, where, on the 
one side, he is represented in his coat of mail and surcoat of arms, with a sword in 
his right hand, and a shield on his left, charged with the three Lions of England, 
and differenced by a label of three points; and upon the reverse, or other side of 
, a large triangular shield, charged with the same three Lions of England 
abel of five points. And this same practice, of having sometimes a 
<! or three points, and sometimes of five, continued with his son and grandson, 
- and III. when their fathers were alive, and not their grandfathers and 


Edward wai in the wars of Palestine when his father Henry died 1272, and re- 
turned 1274, and was crowned king at Westminster the igth of August, with his 
(jiii-en, Eleanor, sister to the then king of Spain. He, being king, carried arms 
us his father, with a new practice of having the arms of England emhroidered on 
the caparisons of ins horse, and was the first that brought in that practice into He married, for his second wife, Margaret, sister to Philip IV. surnamed 
the Fair, King of France. The arms of both his queens I have given in the 5th 
chapter of my Essay. His eldest son, EDWARD, by his first queen, was surnamed 
CAERNARVON, from the place of his birth in Wales. He, in his father's lifetime, 
used, h.r difference, upon his escutcheon of arms, on the equestrian side of his seal, 
a label of three points; and, upon the reverse, where there was a large escutcheon, 
a label of five points, and was stiled Edwardus Hlustris Rejfis Anglia? Filius, Pri/i- 
ceps IVail'ut;, Cent's Cestria, Pontivi et Montis Trolli. 

Edward, surnamed Caernarvon, succeeded his father in the kingdom, by the 
name of EDWARD II. He carried the royal arms on his seal as his father and grand- 
father, and had them embroidered on his surcoat and caparisons of his horse; and at 
the sides of his throne were two little castles, to show his maternal descent from 
Castile. He married ISABEL, daughter to Philip IV. surnamed Le Bel, King of 
France; she, upon one of her seals, had her arms seme of flower-de-luces, dimidiate 
with those of her husband King Edward II.; and on another of her seals she had 
her effigies placed betwixt two escutcheons, that on her right hand containing the 
arms of England, and the other, on the left, the arms of France, impaled with those 
of Navarre, upon the account her mother was the daughter and heir of Henry I. 
King of Navarre. 

She bore to her husband Edward III. King of England, JOHN of Eltham, so 
named from the King's manor-place in Kent where he was born, and was Earl of 
CORNWALL, who carried the arms of England within a bordure of France ; that is, 
mure, seme of flower-de-luces. Jean their eldest daughter was married to David 
Prince of Scotland, son and heir to King Robert the Bruce, on the i8th of July, 
the third year of the reign of Edward III. being the year of God 1329. She 
died without issue, in the thirty-second of Edward III. his reign, anno 1357, 
and was buried in the church of Gray-Friars in London ; and her effigies was put 
in a niche on the north side of the tomb of Cnieen Philippa, her sister-in-law, in 
Westminster Abbey, under which was an escutcheon of alabaster, and upon it was 
carved and painted the arms of Scotland ; the lion within a double tressure, im- 
paled with those of. England on the left. ' 

EDWARD III. had variety of seals of arms, to show his paternal and maternal 
descent ; and at last his right and pretensions to France, which became a fixed 
ensign to his successors kings of England. He was crowned on the 1st of Febru- 
ary 1327 ; on his first seal of arms he is placed in a throne between two flower- 
de-luces, to show his maternal descent from France, as his father did before,, placing 
two castles to show his descent from Castile. His second royal seal which he used, 
had the arms of England quartered in the first place, with those of France 
in the second, seme of flower-de-luces or, as a coat of alliance ; of which be- 

In the fourteenth year of his reign, not being content to hold forth his alliance 
to France, but to show his right to that crown, he placed the arms of France, as 
arms of dominion, before those of England ; as in the Royal Plate in this Volume, 
and in my Essay, Plate V. fig. 8. being agreeable to the practice of some nations, 
and so formed his new seal of arms. The other great seal of England, with England 
and France quarterly, was ordered, says Sandford, to be kept in the wardrobe ; and 
that the new great seal might be made more public, he caused impressions thereof, 
and of his privy seal, to be made, and sent to all the sheriffs of England. He also 
wrote a letter, dated thus : " The 8th of February, in the ist year of his reign 
' over France, and I4th over England, to the prelates, peers, a-ul Commons of 

France, thereby signifying, That Charles, late King of France, his mother's 
" brother, being dead, that kingdom was fallen to him by law ; and that Philip de 

Valois, son to the uncle of the said king, had, by force in his minority, intruded 
' into that kingdom, and detained it ; lest therefore he should seem to neglect his 


" own right, he thought good to own the title of France, and to take on him the 
" defence and government thereof. " 

I shall here describe his seal of arms: Upon the one side he is represented sit- 
ting in a throne, with an open crown on his head, (for closs crowns were not used 
then by kings) heightened with figures like trefoil leaves, holding in his right hand a 
sceptre, and in his. left a mond crossed and ensigned witli a cross forme ; and at 
the sides of the throne were shields, with the arms of France and England quarter- 
ly. Upon the reverse, or other side of the seal, he is again represented on horse- 
back in his coat of mail and surcoat, with a helmet on his head, and upon it a 
cbapeau, or cap of state, turned up ermine, whereupon stood a lion passant gardant, 
and crowned with an open crown, which became afterwards the crest of the im- 
perial achievement of England ; and he was the first king of England who used a 
crest on his seal of arms : by his right hand he held a sword, and by his left a 
shield with the arms of France, azure, seme of flower-de-luces, and England as 
before, quarterly : which arms were embroidered upon his surcoat and caparisons 
of his horse ; and round both the sides of the seal were these titles, Edwardus Dei 
Gratia Rex Frunciae et Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae : which seal Mr Speed and 
Sandford give us cut in their Histories. 

Upon this King's pretension and variation of his arms, in assuming those of 
France, there were some verses made at the time for England, and others in behalf 
of the French, which Hoppingius gives us in his de Jure Insignium, which I pre- 
sume to insert here. For the English thus : 

Rex sum regnorum bina ratione duorum, 
Anglorum regno sum rex ego jure paterno, 
Matris jure quidem Gallorum nuncupor idem ; 
Hinc est armorum vaiiatio facta meorum. 

Answered by France thus : 

Praedo regnorum, qui diceris esse duorum, 

Francorum (i. e. materno) regno privaberis atque paterno, 

Mater (al. matris) ubi nullum jus proles (al. natus) non habet ullum, 

Jure mariti carens, alia est mulier prior ilia j 

Hinc est armorum variatio stulta tuorum. 

By alia est mulier prior ilia they understood there was another daughter of 
France, to wit, Jean of Navarre, nearer the crown than Isabel the mother of Ed- 
uard III. The descent of that royal family, for that time, I shall here mention 
from many historians, especially John de Serre in his Inventory of the General 
History of France, printed at Paris 1620, and Gabriel Richardson his Estate of 
Europe, printed at Oxford 1627. 

Philip III. of that name, King of France, had two sons, Philip and Charles 
Count de Valois. 

Philip IV. of that name, surnamed Le Bel, succeeded his father, and married 
Jean Queen of Navarre, from whence he took the title of King before the de- 
:ease ot his father. He had issue three sons and a daughter, viz. Lewis X. sur- 
iiamed Eutten Philip V. called Le Lang, Charles IV. called the Fair, and a 
ghter, Isabel, married to Edward II. father and mother of Edward III 
The eldest son Lewis X. had only a daughter, Jean ; Philip and Charles, who 
were successively kings, had no issue-male. 

After her father Lewis's death, Jean was married to Count d'Evereux, and to 

she brought the title of King of Navarre, from whom are descended all the 

dmg Kings of Navarre; which came at last to be again united in the person 

of Henry II. of Navarre, and IV. of France, in whose posterity these crowns 

remain still .united. 

Charles de Valois, second son of Philip III. had a son, Philip, who, as heir-male, 
ihc la;.v, succeeding to the crown, excluded Isabel, mother of Edward 111. 
and also her niece, Jean queen of Navarre. 

dwavd III. married Philippa, second daughter of William Earl of Hain- 
ault, m the year 1327. She had to King Edward a numerous issue, of which 


I cannot insist here. The English were at that time nicely known in armories, 
especially in differencing the numerous issue of the royal tamtly, and the practice 
in marshalling many coats in one shield was first begun by that King ; and, in 
imitation of him, not only his numerous issue, but also his subjects, did improve 
the practice of composing and marshalling arms. 

EDWARD of Woodstock, so named from the place of his birth, eldest son of King 
Edward 111. was by his father created Duke of CORNWALL, and afterwards was 
made Prince of Wales, and carried arms as his father, France and England, quar- 
terly, witli a label of three points, and round his seal were these words, Wig. Ed- 
ivardi primogeniti, Principis Aquit unite et Wallia, Duds Cornubiae, et Comitis Cestrice. 
This prince took to wife JANE Countess of KENT, who carried the arms of England 
within a bordure argent ; s,he bore to Prince Edward a son RICHARD, during his 
father and grandfather's life : he carried the arms of France and England, quarter- 
ly, with his father's label of three points argent ; but, for his proper difference, he 
charged the middle point of the label with the cross of St George ; as in the Cata- 
logue of the Knights of the Garter, of which that young prince was one : And 
after his father's death he .carried, as his father did, the label plain-; and when his 
grandfather died, he was crowned king the eleventh year of his age, and had his 
royal seal just as his grandfather before described. This King Richard 11. as I 
have shown before, impaled Edward the Confessor's arms with those of France and 
England ; and he was the first king of England that used supporters, being two 
angels, and beneath the shield was placed, for device, a white hart couchant under 
a tree, collared with a chain thereto affixed : And this was the device used by his 
mother Princess Jane; which afterwards became the badge of the loyalists, who 
stood for his right, for which many of them lost their lives, King Richard being 

But to proceed into the detail of the kings of England, as I proposed, with their 
arms and devices. 

HENRY, surnamed BOLINGBROKE in, Lincolnshire, where he was born about the 
year 1366, was the only son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, (fourth son of 
King Edward III.) by Blanche his wife, daughter and heir of Henry the first Duke 
of Lancaster, son of Henry Earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund, surnamed Crouch- 
back^ the first Earl of Lancaster, second son of King Henry III. 

This Henry of Bolingbroke, being Duke of Lancaster in right of his grand- 
father, he carried only his arms, (and not his father's, which were France and 
England quarterly), gules, three lions passant gardant or, with a label of France, 
azure, seme of flower-de-luces, from whom he derived his title to the crown, having 
forced Richard II. to renounce the same, and was crowned King at Westminster 
the 1 3th of October 1399, by the name of HENRY IV. And, as he usurped the 
crown, so he usurped King Richard's seal, as Sandford observes, for his first seal 
only razing out the word Ricardus, and engraving in its place Henricur : He did 
not make use of the arms of Edward the Confessor, as Richard did in his new seal, 
nor use his supporters. He married Mary de Bohun, daughter and heir of Hum- 
phrey Earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton ; with whom he got these earl- 
doms, and had many children. 

The eldest son HENRY of Lancaster, surnamed MONMOUTH, from the place where 
he was born, and Prince of Wales 1388, who, as such, in the sixth year of his 
father's reign, carried the arms of France and England, quarterly, with a label 
of three points argent, for his filial difference. And it is to be observed, that 
the indefinite number of the flower-de-luces, in the arms of France, were re- 
duced to the number three by this prince, in imitation of King Charles VI. of 
France, who reduced them to that number, and ever since they have continued 
three in France and England. After the demise of his father Henry IV. he 
was crowned king by the name of HENRY V. and caused a magnificent seal to be 
made for him, which is to be seen in Sandford's History. It was he that over-ran 
France with force, and that necessitated Charles of France to give him his daugh- 
ter Catharine in marriage, and declare him regent and heir to the crown of 

Catharine was crowned Queen of England at Westminster, the I4th of Febru- 
ary 1420 ; in which ceremony King James I. of Scotland assisted : and shortly 

VOL. II. A a. 


after King HENRY V. died in France the last day of August 1422, leaving only 
one son, Prince Henry. His body was brought to Rouen, in order to be conveyed 
to England, and put in a lead coifin, and placed in a chariot drawn by four horses ; 
. and above his coffin was his image of leather painted to the life ; upon the head 
an imperial diadem ; and on the body a purple robe furred with ermine, in his 
right hand a sceptre, and a raond in his left : and, as the chariot passed through 
any town of note, there was borne over it a canopy of great value by persons of 
quality till he came to Calais. Upon the covering of the four horses that drew 
the chariot were embroidered the arms of England alone ; upon the second horse 
the arms of France and England quarterly; upon the cover of the third horse the 
arms of France alone ; and on the fourth the arms of King ARTHUR, viz. azure, 
three crowns in pale or. He was interred in the abbey of St Peter's at Westmin- 
ster, at the feet of Edward the Confessor, with this epitaph : 

Dux Normannorum, verus Conquestor eorum, 
Hres Francorum, decessit, et Hector eorum. 

Queen CATHARINE had her arms, being those of France, impaled with those of 
her husband Henry V. (not only in paintings, but on her seals) in one escutcheon,, 
which was ensigned with an open crown, and supported by two antelopes, collared 
with open crowns, and chains thereto affixed or, with the circumscription, Sigil*. 
Catbarinae, Filia Caroli Regis Franciae, Regina Angliae et Domina Hiberniae. 
After the death of King Henry she married Owen Ap-Meredith Ap-Tudor, a Welsh- 
man, descended of the old kings of Britain ; and of their issue came Henry VII. - 
of whom in his proper place. 

HENRY VI. upon his father's death, being but nine months old, was proclaimed 
King of England ; and, about a month after, was proclaimed King of France at 
Paris, upon the demise of his grandfather King Charles VI. of France, anno 1421. 
His grand-uncles were his guardians ; and when he came to the age of eight years 
he was solemnly crowned King of ENGLAND at Westminster, the 6th of Novem- 
ber 1429. 

The first royal seal this King used was, in its structure, like unto that of his 
grandfather Henry IV. ; but afterwards he caused make another more apposite to, 
France, whereon he is represented enthronized with an open crown upon his head, 
a sceptre topped with a flower-de-luce in his right hand ; and in his left the ivory 
rod with the hand of justice, one of the peculiar royal ensigns of France ; and at 
each side of the throne an escutcheon ; that on the right with three flower-de- 
luces for France, and the other on the left side had the arms of France and Eng- 
land quarterly ; and both escutcheons were ensigned with open crowns : Which 
practice of his, in trimming escutcheons with crowns on the seals of England, is 
observed to be the first to be met with. Upon the reverse, or the other side of the 
seal, was an angel in a dalmatic habit, holding in its right hand a sceptre, and in 
the left the ivory rod with the hand of justice; and before the angel are two es- 
cutcheons placed accolle, and charged as the above other two, but not ensigned 
with crowns : and this side of the seal was after the fashion of the reverse of the 
royal seal of France, which has no equestrian side ; that is, the figure of a man on 
horseback ; as with the English, with us, and other countries. This seal on both 
sides, was circumsnbed, He?iricus Dei Gratia Francorum et Angliae Rex, which this 
King had upon his coins, called the rose noble, because the escutcheon of his- 
arms lies upon a rose on the one side, and on the other his effigies crowned with, 
an arch-diadem, ; so that he is observed to be the first king of England that wore 
close crown, which his successors continued : and when his arms were placed on. 
public buildings they were supported by two antelopes. He married Margaret, 
daughter of Rene Dukeof Anjou, titular King of Jerusalem, Sicily, Arragon, &c. 
King Henry VI. and his son Edward Prince of Wales were cut off by the 
Yorkists when they set up for the crown. 

n^Tv 1 !' the 1 h f d of 5 he House of York, the eldest surviving son of Richard 

ike of York and his wife Anne Mortimer, sister and afterwards heir to her 

her Edw ard Earl of March, and daughter to Roger Mortimer Earl of March, 

uhppa, only daughter and heir of Lionel Duke of Clarence, third son to 


King Edward III. in whose right the family of York claimed the crown ; and the 
last named Richard Duke of York, was son and representative of Edmund Lang- 
by Duke of York, fifth son of Edward III, great grandfather of Edward IV. who 
deposed King Henry VI. by force of arms, and was crowned king the 28th of 
June 1461. Upon his seal he is represented in his royal robes on a throne, and on 
his head an arched crown, and below the throne a white rose, the badge of the 
family of York. The opposite family, LANCASTER, used a red for their badge, 
which the fautors and followers of these two contending families did afterwards 
bear for distinction in that bloody war betwixt these families. Upon the other side of 
his seal he is represented, as the kings of England used to be, on horseback, his 
shield, surcoat, and caparisons of his horse, charged with the arms of France and 
England quarterly ; with this singularity, that the crown upon his head was closed 
with arches, (the first seen in England on seals) and upon it for crest the lion 
passant gardant. This king had many devices, with which he used to adorn his 
arms set up on public places : Sometimes they were supported with the bull of 
Clare and the lion of March, and on other places with the white hart, the device 
of Richard II. but most commonly with two lions gardant, the supporters of the 
Earl of March. But more particularly of these in my intended Treatise of Exte- 
rior Ornaments. He married Elizabeth, (widow of Sir John Grey of Groby) 
daughter of Sir Richard Widville knight, afterwards Earl Rivers. King Edward 
IV. was the first king of England that married a subject, and made her a queen ; 
and, to qualify her for his royal bed and escutcheon, she carried six cq^ts of arms 
of her paternal and maternal descents. She bore to him three sons and seven 

EDWARD the eldest, who succeeded by the name of EDWARD V. carried arms 
as his father : Richard, the second son, was created Duke of York ; George, the 
third son, created Duke of Bedford, died a child; the other tavo sons, being under 
the guardianship of their uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester, he most cruelly 
caused these young princes to be cut off", and himself to be proclaimed King of 
England 1483, by the name of RICHARD III.. The seal he used was after the same 
form with that of his brother Edward IV. and his arms on some public places 
were supported with two boars, and in other places with a bull on the right side, 
and a boar on the left. The silver boar, with tusks and bristles of gold, was one 
of the devices of the house of York. This King Richard was defeated and killed at 
the battle of Bosworth, 1485, by HENRY Earl of RICHMOND, who was afterwards 
king by the name of 

HEN*Y VII. the son of Edmund of Hadhum, (eldest son of Owen Ap-Meredith 
Ap-Tudor and Queen Catharine, widow of Henry V.) by Margaret, sole daughter 
of John Duke of Somerset, son of John Earl of Somerset, son of John of Gaunt 
Duke of Lancaster, and of Katharine Swynford, his third wife. 

Henry VII. married Lady Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV. upon which 
the two houses of York and Lancaster were united, and their badges, the white and 
red roses, were joined per pale. His seal of arms was, after the form of his prede- 
cessors, as above, carrying France and England quarterly. His other armorial 
figures and trophies are to be found in his glorious monument at Westminster, 
where his arms are surrounded with the garter, the principal ensign of that or- 
der, and ensignecl with an arched crown at the head of the monument. There 
is a large rose, supported on the right side by a red dragon, and on the left by a 
greyhound argent, collared gules ; the first being the figure of Cadwallader, the 
last king of the Britons, from whom, by a male line, he is said to derive his pe- 
digree : Which figure he had on his standard at the battle of Bosworth, when 
he defeat Richard III. and, to commemorate the dragon, he entitled a Pursuivant 
at Arms by the name of Ruge Dragon. His monument is also adorned with the 
portcullis, in respect of his descent from his mother of the family of Beaufort. 
At the foot of King Henry VII. his monument are the arms of Elizabeth his 
Queen, impaled with his arms on the right, being France and England, quarterly, 
with his on the left quarterly; first France and England quarterly ; second the arms 
of Ulster ; third Ulster and Mortimer, quarterly ; and fourth as the first, ensigned 
with a closs crown, and supported by two angels. 


Henry VII. tlie first king of the surname of TUDOR, died at his palace of Rich- 
mond the list of April 1509, and his body was interred in the royal chapel at 
Westminster. He had with his queen, Elizabeth, three sons and four daughters. 
ARTHUR TUDOR, the eldest, Prince of Wales, and Duke of Cornwall, at the age of 
fifteen married Catharine, daughter of Ferdinand King, of Spain; he lived with 
her four months and nineteen days, and died without issue. His arms on his 
tomb are those of England, with a label of three points, supported by two ante- 
lopes, and ensigned with a coronet heightened with cross patees, and flower-de- 
luces; and below the shield of arms three ostrich feathers with a scroll, the badge 
of the Prince of Wales. The second son, HENRY, succeeded his father; the third 
son, Edmund Tudor Duke of Somerset, died young. The eldest daughter, Mar- 
garet Tudor, born 2pth of November 1489, at the age of fourteen was marrried 
to James IV. King of Scotland ; the second daughter, Elizabeth died young ; the 
third, Mary Tudor, was Queen of France, and afterwards Dutchess of Suffolk; the 
fourth daughter died young. 

HENRY VIII. was crowned 24th June 1509; he had two seals, one when Pope 
Leo X. conferred upon him the title of Defender of the Faith, and the other be- 
hoved to be made after he was declared in Parliament Head of the Church of 
England. On the first he is stiled Henricus VIII. Angliae et Franciae Rex, Fidei 
Defensor, et Domimis Hiberniae ; on the other seal Henricus VIII. Dei Gratia, An- 
gliae Franciae et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, et in Terra Ecclesiae Anglicanae 
et Hiberniae Supremum Caput. In his escutcheon of arms were those of France and 
England, quarterly; France still first, though in his titles England be named first; 
and though designed King of Ireland, yet the arms of Ireland were not in his es- 
cutcheon, which was surrounded with the ensign of the Garter: In imitation of 
which, the other Knights Companions of that Order encompassed their escutcheons 
afterwards with the Garter. Upon several public places, where his shield of arms 
was erected, it is sometimes supported with a dragon and greyhound ; and in other 
places, afterwards, with one of the Lions of England crowned, and with the red 
dragon on the left. 

He married first his brother's wife, Catharine, who bore to him Queen Mary ; 
and after her divorce he married Anne Boleyne, who bore Queen Elizabeth : After 
her death, Jane Seymour; she bore King Edward VI. And after her Anne, 
daughter to William Duke of Cleves. She being divorced, he married Catharine 
Howard, niece to the Duke of Norfolk. And, lastly, he was married to Catharine 
Parr, who survived him. He died at Westminster, January 8. 1546. 

EDWARD VI. was crowned at Westminster the 25th of February 1547;- being- 
young, was under the tutory of his uncle, Edward Duke of Somerset, who go- 
verned the kingdom. The seal of this king's arms was little different from that of 
his father, having the same titles. He died at Greenwich the sixteenth year of his 
age, when he had reigned six years, five months and nine days. In his reign there 
was an order for the change of the knighthood of St George, to be called the 
Order of the Garter, because St George fighting with the dragon looked too much 
like a legend. 

MARY, eldest daughter of King Henry VIII. by his first wife, Queen Catharine, 
was crowned at Westminster the 3oth of November 1553; she used the arms as 
her father and brother did. Upon the 5th of July 1554 she was married to 
PHILIP Prince of SPAIN, son of Charles V. Emperor. Upon their royal seal they 
are both represented seated in a throne under a canopy, King Philip on the right, 
and Queen Mary on the left, with arched crowns on their heads, he holding a 
sword in his right, and she a sceptre in her left; between them an altar and car- 
ved on the tablature the letters P. and M. for Philip and Mary; and upon the altar 
is placed a mond, or globe, sustained by the left hand of the king, and by the 
right of the queen; and above, as it were at their back, is the royal escutcheon 
containing their arms impaled ; first Philip's arms, parti per fesse, the chief part' 
quarterly of four pieces; first Castile and Leon, quarterly; second Arragonim- 
1 with Sicily; third as the second, and fourth as the first: The base part of 
the escutcheon is also quarterly of four areas; first Austria Modern, second Bur- 
gundy Modern third Ancient Burgundy, and fonrth Brabant; over all an es- 
cheon, Flanders nnpaled with Tyrol, all impaled with France and England, 


quarterly, being the arras of Queen Mary. The arms were surrounded \rith the 
Garter, and ensigned with an imperial arched crown, the escutcheon supported by 
an eagle on the sight side, and, on the left, by a lion rampant gardant. The 
seal is circurnsbribed, P/ji/ippus et Maria Dei Gratia Rex et Regina AnvHur, His- 
paniorum, Frandae, utriusque Sitiliae, Jerusalem ct Hibcrniae, Fidei Deft-motes. On 
the reverse, or counter-seal, the king and queen are represented on horseback, he 
with a cap on his head, and a sword in his right hand, and she in her hood, and 
a sceptre in her left hand, and behind their backs the tore-said achievement; and 
the legend round that side of the seal, Archiduces Austriae, Ducts Burgundiae, 
Medial ani et Brabantiae, Comites ILtpsurgi, Ftandriae et Tirulis. Q^ieen Mary died 
without issue 1558, and lies interred in the chapel of King Henry V1L 

Queen ELIZABETH, second daughter of King Henry V1I1. by his second wife, 
Anne Boleyae, was crowned the I5th of January 155^. Upon her royal seal she 
is represented on a throne in her robes, with an arched crown on her head, the 
sceptre in her right, and the globe in her left hand ; and at each side of the throne 
are escutcheons of the arms of France and England, quarterly, surrounded with 
garters, and emigned with impedal crowns. 

The ground of the reverse, or counter-seal, is powdered with roses, flower-de- 
luces, and harps, all ensigned with crowns, for England, France, and Ireland ; and 
the harp for the last kingdom is the first time that it ever appeared upon any seals 
of the sovereigns of England. On this reverse the queen is represented on horse- 
back in her royal robes, as before, overshadowed by a cloud, the emblem of 
heavenly protection: Her horse is richly trapped, and her foot-cloth gorgeously 
embroidered ; and on both sides of the seal are circumscribed these words, Eliza- 
beth Dei Gratia Angliae Frandae et Hiberniae Regina, Fidei Defensor, with a rose 
betwixt each word. She died unmarried the 24th of March 1602, the sixty-ninth 
year of her age, having reigned forty -four years ; she was interred in Westminster. 
Upon her tomb her escutcheon of arms is supported on the right side by a lion of 
England crowned, and, on the left, by a red dragon; and on the frieze of that mo- 
nument are carved the arms of her paternal and maternal descent: For which seals 
see Sandford's Genealogical History of England. 

Since I have given an account of the ancient ensigns of the kingdom of South 
Britain, and a short deduction of the sovereigns since William the Conqueror,, 
with their seals of arms, to King James I. of Great Britain, I cannot but here in- 
sist a little on the ensigns and arms of those of North Britain; and then show how 
those of Scotland and England are joined together, and marshalled with others at 
this time. 

The first ensign used by the Scots (as by our own and foreign writers) was a 
lion rampant carried by Fergus I. King of Scotland, long before the Incarnation of 
our Saviour, when he, with his subjects, defeated and broke into the camp of the 
Picts, invaders of a part of Scotland, took then for his armorial figure a lion ram- 
pant: For which the learned Sir George Mackenzie brings for his voucher Hop- 
pingius de Jure Insigniwn, a judicious lawyer and antiquary. His words are, " Cum 
" Picti in agros Scotorum copias primum ducerent, quibus, haud minus cupide, 
" quam strenue, obviam ivit Fergusius ; sublatis signis, & rumpendo ipsorum 
" claustra, assumpsitque leonem rubeum erectum, aurea facie descriptum, cauda 
' tergum, ut fere mos est, dum se ad pugnam incitat, verberans, eoque generose 
" iracundiam significans." It is observed by Boetius, in his History, of Scotland, 
lib. i. cap. 7. and lib. 10. That the crown placed on the lion's head, the crest of 
the arms of Scotland, should be corona vallaris, though our painters crown him 
with an imperial one ; and certainly, says Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science 
of Heraldry, page 100. corona vallaris agrees better with the breaking of the 
Picts' barriers, (than any modern form of crowns) for which, the crest was first 

Anciently princes and chief commanders, since ever war began in: the world, 
had ensigns and banners with some figure or other for distinction sake, according 
to their genius and fancy. But these I do not take for hereditary arms for dis- 
tinguishing families, as before defined; yet these figures of the ancients might have 
been continued, as the armorial figures of their kingdom, and especially that of 
Scotland, having never been beat down by any conquerors, whose ensigns we would 

VOL. II. B b 


have been erected, and those of the conquered beat down, as I mentioned before :: 
Tis presumed, that 'tis thus happened with King Fergus his lion, now to be the 
armorial figure of Scotland. 

I shall mention another ancient author for the kings of Scotland anciently car- 
rying only a lion rampant guics, before they got the double tressure from Charle- 
magne, as a badge or rhe league betwixt him and Achaius King of Scotland. 

Bonaventura Strachan, in his manuscript Germania per Scotos Christiana, tells 
us, that the kings of Scotland carried of old a lion rampant gules, in a. field or.. 
His words are, " Reges Scotorum non alia antiquitus proeierebant insignia, quam 
" leonem rubrum unguibus in proximos assurgentem (which he gives for the term. 
" rampant} in aurea planith ;" for which he cites Arnoldus Uvion, a very ancient 
writer, who, in his manuscript titled In additiunibus ad lignum vitae, tells us, the 
first arms of the kings of Scotland was a red lion in a field of gold ; their second 
amis had the lion surrounded with the double tressure : His words are, " Leonem 
" rubeum in aurea planitia, primum esse regum Scotorum siermna, leonem vero 
" cum liliis cucumpositis, stemrua secundum :" which manuscripts I have seen in 
the lawyers' library. 

It is without doubt that Charlemagne entered into a league with ACHAIUS King 
of Scotland, for his assistance in his wars : for which special service performed by 
the Scots, the French King encompassed the Scots lion, which was famous all 
Europe over, with a^ double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered with a flower- 
de-luces (the armorial figures of France) of the colour of the lion, to show that it 
had formerly defended the French lilies, and that these thereafter shall continue 
a defence for the Scots lion, and as a badge of friendship, which has still continued. 
This so fully instructed by ancient and modern writers, that I need not trouble 
my reader with a long catalogue of them, but only mention what the fore-men- 
tioned learned Hoppingius de Jure Insignium, cap. n. parag. 3. page 732. (speak- 
ing of the reasons and occasions of multiplying several arms with armorial figures 
in one shield) mentions of leagues and contracts ; and, for an example, gives us 
that betwixt Charlemagne and Achaius King of the Scots, whose successors to this 
day carry their lion surrounded with the double tressure. Our author's words are, 
" Quartuseflfectus armorum conjunctionis est fcederis quandoque praeberesymbolum. 
" Ita cum inter Carolum Magnum & Scotos eorumque regem Achaium ictum est 

fcedus, in hunc usque diem religiose perdurans ; juncta.simul duorum regum-, ex 
" liliis contrapositis & leone rubeo, formata arma, indicii loco fuerunt." 

It will not be amiss to speak a little to the armorial seals of our kings, and their 
ancientest laws extant, which points at arms in general, without any particular de- 
scription-; as these of MALCOLM IP. who began his reign in the year 1004, ar >d 
who, with the consent of his barons, ordered certain fees to the chancellor, for ap- 
pending the king's seal to charters and other evidents granted by his Majesty.. I 
shall add here a part of the law above cited, " Ordinaverunt Cancellario Regis 
' foedum magni sigilli, pro qualibet hacta, centum libratorum terras, &- ultra pro 
1 foedo sigilli, decem libras. Item pro litera sasinae supra tali hacta Cancellario duas 
" solidas." What figures were on the seals then I cannot account for, having never 
seen any of them : but our historians tell us, when our King MALCOLM CANMORE 
and WILLIAM the Conqueror met to clear marches betwixt Scotland and England, 
they erected a cross of stone at Stanmuir, with the arms of Scotland on the north 
side (the lion within a double tressure) and those of the Conqueror (two leopards 
on the south side ;) Buchanan says, this stone or cross contained the statues and 
arms of these two kings on both sides, visible and legible for many ages. 

I shall not insist here upon the laws of David I. in Regiam Majestatem, lib. 3. 

cap. 8. page 4th and 5th, chap. 3. page i. anent seals of arms, not only carried by 

the sovereign, but, as to these by barons and gentry of the kingdom, that they 

may be fixed and known figures of their families to their writs and evidents then 

granted, which were only verified by their seals, for subscriptions were not then 

in use. It is evident from the i3oth act of King James I. perfectly relative to the 

ibove-mentioned statutes of Malcolm and David, (which then shows that arms 

were generally used, and in great esteem with us) viz. that every freeholder should 

>mpear at the head court with his seal ; and if he cannot come, he shall send his 

attorney with the seal of his arms. And it was a common practice with us, till of 


late, that gentlemen sent the impression of their seals of arms in lead to the clerk 
'of court, which were there kept: Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of 
Heraldry, tells us he has seen many of them, and has given a few of them in h;a 
Chapter of Supporters. 

It is very reasonable to think, that all seals then, since the reign of Malcolm III. or 
King David I. earned the fixed arms of the owners, since the writs to. which they 
were appended made faith in court, without any subscription, till the year of God 
1540, at which time King James V. by die ii7th act of his 7th pad. (lest seals 
should be couiuefeit or lost) ordained all evidents for the future to be subscribed, 
as well as sealed. 

In the. reigns of Malcolm IV. and William I. grandsons of King David I. many 
writs and eviJents were granted by them in their time to their subjects, to which 
were appended their seals. I have seen that of King WILLIAM, who began his 
reign 1165, where he is represented on a throne, in his right hand a sceptre, and 
left a mond, crossed and surmounted with a long cross ; that is, with the paler 
part longer than the traverse : on the other side of the shield, called the reverse, 
he is there represented on horseback, in his right hand a sword, and on his left arm 
a shield of Scotland, and the legend round that seal, Sigillum IVillielm. Regis Scoto- 
rum was appended by that king to a charter of confirmation of the lands of Seaton: 
and others to Philip de Seaton, which is in the Earl of Wiuton's charter-chest. 

ALEXANDER II. son of King William ; on his seal he is represented as his father, 
enthronized on the one side, and on the other upon horseback, holding in his right 
hand a sword, aud on his left arm a shield, charged with a lion rampant within a 
double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered with flower-de-luces, and had these 
words round the seal, S, Alex. Reg. Scotorum, which I have seen in the hands of 
Sir Patrick Kirkpatrick of Closeburn,. appended to a charter of that king's to one 
of the progenitors of that ancient family. 

I have seen severals of the same impressions of ALEXANDER III. having the lion 
within a double tressure, and those of King Robert the Bruce, and his son Kinj 
David II. with the same imperial arms, having laid aside their former arms, viz. 
or, a saltier and chief gules :. And when King David was succeeded, by ROBERT 
STEWART, who, as nearest of kin to the said king, ascended the throne, laid aside 
his paternal, coat, being or, a fesse cheque, azure and argent, and only used the 
imperial seals of the kingdom, the lion rampant within, the double tressure, as all 
his successors (to make a short detail) of the princely family of Stewart, without 
any alteration, composition, or quartering with other arms, till King JAMES VI. of 
that name in Scotland and first in England, only son of Prince Henry Lord Darn- 
ly, and Mary Queen of Scotland, only daughter and heir to King James V. son 
of King James IV. and his Queen Margaret, eldest daughter of King Henry VII. 
of England, and his Queen Elizabeth, heiress and representative of the house of 

King JAMES as only representer, and righteous heir of the royal line of England,, 
with an universal consent and joy ascended the throne of England, was crowned 
with his Queen at Westminster the 25th of July 1603. Upon his accession to 
the throne of England, there were several considerations and consultations taken 
by his Majesty and Privy Council of England, about the honours and precedency 
of his kingdoms of Scotland and England, and especially in marshalling their ar- 
morial ensigns ; the difficulty arising from the armorial figures of England, being 
originally these of the dukedoms of Normandy and Aquitaine, being three leopards, 
which, as such, gave place to the flower-de-luces of France, as belonging to a 
kingdom. Upon the same reasons the Scots claimed also precedency for their 
royal armorial figure, the lion rampant within a double tressure, the paternal arms 
of the king, and his progenitors, used by them before the English used the leo- 
pards, and that the paternal ought to precede the maternal ones, as I mentioned 
before, the King of Castile's arms were preferred to those of Leon, the wife's arms. 

The Scots being then very jealous, as their predecessors of old, of their ancient 
sovereignty, which had cost them so much blood and fatigue, and even of their 
very ensigns, and shadows of them : In the greatest straits and difficulties they 
and their kingdom were in with Edward I. of England, with whom it was stipu- 
lated, that their Queen Margaret of Scotland should marry his eldest SQJI Prince 


Edward; and it was particularly provided, that the ancient arms of Scotland should 
be kept entire, with all respect to their honour, on the seals and ensigns of the 
nation, and that no other name should be there placed but that of the ()ueen. 

As is said before, the arms of Scotland continued entire till the union of the two 
kingdoms in the person of King James VI. as in the first Plate, fig. i. After that 
union the Scots arms were preferred to the English, as in all his Majesty's seals, en- 
signs and coins ; tho' the English preferred England to Scotland, yet their seals, 
ensigns, and coins, Ivar no authority further than the dominion of England ; and 
though the legend round both seals was Rex Magnas Britanniae, Franciae et Hi- 

The achievement of his Majesty as King of Scotland, quarterly, first, or, a lion 
rampant i>ulrs, armed and langued azure, within a double tressure, flowered and 
coumer flowered with flower-de-luces of the second, for Scotland ; second grand 
qur.rtcr, quarterly, first and fourth, azure, three flower-de-luces or, for France ;. 
second and third guk's, three leopards passant in pale or, for England ; third quar- 
ter, azure, an Irish harp or, stringed argent, for Ireland ; and fourth grand quar- 
ter as the first: Which escutcheon is surrounded with the ancient Order of the 
Thistle or St Andrew, and round it with the most noble Order of the Garter, 
being blue, and embroidered with these words, Honi soit qui mal y pense, with 
the badges of these two orders hanging down; that of the first named' being azure,. 
representing St Andrew, holding his cross argent', and round the badge, Nemo me 
inipune lacesset, and below it the badge of the garter, having St George killing the 
dragon'; supported on the dexter by an unicorn argent, crowned with an imperial, 
and gorged with an open crown, to this a gold chain affixed passing between his 
two legs, and reflexed over his backer; and, on the sinister, by a lion rampant 
gardunt, and crowned also with an imperial crown as the other ; the first embra- 
cing, and bearing up a banner azure, charged with a St Andrew's cross argent ; and 
the last another banner argent, charged with a plain cross (called of St George) gules, 
Both standing on a rich compartment, from the middle whereof issue a thistle and 
rose, as the two royal badges of Scotland and England : and for his Majesty's roy- 
al mottos, in an escrol above all, In defence, for Scotland ; and in the table of the 
compartment, Dieu et man droit, for England, France, and Ireland. 

The royal badges are a thistle of gold crowned for Scotland, a rose gules for Eng- 
land, a flower-de-luce or, for France, an harp or, stringed argent, for Ireland. Be- 
sides these there are badges peculiar to the kingdom of Scotland and England re- 
presented on the banners in the royal achievement, and advanced in his Majesty's 
standard by land and sea, viz. 

Azure, a cross of St Andrew argent, for Scotland, St Andrew being patron 

Argent, a cross of St George (or a plain cross) gules, for England, St George be- 
ing patron thereof. As Plate I. fig. 2. 

I shall here add an account of the Great Seal of his Majesty King James, who is 
represented sitting on his throne of England in his royal robes, with the great col- 
lar of the Order of St George about his neck, (being the first of the kings of Eng- 
land represented with the collar on their seals) an imperial crown on his head, 
with the sceptre in his right, and the mond in his left hand ; and, at the right 
side of the throne is a lion seiant, holding a standard with the arms of Cadwalla- 
ler, the last king of the Britons, being azure, a cross patee fitche or, as descended 
from him ; on the left side is an unicorn gorged with a coronet, and chained in 
ike posture as the lion, holding with his left foot a standard with the arms of 
English Saxon Kings, being azure, a cross fleury between four martlets or. These 
nsigns were placed to show his Majesty's descent from the blood royal of the 
Welsh and English. 

Over the throne is the royal escutcheon, quarterly ; first grand quarter, quarter- 
France and England ; second Scotland ; third Ireland ; and the fourth as the 
ch escutcheon is surrounded with the garter, and ensigned with an im- 
perial crown. King James was the first King of England that brought into the 
achievement the harp for Ireland. On the reverse of this Great Seal his Majesty 
ented on horseback in armour, holding in his right hand a sword, and, on 
:ft, a shield of the above arms, and the same on the caparisons of his horse 



and below its belly a greyhound courant; the legend round both the sides of the seal, 
Jacobus Dei Gratia Angliae, Scotiae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex : the arms were 
supported on the right side by the English lion crowned, and, o^n the left, by the 
unicorn of Scotland. 

Those arms of his Majesty on his seals, ensigns, and coins, had no authority in 
Scotland : no coins were current there but those that had the arms of Scotland 
placed in the first quarter before those of France, England, and Ireland, and en- 
signed with the imperial crown of Scotland ; and which arms still continued with 
us, and even in the time of King William Prince of Orange and Nassau, on our 
seals and coins, the arms of Scotland preceded those of England and Ireland; and, 
to show that he was elective king, placed over the quartered arms of Great Britain 
his paternal coat by way of surtout, azure, seme of billets, ?. lion rampant or, arm- 
ed and langued gules, for Nassau. 

Since the incorporate union betwixt England and Scotland in the reign of Queen 
Anne, the arms of the two nations have been otherwise marshalled together, where 
the lion of Scotland has lost his precedency, thus blazoned; quarterly, first, gules, 
three leopards in pale or, for England ; parti with or, a lion rampant gules, armed 
and langued azure, within a double tressure, flowered and counter-flowered with 
flower-de-luces of the second, for Scotland ; second quarter, azure, three flower- 
de-luces or, for France ; third, azure, an harp or, stringed argent ; fourth quarter 
as the first, all within the garter, supported on the dexter with a lion gules, crown- 
ed with an imperial crown or, and, on the sinister, by an unicorn argent, horned, 
maned, unguled, and gorged with a crown, with a chain thereto affixed, reflexing 
over its back, and betwixt its legs or; which escutcheon is timbred with a hel- 
met and mantlings suitable to his Majesty, ensigned with an imperial crown, and 
thereupon for crest, a lion passant gardant gules, crowned or ; with the motto, 
Semper eadem. 

I have blazoned the armorial figures of England sometimes leopards, and some- 
times lions passant gardant, according to the English ; and I have given their dis- 
tinctions in the First Volume of this System, and shall only here add what the in- 
genious author of the New Dictionary of Heraldry says at the title of Leopards. 

According to the French heralds, they differ in three particulars from lions : As r 
first, That they always show their full face, whereas the lions show but one side. 
Secondly, Their posture is never rampant like the lions, but only passant ; and if 
ever leopards happen to be rampant, they are blazoned leopards Hone, because 
they take the natural posture of the lions in heraldry ; and so lions, when passant, 
are blazoned leopards. Thirdly, The end or brush of the leopard's tail is always 
turned outwards, and that of lions ought to be inwards, though this latter is not 
nicely observed. Leopards represent those brave and generous warriors who have 
performed some bold enterprize with force, courage, promptness, and activity. 
English heralds do not observe the differences above mentioned between lions and 
leopards, but make them both rampant and passant at pleasure, and show the 
whole or the side of either, expressing the full face by the term g ardant ; nor is 
there any regard given to the nicety of turning the end or brush of the tail inward 
or outward ; yet, as this art was learnt of the French, some notice might be taken 
of them however the English are gone from those rules. 

Upon the Duke of BRUNSWICK., LUNENBURGH, &c. his accession to the crown of 
Great Britain, the arms are again otherwise marshalled, whose blazon I shall here 
add from the editor of the last edition of Guillim. 

The achievement, or sovereign ensign armorial, of the most high and mighty 
monarch, GEORGE, by the grace of God King of GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, and 
IRELAND, Defender of the Faith, Prince Electoral of BRUNSWICK. LUNENBURG, &-c. 
is quarterly thus : In the first grand quarter, England, viz. gules, three lions pas- 
sant gardant or, impaling Scotland, viz. or, a lion rampant within a double tres- 
sure, contre-fleury gules ; the second grand quarter, France, viz. azure, three flow- 
er-de-luces or; the third Ireland, viz. azure, a harp or; and, in the fourth, Bruns- 
wick, that is gules, two lions passant gardant or, impaled with Lunenburg, viz. or, 
seme of hearts gules, a lion rampant azure, having ancient Saxony, that is gules, an 
horse salient argent, entf en pointe, with a scutcheon in surtout gules, charged with 
the imperial crown of Charlemagne, being the proper badge of the hereditary 

VOL. II, C c 



treasurer of the sacred Roman empire, all within a garter, the ensign of that mot 
noble Order of knighthood, of which his Majesty is chief : above the same a hel- 
met, answerable to his sovereign jurisdiction ; and thereon a mantle of cloth of 
gold doubled ermine, adorned with an imperial crown surmounted on the top for his 
Majesty's crest by a lion passant gardant or, crowned with a like crown, proper ; 
sustained on the dexter side with a lion imperially crowned gules, as the proper 
supporter of the English ensign ; and, on the left, by an unicorn argent, gorged 
with a princely crown, from which is a chain turned over his back, and between 
his legs gold ; of which metal he is also hoofed, maned, and tufted, both stand- 
ing upon a compartment ornamented with a rose and thistle, proper, being the 
royal badges of his Majesty's chief kingdoms of England and Scotland, and in- 
scribed (in a scroll within) with his Majesty's motto or device, viz. Dieu et man 
droit. Two unicorns were the supporters of the Scots kings, which, upon the 
union under King James I. of England, and VI. of Scotland, gave occasion for 
carrying one of them on the sinister side of the achievement of England. 

As to the fourth quarter of his Majesty's royal achievement being marshalled 
with three coats, after a method not ordinarily used by the French and Britons. 
It is true, the Germans and Spainards sometimes use that way of ente en pointe, 
where the horse of Saxony is, as in Plate I. fig. 5. 

As to these three coats of arms in the last quarter in the achievement of his 
Royal Majesty, the rise of the others above being spoke to and generally known, 
I shall now speak briefly of them. These of BRUNSWICK being gules, two leopards 
or, were granted by Richard of England, to Henry Duke of Brunswick, his cou- 
sin, and ever since have been carried in that princely family ; for which Hoppin- 
gius citeth an ancient writer, Jo. Bangen Thuringisch, who wrote anno 1143, 
page 58. " Refert Richardum Angliae regem quinque aureos leopardos insignium 
" loco detulisse, ac veniente ad eum affine suo Henrico Brunswicensium Duce, 
" duos clypeo leopardos detraxisse, illique donasse." This author has, been no good 
herald ; who, thought that Richard of England and his predecessors carried five 
leopards, but took two from five, and gave them to his friend Henry Duke of 
Brunswick ; so that Richard's successors carried since three. 

As for the arms of LUNENBURG, they are older than those of Brunswick, being 
argent, seme of roses gules, a lion rampant azure; as Hoppingius blazons them, and 
which the Emperor Otto I. gave to this ancient family in the year 965, for their 
special service to him in Italy. Our author's words are, " Henricum quern Otto I. 
" Imp. an. Chr. 965, Burgravum Magdeburgensem &- principem Lunenburgensem 
" fecit, leonis cerulei in campo albo, insigne tribuit, interjectis per campum macu- 
' lis, sive rosarum foliis donavit : quae usque hue Lunenburgensis ducatus super- 
" sunt arma :" But others say seme of hearts gules, instead of roses. 

As for the third area ente en pointe, gules, a horse salient argent, for Saxony, not 
from the Duke's descent from Wittichindus of Saxony, but for conquering a great 
part of that country, especially Westphalia. Our author's words are, " Quo ad 
' equum sive pullum non erat gestum ab Henrico leone, tanquam proveniente a 
' prosapia Wittichindi, ut equum deferret, sed quod maximum partem Westphaliae, 
' cujus hie equus tessera est, possidisset." 

The editor of Guillim gives us the achievement of his Royal Highness GEORGE 
Prince of WALES, &- C . Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, being those 
of the king viz. quarterly, in the first grand quarter, England, L e. gules, three 
lions passant gardant in pale or, impaling for Scotland or, a lion rampant within a 
double tressure, fleury contre-fleury gules; second grand quarter argent, France, 
viz. azure, three flower-de-luces or ; third Ireland, viz. azure, an harp or, strung 
argent ; and, in the fourth, Brunswick, viz. gules, two lions passant gardant in pale 
. impaling Lunenburg, i. e. or, seme of hearts gules, a lion rampant azure, hav- 
ing ente en pointe of Saxony Ancient, viz. gules, a horse salient argent, with an 
escutcheon or surcoat gules, and, over all, a label of three points silver His High- 
ness's supporters and crest the same as his Majesty's, save that each are gorged 
with u label argent, and his crest with one, and crowned with a prince's coronet 
not an imperial crown. 

This author likewise gives us the sculpture of the achievement of his Highness 
iKKDEKicK, eldest son of his Royal Highness George Prince of Wales, &c. 


Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the same arms with those of his 
father ; but for his difference in chief, a label of three points argent, the middle 
point charged with a cross gules, (St George's cross) and the same label on the sup- 
porters and crest. 

Likewise the achievement of his Royal Highness ERNEST Duke of YORK, &-c. 
Bishop of Osiuiburg, and Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, which is 
the same with his brother's, King of Great Britain, differenced with a label of three 
points, each charged with as many hearts gules ; the supporters and crest of Eng- 
land gorged with the same label. 

The achievement of her Highness the Princess ANNK, eldest daughter of his 
Royal Highness George Prince of Wales, is the same with her father's, with the 
difference of a lavnbel in chief of five points, each charged with a cross gules, and 
the same on the supporters of Great Britain, and all ensigned with a coronet 
heightened with cross patees and flower-de-luces alternately. 

The same achievement he gives to her Highness the Princess AMELIA SOPHIA 
ELEANORA, second daughter of his Royal Highness George Prince of Wales, &c. 
is the same with her sister ; and, for difference, a lambel of five point* ermine, also 
placed upon the supporters, and adorned with a coronet as before. 

And the achievement of her Highness the Princess ELIZABETH CAROLINA, third 
daughter of his Royal Highness George Prince of Wales, &-c. the same with her 
sisters, with the difference of a label of five points, each charged with three roses, 
as I take them by the sculpture. 

The arms of these three princesses are all within lozenges ; but it is not ordina- 
ry with the French, nor with us, to difference younger daughters from one another. 

It is to be observed, that the surtout gules, charged with the imperial crown of 
Charlemagne, being the proper badge of the hereditary treasurer, is not used by 
any of the royal family, but by his Majesty, which I have taken notice of before 
in the section of the Marks of Offices. 

His Majesty, before he came to the throne of England, and to be one of the 
Electoral Princes of the Empire, as Duke of Brunswick, had his arms otherwise ; 
as feu if Armories des Soveraigns et Estats d? Europe, par C. Orance fine, called 
De Brianville, par. 155. " Le Due de Brunswic blazon, porte escartele ; au I. de 
" gueules a deux leopards d'or, lampasses &. arms d'azur, qui est de Brunswic ; 
" au ad, d'or, seme de cceurs de gueules, au lion d'azur, lampasse et arme de 
" gueules, qui est de Lunebourg ; au 3d, d'azur, au lion d' argent, couronne 
" d'or, lampasse de gueules, qui est d'Aberstein Neugatene ; au 4th, de gueules 
" au lion d'or, lampasse & arme d'azur, a la bordure compone d'argent & 
" d' azur, qui est de Homburg. 

" Cimier un bonnet haut de gueules, couronne d'or &. seme' d'une queue de 
" paon, traverse d'un cheval gallopant d'argent, entre deux faucilles affrontees 
" de mesme, emanchees de gueules, virolees d'or, borde'es en dehors rondeaux de 
" queues de paon. " Thus Englished. 

The Duke of BRUNSWICK, carried, quarterly, first gules, two leopards or, langued 
and armed azure, for Brunswick ; second or, seme of hearts gules, a lion azure, 
langued and armed gules, for Lunenburg; third azure, a lion argent, crowned or, 
langued gules, for Eberstain Neugatein ; fourth gules, a lion or, langued and armed 
azure, within a bordure compone, argent and azure, for Homburg. 

The crest, or cemier, a high bonnet, (called by the Germans a spitbood) adorned 
with a crown, topped with a peacock's train, traversed before with a horse gallop- 
ing argent, between two sickles affronte of the last, emancbe gules, bordered on the 
outsides with roundels of peacocks' tails, proper. 

The Princes and Dukes of Brunswick have had their achievements, with many 
more quarters of arms belonging to their noble feus, which Jacob Willielmus Im- 
hoff gives us in his Genealogical History of the Princes of Germany, which I omit, 
to shun the length and confusion of armories. 

As for the w'ay of marshalling several arms in one shield by way of enti, i. e. 
ingrafting, is more frequent in other countries than in Britain, where it never oc- 
curred to me in arms, nor in any English writer, till of late in the two English Dic- 
tionaries of Heraldry, that of the editor of Guillim's, and another since printed in 
he 172,5, who both write the same thing, yiz. enti is a French word, and signifies 



any thing grafted or ingrafted ; it is used by foreign heralds to express a method 
of marshalling, more frequently to be found abroad. I do not remember, says 
our author, that I have met with an instance of this practice with us till now, 
which is the fourth grand quarter of his Majesty's royal ensign, whose blazon I 
give thus : Brunswick and Lunenburg, impaled with ancient Saxony, ente en 
points, that is, grafted in point, or in form of that ordinary : The French call it 
la pointe, which resembles in some measure the lower part of our parti per cheve- 
ron ; but we have not such an ordinary in our practice. Mr Baron calls this ente 
insitus. Diet, to Guil. 

In my Alphabetical Index, explaining the Terms of Heraldry, mentioned in my 
Essay on the Ancient and Modern use of Armories, I told that the term ente or 
grafting is when arms are placed in the triangular space between the flanks of 
two other coats of arms ; as in the arms of the dukes of Savoy and kings of 
Spain : So that this way of marshalling arms was not known to us and the Eng- 
lish, till his Majesty King George ascended the throne of Great Britain, and 
caused, by way of ente, ingraft the galloping horse of Saxony in the base, in the 
sovereign banner of Great Britain : And since I am speaking of such partitions, I 
shall here add another section of these Partitions, whereby arms are accumulate 


MARSHALLING is a term, says Guillim, of great extent, not only in ordering the 
parts of an army, but also in disposing of persons and things in all solemnities, 
marriages, funerals, creations of nobility, -c. But here it is taken, as it concerns 
armories, for an orderly disposing of sundry coats of arms of distinct families in 
their proper place in one shield. 

The various ways of acquiring arms, and the changes and occasions of them, 
have given original to the various positions and situations of quarters or sections, 
fields or areas, in shields of arms. 

The multiplication of ensigns is from the conjunction of many jurisdictions and 
territories, the rights and dispositions to which are sometimes conveyed by the will 
of some testator, so as it frequently falls out, that great princes, by accession of 
new dignities, are obliged to use new titles, and add such ensigns to their own : 
From whence you see, that the successors of kingdoms, principalities, and earldoms, 
do annex and accumulate other arms to their own, upon several accounts ; of 
which I have treated before : But here I shall speak only to the Partitions which 
makes the fields or areas in armories. I shall not mention parti parted per pale, 
and coupe parted perfesse, which, when joined together, give a quartered arms ; of 
which I have spoke fully before : but as to other sections or areas, not so generally 
known with us in marshalled arms, I shall here mention four ways in accumulat- 
ing many coats in one shield. 

i. By tranche and taille lines. 2. By surmounting quartered coats, not only 
with an escutcheon, called by the French a surletout, but with le-tout-du-tout, and 
with other ordinaries, as the pale, fesse, and cross, dividing the quarters ; and again 
surmounted with escutcheons. 3. By tiercing and ingrafting of arms, which the 
French call ente, And 4. By a division of the shield into a plurality of areas by 
many parti and coupe lines. Which four ways I shall speak to in order, and ex- 
emplity them by instances. 

Parted per saltier is a quartered coat by two lines, dividing the shield from the 
n chief to the left in base, et e contra from the left to the right in 
liagonally, into four equal conal quarters or areas ; which partition the French 
tranche taille. Such a disposition of arms is not ordinary in Britain ; yet fre- 
quently in other European countries, as the well known arms of SICILY which I 
instance, being so marshalled, viz. quarterly per saltier ; first and fourth or, four 
^ gules, for Arragon; second and third argent, an eagle displayed sable, 
beaked and membred gules, for Swabia. The French say D'or, a quatre peaux 
de gueules flanque d' argent, a 1'aigle de sable, becque' & membre de gueules." 


The Latins, as Chirfletius, blazon, (parted per saltier) " Scutum oblique dextror- 
" sum &- sinistrorsum sectum in summo & in imo, &-c." 

The second way proposed is by surmounting quartered arms with inescutcheons, 
by the French called surtout. 1 have given several examples of those, in this and 
the former volume. When the inescutcheon or surtout is parted, couped, or 
quartered, with diverse couts of arms, and these again surmounted with another 
inebcutcheon, the French call the uppermost le-tout -du-tout : And after this man- 
ner are several coats of arms marshalled ; as in the achievement of the Princes of 
ORANGE, in the family of NASSAU ; thus quarterly, first azure, seme of billets, a 
lion rampant or, for Nassau ; second or. a lion rampant gtirdant gules, crowned 
langued and armed azure, for the country of CATZENELBOGE.M ; third gules, a fesse 
argent, for the house of VIANDEN ; fourth gules, two leopards or, langued and 
armed azure, for the country of DIETZ : and over all an inescutcheon by way of 
surtout; quarterly, first and fourth gules, a bend or, for CHALLONS ; second and 
thud or, a hunting-horn azure, virole and stringed gules, for the principality of 
Orange ; which inescutcheon is again surmounted of another by way of le-tout-du- 
tout, cheque or and azure of nine points, as a coat of pretension to the city of Ge- 

Next, as to the Ordinaries, viz. the pale, fesse, and cross, their usage, as a me- 
thod in marshalling of arms, by dividing the quarters in the shield, I shall illustrate 
as follows. 

And first, As to the ordinary of the pale, being a distinguishing method for 
marshalling arms, I have not met with any examples used by us in Britain, though 
this way of marshalling is frequently used abroad by foreign heralds. An example 
whereof we have in the armorial bearing of the Dukes of Parma and Placenza ; 
the blazon whereof is thus, quarterly, first and fourth or, six flower-de-luces azure; 
3, 2, and i, for Faranese ; second and third gules, a fesse argent, for Austria Mo- 
dern, impaled (the French say parti) with bendy of six, or and azure, within a 
bordure gules, for Burgundy Ancient. And dividing the quarters, a pale gules, 
charged with a papal gonfanoun, surmounted with two keys, the one or and the 
other argent, as a badge of the office of the High Gonfalonier of the Church, and 
over all an inescutcheon by way of surtout, the arms of PORTUGAL, viz. argent, five 
inescutheons placed cross-ways azure, each charged with five besants argent, 
placed in saltier, and marked with a point sable, all within a bordure gules, charged 
with seven castles or, three in chief, two in flanks, and as many towards the base 

As for the historical part of this blazon I shall give it in short thus. The terri- 
tories of Parma and Placenza were long in the possession of the church till the 
pontificate of Paul III. of the family of Faranese, who made his nephew Peter Fa- 
ranese, Duke of these territories, in the year 1545. But his successor Octavio, se- 
cond duke, being much disquieted in the possession by the Emperor Charles V. 
he was forced to marry Margaret, a natural daughter of the emperor, who esta- 
blished him in the sovereignty of the dukedom of Parma ; and upon that account 
the dukes of that family quarter the arms of Austria and Burgundy. And again, 
Duke Octavio's son and heir, by marrying Mary, daughter of Edward, son of Em- 
manuel King of Portugal, placed the arms of that kingdom, by way of surtout, as 
arms of alliance and pretension. 

In my Essay on the Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, page 17.3, I 
have given, another example of the bearing of this ordinary, viz. the pale, as a 
method for dividing the quarters of arms in the shield, in the arms of the Dukes 
of Modena ; to which I refer my reader, where will be found the blazon and figure 
of the said coat cut in copper. 

Secondly, As to the ordinary of the fesse, in marshalling arms by dividing the 
quarters, we have an example in the arms of the Princes of Mirandula in Italy, 
who have their quartered arms divided by a fesse, and it again surmounted with 
an escutcheon thus ; quarterly, first and fourth or, an eagle displayed sable, 
crowned, becked, and membred of the field; second and third barry of six pieces 
argent and azure , surmounted of a lion gules, armed, langued, and crowned or, for 
concord ; and, dividing these quarters, a fesse gules, surmounted of an escutcheon, 
churcred w ith the arms of the family of Pico, being cheque", argent and azure; and 

You II. D d 



all these again ensigned with a chief of the empire, to wit, or, a double eagle dis- 
played sable, crowned or, as arms of patronage of the empire. See these arms 
also cut on copperplate in my said Essay. 

And thirdly, As to the ordinary of the cross, in marshalling arms, as a method of 
dividing the quarters in the shield, we need not go abroad to seek ^examples, but 
have instances hereof at home, particularly as used by the Earls of CAITHNESS of 
the name of SINCLAIR; the blazon of whose armorial bearing is, quarterly, first 
azure, a ship at anchor, her oars erect in saltier, within a double tressure, counter- 
flowered or, for the earldom of Orkney ; second and third or, a lion ram pant gules, 
for the name of Spar ; fourth azure, a ship under sail, for the title of Caithness ; 
and over all, dividing the coats, a cross ingrailed sable, for the surname of Sinclair. 
And it is observable that several noble feus with us that lay near the sea, carried 
always in their arms ships or lymphads. Also several families of the name of 
Sinclair, as descendants from the said earls of Caithness, divided their quartered 
arms by this ordinary of the cross, such as the Sinclairs of Dunbeath, Brims, &c. 
but use suitable bordures for differences. 

There is another example of this method of bearing in the arms of OGILVIE of 
Boyne, who makes the cross ingrailed of Sinclair divide his quartered coat thus; 
iirst and fourth argent, a lion passant gardant gules, crowned or, for Ogilvie ; se- 
cond and third argent, three crescents gules, for Edmonstone ; over all, dividing 
the quarters, (the arms of Sinclair) a cross ingrailed sable. Which method of 
marshalling his arms he assumes, as being a younger son of Ogilvie of Findlater, 
who quarters the arms of Sinclair with his own paternal bearing, on occasion of 
Sir Walter Ogilvie of Auchleven his marrying, in the year 1437, Margaret, only 
daughter and sole heir of John Sinclair, possessor of the barony of Deskford in 

The third way of multiplying many coats of arms in one shield, laid down, is 
by tiercing and ingrafting, which the French call ente, a word which signifies any 
thing grafted or ingrafted. And the author of the New Dictionary of Heraldry, 
8vo, London, 1725, tells us, " That the word ante or ente, denotes that the 
" pieces are let into one another, in such form or manner as is there expressed. 
" As, for instance, by dove-tails, rounds, swallow-tails, or the like, and is a term 
" used by heralds when arms are placed in the triangular space between the 
" flanks of two other coats of arms, to express a method of marshalling more fre- 
" quently to be found abroad in the books of the armorial bearings and blazons of 
" foreign heralds," where several examples of this nature might be adduced ; parti- 
cularly this method is used by the kings of Spain, dukes of Burgundy and Savoy, 
the counts of Flanders, and a' great many more families of distinction, as I have 
made evident by sundry examples, to be found in my foresaid Essay on the An- 
cient and Modern Use of Armories, from page 216 to page 220, to which I refer 
my reader. I do not remember that I have met with one instance of this practice 
with us till now, which is the fourth grand quarter of his Majesty King GEORGE 
his royal ensign, who beareth quarterly, first the royal arms of England impaled 
with those of Scotland ; second the royal arms of France ; third those of Ireland ; 
and the fourth grand quarter thus, viz. first the arms of Brunswick gules, two lions 
passant gardant or, impaled with those of Lunenburg, viz. or, seme of hearts gules, 
a lion rampant azure , armed and langued as the hearts, and grafted by way of 
ente between the impaling in point the arms of lower or ancient Saxony, being 
gules, a horse courant argent ; and over all this fourth grand quarter, by way of 
surtout, a shield gules, charged with the crown of Charlemagne. Or the said 
quarter may admit of this blazon, the arms of Brunswick and Lunenburg, im- 
paled with ancient Saxony ente en pointe, that is, grafted in point, or in form of 
that ordinary. The French call it la pointe, which resembles in some measure the 
lower part of our parti per cbeveron. 

The fourth and last method proposed for marshalling of arms is by dividing of 
the shield into a plurality of areas or quarters, by many parti and coupe lines, 
which, when drawn, appear like the areas of a chequer, divided by horizontal and 
perpendicular lines. By this method of marshalling, as many coats as shall be 
: may be taken in. But, in my opinion, if coats of arms shall be thus 
marshalled by the bearers, merely on account of descent from families by the mo- 


tlier's side, though they were neither heiresses nor representatives of the families 
they are come of, such shields thus charged with so many coats of arms can be 
called nothing but 3. genealogical pennon, and cannot be looked upon as proper or 
formal armorial bearings. 

In perusing several books of heraldry I find it is agreed by the best au- 
thors, that the number of marshalled arms in one shield should not exceed six or 
eight quarters at most, atul. these always charged upon t:ie vvarni.ita )le grounds fcnd 
reasons of the bearers having many territories and feus, or matching with heirc 
or as coats of alliance and pretension. The Germans, it is true, are in use to have 
twenty or thirty different coats accumulate in one shield, as the curious will find 
in Jacob Will. Imhoff 's Blazons of the Achievements of the Princes of the Em- 
pire ; but this is always on the foresaid account of their many territories and feus, 
to show how many votes they have in the circles of the empire, and so display the 
arms of these feus with their other arms. Besides, that they have another mate- 
rial reason for this practice, in respect that the younger sons, by their custom, 
share with the eldest in the dignity and titles of honour of the family ; on which 
account there is ground for an accumulation of arms. 

The French indeed come not up with the Germans in having so many coats of 
arms marshalled in one shield, their feus not being so many, nor so free, and the 
succession of these dignities belonging always to the eldest son or heir ; yet some 
will have a plurality of them marshalled with their own arms, but then always, 
for good reasons, and never exceeding the regular method of eight areas at most : 
But we in Scotland have not as yet come into this method of marshalling our ar- 
morial bearings by many parti and coupe lines, though we had an example thereof 
brought into Scotland by Mary of Lorrain, (Daughter of Claud Duke of Guise, 
and son of the Duke of Lorrain) who married James V. King of Scotland, and 
was mother of Mary Queen thereof, whose armorial bearing was the arms of Lor- 
rain impaled with the arms of Scotland, which are yet to be seen on several re- 
markable places in the kingdom, and particularly to be met with excellently em- 
bossed and illuminate on a hall in the house of Seaton, the blazon whereof is coupe 
one, parti three, making up eight areas ; though some blazon thus, saying four 
coats in chief, and as many in base. But that way does not rightly show how 
these coats are disposed ; and, therefore, others say more distinctly, coupe one, 
parti three ; first the arms of Hungary ; second that of Naples ; third that of Je- 
rusalem ; and fourth the arms of Arragon. These four sovereign bearings, as coats 
of alliance and pretension, are placed in the upper part of the shield above other 
four of lesser dignity, viz. fifth the arms of Anjou; sixth that of Guelders; seventh 
that of Juliers, and in the eighth area the arms of the county of Bar, and, over 
all, by way of surtout, the arms of the dukedom of Lorrain, all which are impal- 
ed with these of Scotland, and the full blazon of the several coats therein contain- 
ed is to be found in my said Essay on the Ancient and Modern Use of Armories, 
where other examples of blazons and figures on this head are set down and nar- 

Again, after King James VI. his accession to the crown of England, he having 
honoured some favourite Englishmen with titles of dignity in Scotland, they in- 
troduced the English custom into this kingdom of marshalling their arms by many 
parti and coupe lines, far exceeding the regular method laid down by the best 
heralds. As in Mr Font's Manuscript of the Blazons of the armorial bearings of 
the nobility of Scotland, where Sir HENRY CAREY, one of these English gentlemen 
advanced to be Viscount of FALKLAND in Scotland, has his shield of arms divided 
by four coupe and six parti lines, which make thirty-four different areas, filled up 
with as many different coats. 

The blazon of which armorial bearing, as narrated by the said author, is as fol- 
lows : He bears (says he) thirty-four coats, viz. first and last, argent, on a bend 
sable, three roses of the first, by the name of Carey, being his paternal coat. 2. Or, 
three piles in point meeting in base azure. 3. Gules, a fesse betwixt three cres- 
cents ardent. 4. Azure, a cheveron argent between three gauntlets or. 5. Sable, 
two bars wavy ermine. 6. Azure and gules, quarterly, within a bordure gobonat- 
ed argent and azure 7. Azure, a lion rampant argent. 8. Gules, three lions pas- 
tant or, within a border argent. 9. Or, two bars gules in chief, three torteauxes. 



- * 

,o. Barry of six, or and azure, surmounted of a bend \gules. i : I. Gules, two bend* 
wavy or. 12. Barry of ten, a?"" and gules. 13. <"/ a ttsse or. 14. Parted 
ner Dale or and ?/, three torteauxes interchanged of the one and the other. 
Arxent two bars gules. 16. Fretty bend- ways, or and azure, _ within labordure 
jr/i 17 ' C/^r/f, or and , surmounted of a cheveron ermine. 18. Or, two 
bars into. 10. Quarterly, or and gules, within a bordure, ingrailed and gobonated, 
arfrnt and 20. Or, a cross ,?/, differenced with a label ot three pendants 
in chief azure, ai. Parted per pale, or and a/yi/, a lion rampant gules. 22. Or, 
six lions rampant sable. 23. Sable, three garbs /ytf. 24. Argent, a manche 
e/ 25 Argent, a chief ,?/. 26. Gules, a cheveron ar^if. 27. Or, a bar 
between two cheverons sable. 28. A \\onpassantgardant, crowned or. 29. ^>ytf, 
three eagles' wings displayed gules. 30. Or, three baw/efer. 31. ^/ywrf, two 
lionels />awa* zarr, crowned or, armed gules. 32. Wr^/, a cheveron gules. 
^r^n? two bars, and a canton azure. 34. And last coat is as the first. 

As also HENRY, Lord CONSTABLE of Halsham in Holderness, (York E. R.) an- 
other of these English gentlemen who was, by letters patent of the said King 
James, raised to the peerage of Viscount of DUNBAR in Scotland, divides the arms 
on his' shield into coupe two, parti four, which makes fifteen areas of different 


The blazon of whose armorial bearing, as in Mr Font's said Manuscript, is thus: 
The said Viscount of Dunbar, says he, beareth fifteen coats marshalled in one 
shield, viz. i. Barry of six, or and azure, his paternal coat for constable. 2. Argent, 
three 'garlands gules. 3. Crussalla of cinquefoils or, surmounted of a bend, in- 
grailed argent, by the name of Umfraville, sometime Earl of Angus. 4. Gules, 
a cheveron or, by the name of Kym, Lord of Kym. 5. Quarterly, or and gules, 
on a bend sable three escalops argent, for the name of Onarass. 6. Barry of six, 
or and azure, on a canton gules, a cross fleury argent. 7. Or, a cross sable. 8. 
Gules, a saltier argent, with a mullet sable , for difference, for the name of Newell. 
9. Or, fretty gules, on a canton parted per pale, ermine and or, the oars of a ship 
in cross sable. 10. Gules, a lion salient or. n. Or, a chief dancette azure, for the 
name of Glamnyll. 12. Azure, three crescents, and nine cross croslets argent, 
for the name Glanell of Conerhame. 13. Quarterly, or and gules, surmounted of 
a bend sable. 14. Sable, a bar between two garbs argent. The 15. and last, 
azure, a cross fleury or. 

But as for Sir RICHARD GRAHAM of Netherby in Cumberland, baronet, who was 
descended from the Earls of Monteith in Scotland, another of these gentlemen ad- 
vanced to the Scotish Peerage by the said King James, by the title of Lord Viscount 
of Preston, though he divides the shield of his arms by parti and coupe lines, yet 
does not exceed in areas the regular number above mentioned ; for he only mar- 
shals his arms by coupe one, parti two, which makes but six areas, the first two 
being filled up with the arms of Graham, Earls of Monteith, and the rest with 
four other coats, which I presume his Lordship can very well account for. The 
blazon and figures of whose achievement will be found in Mr Guillim's Display of 

This way of marshalling arms by many coupe and parti lines in England, first 
began in the reign of King Edward IV. and has been much affected and followed 
by the English since. But though the above Queen Mary of Lorrain, and the 
foresaid English gentlemen, advanced by King James to be peers of this realm, 
give us examples of such bearings, yet I do not find that any of our Scots nobility 
or gentry have been fond to practise this method. And though the Germans, 
French, and many sovereign monarchs and princes abroad may have just grounds, 
for the reasons above rehearsed, to accumulate various coats of arms in one shield 
by a plurality of areas made up by many parti and coupe lines, yet the English 
heralds are to blame in so far degenerating from the regular rules of heraldry (laid 
down by the most intelligent heralds) in composing and marshalling arms by so 
many parti and coupe lines, which, when drawn, make up an unaccountable plu- 
rality of areas, and filling them up with such different arms as they are not able to 
give a just reason for. And the English have given us many such examples, which 
in my opinion, as 1 said before, are no more but genealogical pennons of families 
in England ; particularly, Richard Blome has followed this method of marshalling 


arms, in a great number of examples that he gives us in his Treatise of Honour, 
Military and Civil, added to Mr Guillim's Display of Heraldry, some of which are 
but a heap of maternal descents, who have no right to carry the arms of these fa- 
milies, of which their mothers and grandmothers were neither heiresses nor repre- 
sentatives, and so cannot regularly or justly be marshalled, and transmitted to pos- 
terity as formal arms, but are and will be looked upon by all judicious heralds, 
and others known in the science, as a piece of maternal genealogy. Columbiere 
tells us, " That thirty-two areas is the greatest number used in France ; but the 
" English and Germans (says he) sometimes extend to forty :" as a tesimony of 
the truth whereof, he says, " He saw the escutcheon of the Earl of Leicester, am- 
" bassador extraordinary to France, in the year 1639, and 1640, divided into that 
" of forty ; and some, he affirms, do go on to sixty-four several coats." But that 
such a multitude rather make a confusion, than adds any beauty to the escutcheon. 
And though this method has been practised by many of the English nation, yet 
they have had many learned and judicious heralds among them who ridicule such 
practices ; particularly, Sir William Dugdale, in his Ancient Usage of bearing 
arms, is of the same opinion with me, and much blames the quartering of many 
marks, as he calls them, in one coat, shield, or banner ; " Because, (says he) those 
" marks being designed for commanders in leading their armies, and to be known 
1 by, they ought to be apparent, plain, and easy to be discerned ; so that the 
" quartering of many together hinders the use for which they were designed ; for 
" no man can distinguish them at any distance, and ignorant persons can make 
" little of them near at hand." And, to confirm his assertion, he produces in- 
stances of fatal consequences that have happened by mistakes in not discerning the 

The first beginning of this practice in England was, as I said before, in the 
reign of King Edward IV. who fell in love with Elizabeth Widville, daughter to 
Sir Richard Widville, and widow of Sir John Grey of Groby, whom he married. 
And, to aggrandise and qualify her for the royal ensign and bed, she was allowed 
to marshal the arms of her maternal descent, being more noble than her paternal, 
by coupe one, parti two, making six areas, which is more regular by far than the ir- 
regular plurality of areas the English now affect. Mr Sandford, in his Genealogi- 
cal History of the Kings of England, hath, in page 285 of the said book, given the 
blazon of the arms of the said Queen Elizabeth, which they that are curious will 
there find. 

And now having gone through and treated fully, and I hope satisfy ingly, of all 
the various methods of composing and marshalling arms of the internal parts of ar- 
mories contained within the shield, and the manner of forming regular arms there- 
in, 1 shall next proceed to speak to these figures which adorn the outer parts, com- 
monly called the exterior ornaments of the shield, with the several position's and 
additional trimmings thereof. 

VOL. II. E e 


Grronttt & other OrnamfnZt of, 










HAVING treated fully of the inner pieces or figures of armories contained 
within the shield, I proceed to those which adorn the outer parts of the ar- 
morial shield, commonly called the exterior ornaments; such as helmets, mantlings, 
wreaths, crowns, crests, mottos, supporters, compartments, and other marks of dig- 
nities and offices, which are placed above, at the sides, below, and round the shield 
or escutcheon ; which so trimmed make a complete armorial achievement. Be- 
fore I treat of these figures separately, I shall speak a little to their rise and use in 

The shield being preferred by the ancients to other military instruments, not 
only for its then dignity and sign of nobility, and necessary use to cover a man's 
body in battle, but for the conveniency of its form to receive military marks and 
devices, which came at last to be the fixed hereditary marks of nobility placed 
within the shield, after the devised imaginary parts of a man; as in chief, collar, 
cceur, zndjlsinque points, that is, the head,, the neck, the heart, nombrial, or navel, 
and the thighs, or base points, which seem to relate to those parts of a man. And 
that the armorial shield might resemble a man the more, it is thought by some, 
that the custom of trimming it with crown, helmet, crest, and other marks of dig- 



nities was in imitation of the dress of the ancient heroes in time of war; and 
also after the fashion of the Roman images or statues, m place of which came 
arms as ensigns of nobility; of which 1 have spoke before m the First Part ot this 

^Others again bring the rise of those exterior ornaments from the habit and 
dress of military men in public military .exercises, such as tournaments and joust- 
Which opinion seems most reasonable; for none were admitted into those 
exercises but such as were truly noble, and had arms as tesserae of their descent, 
which they adorned with exterior ornaments, to hold forth their present condi- 
tion and dignity, and which behoved, at their military exercise, to be exposed 
to public view before the time of jousting, that by those their owners might be 

known. . T , 

Of the laws and forms of tournaments and joustmgs in several countries I spoke 
before and shall only here add two laws anciently used by our neighbour nation, 
from a manuscript (in our Lawyers' Library) written by one John Caxton an 
Fne-lishman, which he recommends to the reading of his king, Richard, and to the 
kfigks of Scotland, viz. " The victor may go out of the barriers of tournaments 
" and joustings with his basnet, (i. e. helmet) or he may have it placed on his 
" shield, or carried before him with his cognizance, motto, or cry ot war. Item, 
" No man should wear bis .cognizaoce or tynal {i. e. crest) upon a close basnet, 
" (i. e. helmet) but he that has carried arms within the lists and barriers of mili- 
" tary exercises; and all other nobles should bear their tynal of their arms above 
" an heaum, (/. e. helmet) to show they had been at such exercises." 

As arms appear to have risen fron military virtue, aad came not in a sudden 
to their present perfection and beauty we 'now find them in, but 'by a long time 
gradually, and were of great esteem of old, being the reward of heroic action ; so 
they were also desired and obtained by others (not of the military employment) 
who justly thought they merited no less from their sovereigns, by services they 
performed in their civil than others m their military capacity, and so adorned their 
shields of arms with coronets, consular capes, battons, and other such like signs of 
dignified offices ; as did also the ecclesiastics with mitres, hats, crosiers, keys, and 
other ecclesiastical marks; of which afterwards. 

In later times the most opulent of the vulgar, through ambition, began to place 
their marks in formal shields, which was not allowed, to them of old, but in car- 
touches, i. e. false shields; which presumption occasioned those that were truly 
noble by descent and military virtue, to be more diligent to distinguish themselves 
from the vulgar by timbring their shields of arms with the most eminent marks 
of their several degrees of nobility, which wai not then presumed to by the 

Charles de Grassalio, in his Treatise of the Regalia of France, gives the name all those marks of dignity and offices, whether military, civil, or ecclesias- 
tic, when placed upon the top of the shield; and which word is used also by the best 
ef heralds. John Baptista Christyn, Chancellor of Brabant, in his yurisprudentia 
Heroica, says the same. His words are, " Timbrum enim generali voce dicitur, 
" id omne quae armis apponitur, aut ad significandum officii dignitatem, aut orna- 
" menti gratia." The crown, helmet, mantlings, wreath, crest, and otber devices, 
the papal tiara, cardinal's hat, the patriarch's cross, the mitre, with several other 
things ensigning the top of the shield, are called the timbre; on all which I shall 
insist in the following chapters. 

Timbre, says Guillim in his Display, chap. 6. cometh from the word timmer; for 
that in the Allemagne tongue is the same that we in Latin call apex, or summitas 
acuminata, the crest. To timbre the arms is to adorn them with helmet, mantle, 
crest, &-c. as Chassenus noteth. Our author says, " Nulli licitum, nee solet, quis 
" timbrare arma sua, nisi sit saltern eques militaris vulgo chevalier," i. e. none did 
nor could timbre their arms but a knight, commonly called a chevalier : But vuth 
us the custom is otherwise; for, of late, every gentleman that has arms may timbre 
them; for each particular country have their own custom in bearing of arms; which 
custom seems to have the vigour of a law, " Quu. consuetudo, ubi lex scripta non 
" est, valeat quantum lex, ubi scripta est," But it may seem that such bearings 


cimbred is rather tolerate through custom than allowed in the strict construction 
of the laws of arms and honour." 

Barnabe Moreau de Vargas makes the helmet a mark of nobility, and says it is 
the crest and helmet which distinguishes gentlemen from those that are not such. 
Menestrier, with other heralds, ascribes the custom of placing the helmet and crest 
upon shields of arms to tournaments and joustings, the arms being a sign of noble 
descent, and the helmet, crest, &c. as marks of chivalry. And. I observe, they 
have been anciently so taken with us; for, of old, our nobility had only their arms 
in a shield without helmet or crest; as appears by their seals appended to ancient 
writs, and. by our old paintings and manuscripts of blazons. But our high no- 
bility, and those famous for chivalry, had their arms, of old, timbred with helmet, 
crest, and other ornaments, when tournaments were in use with us; of which I 
have given an account in the First Volume of this System. And I shall here add, 
for my reader's better understanding, a short account of a formula in the festivals' 
of arms, to show that the adorning of them, now in fashion, had its rise from those 
military exercises, viz. " That they who came and were admitted behoved to be 
" gentlemen of name and arms, and their shields hung up in public places sorae- 
" time before the prefixed day of joustings, with the helmets, crests, and other 
' devices placed above their shields of arms, to the end that those who came to 
" exercise might be known to each others, and challenges regularly given : As 
" also that the lords and ladies, who were to assist as judges at these exercises 
" might know, by the arms and devices, who had the advantage in such fights. 

" The shield of arms being thus exposed below the windows of houses and other 

' public places, which were next to the list of the barriers, were always pendent 

' by the left point of the shield ; upon which point were placed the helmets, 

' mantlings, crests," &c. Which splendid ceremony was by the French called a 

Faire Fenestrie. 

It is then from this custom in the tournaments that we meet with so many old 
shields couche, i. e. pendent by the left corner upon old seals, with helmet, and 
other ornaments. And I shall give a few instances of the same practice, of old, 
with us, in the following chapters on the seals of our ancient nobility, which I 
have seen ; and this position of the shield c ouche is taken, by antiquaries and he- 
raids, as a sign that the owners of them had been at those military exercises, into 
which none were admitted but such as were truly noble by their paternal and ma- 
ternal proofs of nobility; of which afterwards, with the other pieces of the exterior 
ornaments. And, first, of the helmet. 

G H A P. II. 


AS the head is the noblest part of the human body, so the helmet is doubtless 
the noblest part appertaining to the ornament of the anus of nobility. 
With the ancients it was an honourable ornament of the head called galea, from 
the Greek word r.*., the skin of a beast, with which the ancients covered their 
heads to make them appear terrible in battle, as historians tell us. Hoppingius the 
the lawyer says, That of old helmets were made of leather, galea, materia primitus 
cor turn fmt; and afterwards, when it was made of any metal, it was called cassis 
and distinguished from gale a; as our author, cassis de lamina, sit galea de corio' 
But at last they came to be both made of metal for the better defence of the head- 
so that galea and cassis are not distinguished now. . 

The Helmet, by the Germans helen, or hellem, which imports to cover the head 
is our author says, when it was adorned with a crest, the owners thereof were 
fcffpwri, or Brenni; from whence (says he, cap. 9. de Jure Inngnium} the 
Brunswick and Brandenburg, whose predecessors were Brynni, /. e . 
galeati, having helmets crested ; and being governors of castles, as BRYNSWIC, ARX 
BRYNNI, and Brandenburg, Castellum Brenni dictum fuerit. 

The Italians for helmet have the word elmo, which is the same with the German 

Vox. ii. 


beUtm\ the Spaniards have the word eel ado, from the Latin cehtrt, because U 

liides the face. 

The French for helmet use the beaum, especially when they understand an old- 
fashioned close helmet, with holes for breathing and seeing through. But when 
the helmet is open, with bars, and adorned with lambrequins, crest, and other or- 
naments, they call it then the casque, or timbre: The last they use ordinarily for 
all the marks of dignity that are placed upon the top of the shield or escutcheon, 
whether military, civil, or ecclesiastic. 

1 shall forbear here to insist upon the various forms ot helmets m all ages 
and countries, and proceed to their matter and forms as now generally used in 

r-ipc. . 

Heiulds have observed three things in respect to the helmet, its matter, rorm, 

i situation. 

The matter of which they are supposed to be made is ot the metals,. gold, silver, 
and steel, which shuw three degrees of dignity; these of sovereign princes of gold; 
these uf the high nobility of silver; and these of the lesser nobility, such as gen- 
tlemen, ol polished steel. Which order is observed in Germany, but especially in 
Flanders, where, by an edict in the year 1616, it was not lawful for any to use a 
gold helmet on their shield, under the penalty of 300 florins: which was put 
in execution against a nobleman contravening that edict in the year 1658 ; as 
the author of the Observationes Eugeneahgicae et Heroics, lib. l. cap. 8. observes, 
where he tells us also, that the emperor did sometimes dispense with that edict, 
by allowing some of his favourites, as a sign of great honour, to use a gold hel- 
met; as to D. Simon de Fierlundtz, Chancellor of Brabant, by a diploma in the 
year 1664. 

As to their form, they are either close or open; some will have the first a sign 
of military nobility, and an open one of civil nobility. This distinction, says our 
author last mentioned, is not observed in Flanders, whether open or close, since 
both high and low nobles use them both ways; yet, in Germany, says he, a close 
helmet is a sign of a begun nobility, and an open one of ancient nobility, and an 
helmet altogether open a sign of sovereignty, and when with bars, of dignified no- 
bility, and when with a vizor with holes only, a sign of inferior nobility. The 
Germans use also to distinguish the degrees of nobility by the number of the bars; 
eleven of them show the sovereign dignity of an emperor and king, nine the dig- 
nity of a duke and marquis, seven that of an earl, five that of a lord, and three bars 
show the dignity of a knight, and a gentleman, by descent; and the same form of 
helmets, with the number of bars for distinction, the Italian Sylvester Petra Sancta 
gives us in his Tessera: Gent Hit iff. 

The situation of the helmet on the shield, fore-right, fronting, or side-ways, in- 
timates also the degrees of greatness and power, by the matter and form, as above: 
So that a close helmet, situate side-ways, is a mark, as heralds tell us, of a gentle- 
man or soldier, who has acquired honour by his assiduous services, being always 
ready to- fight,, and give attention to the commands of his superior. Whether the 
side-standing helmet looks to the right or left it makes no diflerence, neither is it 
any sign of illegitimation though turned to the left, though some heralds affirm it 
to be a mark of bastardy, as Marcus Gilbertus Dewarenius: But the most learned 
heralds are not of that opinion, and look upon the side-standing helmet situate to 
the left to be as honourable as that to the right. For which I shall add the words 
of Sylvester Petra Sancta, " Obliquas versus levam statui cassides tesserarias dun- 
' taxat eorum, quibus desit honor legitimorum natalium, etenim utvumque per- 
' aeque decorum esse reor, atque est decorum, seu in dextro cornu exercitus, seu in 
" levo dimicare, militibusque in alterutro praeesse." 

When a. close helmet stands, direct forward, it shows nobility altogether new, 
and acquired by some heroic action ; when barred and placed side-ways, the mark 
of some lord that has no command in battle or otherwise, but of his own vassals: 
But when placed fronting, intimates a chief command, not only of his own, but 
other companies; and when altogether open and fronting shows an absolute and 
independent power. I think I have said sufficiently, according to foreign heralds,. 
anent the signification of the matter, situation, and form of helmets. I cannot 
but here add what Menestrier says in his Origin of Exterior Ornaments, chap i. 


That all helmets were of old close and plain, until their metal, number of bars, 
" and situation, came to be taken notice of, and that not long ago; but since the 
" year 1559, when the French gave over the use of tournaments, upon the acci- 
" dent which happened to King Henry II. of France, jousting in disport at a 
" tournament with Gilbert Earl of Montgomery, Captain of the Scots Giiauls, 
" who thereby was wounded in the eye with the splinter of a spear, of which his 
" majesty died." After which various forms of helmets were used, and placed 
upon shields of arms by the nobility, to show their degrees of dignity and quality, 
especially by the number of bars. The customs of France, from whence \vc had 
all our heraldry, and especially,, of late, in distinguishing the degrees of nubility, 
by the matter, form, and situation of helmets on the shield, are, according to the 
French heralds, thus : 

The helmets of kings and emperors are all. of gold damasked, fronting (as they 
say tarrc de front} altogether open without bars aad vi/.or; because they are to see 
and know all things, and command all without contradiction. 

Dukes, marquises, and earls, have silver helmets damasked with gold, fronting 
with nine bars; the French say grille ct mis defiant. 

Viscounts, barons, and knights, have silver helmets with gold edges, standing i:i 
profile, /. e. a little turned to the side with scveu bars. 

Esquires and gentlemen of ancient descent have side-standing helmets of. polish- 
ed steel, with five Inir- in the guard-vizor. 

To gentlemen of three descents they give a helmet in profile, i. e. standing side- 
ways, with three bars only. Which forms of helmets I have caused engrave in 
the first plate belonging to this chapter. 

To a knight they assign the helmet standing right forward with the beaver a 
little open, to signify direction and command. 

The Scots and the English have their helmets after one form, somewhat dif- 
ferent from those of the French. 

A gentleman, and esquire have their helmets in profile, i. e. posited side-ways 
with the beaver close, to signify his attention and obedience. 

The helmet in profile, or placed side-ways, and open with bars, belong to all 
noblemen in Britain, under the degree of a duke. 

The helmet right forward, and open with many bars, is assigned to dukes, princes 
of the blood royal, and monarch?. 

The monarch* of Great Britain have their helmets that same way fronting with 
bars; but the French give to their sovereigns a fore-standing helmet, open, without 
bars, and vizor of gold : But other sovereigns, as the emperor, have a fore-standing 
helmet with eleven bars of gold ; as Sylvester Petra Sancta, " Cassis penitus 
" aperta cum undenis clathris, est imperatoris, est regum, est principum supre- 


All agree that an open helmet is nobler than a close one, and a direct fore-stand- 
ing helmet than a side-standing one, upon the accounts above given ; yet, by our 
practice, a knight has a fore-standing helmet open, and our dignified nobility a 
side-standing helmet with bars. The reason, of which seems to be, because bars 
are more noble than visors or beavers, though cast up; and I think the bars should: 
be numbered, to distinguish the degrees of our nobility. 

When they all go to battle, they have close helmets of steel or brass for the de- 
fence of the head, which are not of gold or, silver, nor formed with a certain num- 
ber of bars, which are used for ostentation, and placed upon the top of the shield,, 
to show the degrees of nobility in public places, and at solemn assemblies. 

Our herald-painters, at funeral occasions, make the helmets of the deceased no- 
bility of pasteboard argcntcd, and parcel gilt with fine gokl in oil ; and are fa- 
shioned after the forms mentioned with these of the English. 

Elias Ashmole, in his Institutions of theMost Noble Order of the Garter, chap. XI. 
sect. 7. tells us, " That the Knights Companions of this Order have, besides their 
" escutcheon of arms, their helmet, crest, and sworcl hung up over their stalls in 
" the chappel of St George at Windsor, and ordained to remain there during the 
" lives of their possessors. The helmets used on this occasion (says our author) 
' are made of steel, large and fair, of a more than ordinary proportion, and are of 
" two sorts ; one appointed for sovereign princes gilded and formed open, with 


bailes or bars; the other for Knights Subjects in the reign of Henry VIII. were 
" parcel silt : but in Queen Elizabeth's reign and since it is the custom to gil< 
!he helmets all over, having close visors, and to place St George s red cross m. 
the middle before the visors ; and these are the form of the helmets of the Knights 
of the Garter at Windsor : but their helmets placed on their shields of arms m 
" other places are after the form we have been speaking of % as all others of their 
" quality, without regard to them, as Knights of the garter." 

When there are two helmets placed on an escutcheon of arms, they look to one 
another of whatsomever quality the possessor be ; and when there are three hel- 
mets that in the middle is placed fronting, and the other two contoume, z. e. turned 
to it'- and if there be four helmets on a shield, two looks to two. The practice 
of multiplying helmets is frequent with the Germans, to show the number of their 
honourable feus, by which they have as many votes in the circles. The helmet 
with them is a sign of eminent nobility ; if there are four, six, or eight helmets, 
the one half of them are turned looking to the other with their manthngs and 





ANTIQUARIES and historians tell us, as I said before, the helmets of he- 
roes at first were made of the skins of beasts, and afterwards, as more con- 
venient, of metal, which they covered with the skins of cruel and rapacious beasts, 
such as lions, tigers, bears, &c. that they might appear terrible to their enemies, 
and stately and magnificent; they covered not only their helmets, but also the 
armour of their bodies with taffeta, or other pieces of stuff, of such colours and fi- 
gures as they fancied, that they might be distinguished and known in battle ; as, 
Polyb. lib. 6. cap. 20. " Ut ejusmodi tegmentum & ornatus pariter insigne sit, 
" per quod quisque, aut strenue, aut ignaviter, se in prselio gerens, a praefecto suo 
" agnosceretur." 

These coverings of the helmet are called by the Latin writers tegmina. g aleae, 
from their use in preserving the helmets from rain and dust ; the Germans call it 
very fitly, helm decken, i. e. the cover or dress of the helmet, the English, mant- 
lings, by the French capelines, lambrequins, hachements, volets, &-c. 

This ornament of armory, by Guillim, is called improperly a mantle, from the 
French word manteau, with us taken for a long robe, a military habit used in an- 
cient times by great commanders in the field, as well to manifest their high place, 
as also (being cast over their armour) to repel the extremity of wet, cold, and 
heat, and, withal, to preserve their armour from rust. The manteaux are different 
pieces of ornament of the achievement, upon which the whole achievement is laid, 
and called the ducal mantle, of which afterwards. But, by. this ornament of the 
head, there remaineth neither shape nor shadow of a mantle ; for how can it be 
imagined, that a piece of cloth, or whatsoever other stuff, that is jagged and froun- 
ced after the manner of our common received mantlings, used for the adorning of 
the helmets, being imposed upon the shoulders of a man, should serve him to any 
of the purposes for which mantles were ordained. So that these being compared 
with those, may be more fitly termed flourishing! than mantlings. Sir George 
Mackenzie tells us, " That the ornament of the helmet was never intended to re- 
" present a covering to the bearer or his shield, but only to his helmet, and carried 
" to show the variety of its jagged cuts sustained in battle, which was in some mea- 
" sure of their form, by the fluttering of the wind." 

The French heralds assure us, that these mantles were originally no other than 
short coverings, which commanders wore over their helmets to defend their heads from 
the weather ; and that going into battles with these, they were wont to come away 
with them hanging about them in a ragged manner, occasioned by the many cuts 
they had received on their heads ; and therefore, the more hacked they were, the 
more honourable they were accounted. When these hoods are entire and not cut, 



the French call diem capelines^ (as that one upon the helmet of the arms of Cham - 
paign, so frequent in many books) and from which is a saying with the French, 
un bomme de capeline, for a man resolute and ready to fight. 

Marc Voulosen de la Columbier, in the 42d chap, of his Science, says, " That 
" those trimmings of the helmet served as an ornament to accompany a coat of 
" arms, which would have had an evil grace, if the helmet had remained bare and 
" naked." 

The antientest practice of this hood, mantling or capeline, I have observed, is 
on the equestrian seals of the Earls of Flanders, given us by Olivarus Uredus de Si- 
gillis Comitum Flandriee, where, in that curious book, is the seal of ROBERT Earl of 
FLANDERS. He is represented in armour on horseback, holding on his left arm the 
armorial shield of Flanders ; and upon his helmet is a hood, or capeline, entire 
and uncut, hanging back over his neck ; and upon it was placed his crest in the 
years 1 304, and afterwards some of his successors were so trimmed with helmets on 
their heads, topped with their crests ; which helmets, so trimmed, were not then 
placed on their shields of arms, until PHILIP the Bold, Duke of BURGUNDY, and Earl 
of Flanders timbred his shield of arms with helmet, capeline, and crest in the 
year 1384, as by his seal to be seen in the fore-mentioned book, and which prac- 
tice continued with his successors. It is to be observed, that the trimming of the 
shield with helmet, mantling, and crest, came from the military dress of great men. 
Sandford, in his Genealogical History of the Kings of England, gives us the seal of 
arms of THOMAS Earl of LANCASTER, eldest son of Edmund, brother to Edward I. 
of England, where, upon the helmet, there is a capeline, and upon it a wiveron 
or dragon, for crest j the capeline he calls an ancient mantling, and says the crest 
is the first he did see used by these of the royal family. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, gives the equestrian side of 
the seal of MDuFF Earl of FIFE, where he is in armour on horseback, holding in 
his right hand a sword, and on his left arm his shield of arms, and upon his head 
his helmet affronts, and grille a capeline, with a long tail hanging over his back. 
In several herald books, and in one of the editions of Guillim's Display, there are 
entire hoods or capelines for mantlings. But I proceed to other forms of mant- 
lings, from which they have various names with other nations. 

When they are represented curiously cut like the leaves of parsley, such as those 
which top the pillars of Corinthian work, have made some heralds think the custom- 
of using such on helmets to have come from garlands, made of such leaves, for 
which they call them feuilles. Others again, upon the account that mantlings be- 
ing cut and torn in several pieces and shreds, like labels hanging down, are taken 
for ribbands which tied crowns and garlands ; they term them lambrequins, from 
the latin word lemniscus, which signifies a label, piece of stuf or ribband. 

The true rise of the present forms of mantlings jagged and frounced, is from the 
the heroes returning from battle with their hoods or capelines. Afterwards, in 
process of time, the same authors say, they were by degrees made deeper, and so 
from the helmet hung down below the whole shield, adorned according to the 
honour of the bearer, or the fancy of the painter : These things, which at first 
were regulate as marks of distinction, afterwards became common to all sorts of 

Oliver de la March, describing the equipage of the King of the Romans, saysj 
" That he carried a hood on his helmet, with laps hanging down to the saddle, all 
" curiously cut like the leaves of parsley. 

Voulosen de la Columbier and Menestrier, in their Treatises of Exterior Orna-f 
mets, both eminent writers in this science, tell us, " That this ornament of the 
" helmet, sometimes represented hanging down by the sides of the shield, was of 
" old no other thing than the cover or hood of the helmet, (called, as before, the 
" capeline, when entire) which, being cut in battle, was a sign of military valour; 
" and, being so accidentally cut, was, by art, fashioned into the forms or shapes of 
" the leaves of trees or herbs, and other things that they best pleased ; and some- 
" times adorned with embroideries and precious stones, became a suitable dress for 
" true nobility, called by the French bacbements, from the old French word acbtr 
" ment, which signifies the ornament of the head." And ChitHctius, in his Latin 
blazons of the Knights of the Golden Fleece, calls them faceamenta, by changing 

VoL,IL Gg 


the letter H to letter F, which ordinarily the Spainards do in other words, as 
Menestrier observes ; and other heralds, who write in Latin, call them not only 
faceamenta, but fasces, lacima, and phalerce ; and when they do not hang down by 
the sides of the shield, but fly out above the heads of the supporters, are then cal- 
led by the French volets. 

Having considered mantling*, I proceed now to their tinctures, which were of 
old with us, and are still with other nations, of the same with the armorial tincture* 
of the paternal arms of the bearers, though quartered with these of other families and 
dignities : and when there are two casques, i. e. helmets, trimmed with such, then 
they are of the tinctures of the quarters, for which they are the proper casques be- 
longing to these quarter? ; as in the achievement of the Dukes of BAVARIA ; quar- 
terly, first and fourth, sable, a lion crowned or, langued and armed gules ;. second 
and third, bendy lozengy, argent and azure, over all an escutcheon gules, charged 
with an imperial mond or : On the shield of those quartered arms are placed two 
helmets, adorned with their proper mantlings or hachements, viz. that on the 
right, sable and or ; and the other on the left, argent and azure-, which two casques 
look to one another. 

I shall here mention the sculpture and blazon of the arms of Colonel ALEXAN- 
DER M'DowALL, Baron of Lodvica in Swedland, as in the First Part of this System j 
quarterly, first, azure, a lion rampant argent, crowned or ; second gules, an arm in 
armour argent, holding a cross croslet fitched azure; third, or, a lymphad sable; 
fourth, or, a rock sable in base, and, in chief, two salmons naiant, proper; and over 
all, by way of surtout, an escutcheon as the first, ensigned with a double crown. 
The shield of his arms is timbred after the German and Swedish fashion with three 
crests, that in the middle being a ducal coronet, and upon it a dove, all proper, 
between two helmets fronting one another, adorned with mantlings of the tinctures- 
of the arms, and ensigned with ducal coronets in place of wreaths : out of that on 
the right issueth a lion argent, crowned or ; and from that on the left, an arm in 
armour holding a cross croslet fitched, as before. For which see the 5th Plate of 
Achievements taken from those arms finely illuminated in the middle of his patent 
of nobility granted by King Charles XL of Sweden, to Colonel Gustavus Mac- 
dowall, Baron of Lodvica, in the year 1674, father of the above Colonel Alexander, 
in whose hands I have seen the patent ; as also a genealogical tree of the family' 
as descended of M'Dowall of Makerston. For more account of this family, see 
the First Part of this System, page 413. 

1 When many casques timbre the shield with relation to quarters, they are then of 
the tinctures of those quarters they belong to ; as on the escutcheon of the Dukes 
of SAXONY (which contain twenty-one quarters) are eight helmets, with mantlings 
of the t-inctures of the quarters they belong to. These curtly blazoned by Imhori; 

Phalerarum quibus circumfusae sunt, hae galeae possunt ab areolis dignosci." 

The English have all the mantlings of gentlemen and knights red without, and 
lined or doubled with white within, and those of dignified nobility also red, but 
doubled with ermine ; and the mantlings of their sovereigns are of gold, doubled 
with ermine, to distinguish those degrees of nobility : so that in blazon they say, 

Which shield is timbred with helmet and mantling befitting their quality, with- 
' out naming the tinctures." Which practice of late our heralds have followed ; 
but by our old illuminated books of arms, I observe the mantlings to be of the tinc- 
tures of the arms within the shield. 

Ashmole, in his above-mentioned book, says, " The Knights Companions of the 
Order of the Garter have their helmets hung up in Windsor, with 

their mantlings of cloth of gold lined with white satin : at the bottom of these 
landings hang a pair of gilt knobs burnished with gold, from which issue out 

tassels either of gold or silver (according as is the metal in the king's coat 

armour) mixed with silk of the principal colours in the arms of the Knights 

mpa: nons; which tassels, being of the tincture of the arms, represent the an- 

antlings; those tassels are called appendices in the statutes of Henry VIII. 

s knights of whatsoever dignity, as the companions with the sovereign in 

this order, are allowed gold helmets, gold mantlings, doubled ermine, as the 

sovereigns; but their helmets and mantlings, in other places and occasions, must 

be after the degrees of their quality." 




THE wreath is made of two or more pieces of silk of divers colours, wreathed 
or twisted together, and is called a tirce, quia torquetur ; by the French, 
to/til, and by us, of old, the roll or row, because its pieces of different colours are 
stopped with flax to keep a round shape ; and for which the French call it bourlft, 
from bourre, which signifies flax or wool, wherevrith they stop cushions and other 

These were anciently called by the Latins, cwdix pltctiles, and were different 
of old from crowns and coronets, they being made of twisted silk of diverse colours, 
which fixed or tied the mantlings to the helmet, and \vus a part of the timbre as 
at this time ; but of old none \vas allowed to use them but these that were ho- 
noured by the sovereign, or who had assisted at the coronation of kings ; as Hop- 
pingius, cap. 9. i. " Quod jus portandi ejusmodi corollas non pertinent, nisi ad 
" illos quibus ipsis collatus fuit, hie honor, aut aliquis ex illorum majoribus in coro- 
" natione regibus inserviret." 

Menestrier, speaking 1 of this ornament, says, " That some hundred years ago 
" the French nobility used such garlands made of twisted silk, with which they 
" kept fast upon their heads their hoods and caps ; as may be seen, says the au- 
" thor, on ancient paintings, and especially on the images and pictures of the 
" old dukes of Burgundy and Milan ; afterwards the use of it in armories was to 
" fasten the mantlings or lambrequins, upon the helmet." 

Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, says> " Wreaths were made of cords of silk 
" twisted together, which were of the colours of the arms, the liveries of the 
" owners or their mistresses, with which the ladies (says Menestrier) were wont to 
" tie and fix the mantling* of the knights to their helmets in the days of solem- 
" raizing of tournaments, for which they are called in romances, ladies' favours ; 
" as in that formula of the tournament performed at Placenza by King Reynold. 
" From which also we learn, says our author, that the lambrequins were always of 
" the colours of the arms, and the wreaths might have been of any other colours. 
" But now-a-days the practice is otherwise in Britain, for the mantlings or lam- 
" brequins are not of the colours of the arms as before ; but the wreaths are al- 
" ways of the armorial tinctures, and even so used by the Knights of the Garter 
" on their stars at Windsor." 

The mixture of the colours of the wreaths being taken from the metals and 
colours of the paternal arms, though quartered with many other coats of arms in 
one shield, for the more orderly disposing of the colours of the wreaths ; Gerard 
Leigh gives this rule, " That the metal should be begun with first, and then 
" the colour :" But Sir George Mackenzie gives a more distinct rule, .agreeable to 
the practice of other nations, " That the first tincture in the wreaths should be 
u that of the field, and then that of the immediate charge, and after that the next 
" mediate and so Jforth, if there be supercharges : But yet, says he, there are 
" some old wreaths with us that are not of the tinctures of the arms, and possibly 
" they at first might have come from the colours of their mistresses' favours. By 
" old seals we cannot know the tinctures of the arms and wreaths ; but on the an- 
" cient seals of our High Stewards of Scotland they had their wreath cheque as 
" the armorial figure of the fesse cheque" 

The wreath in Camden's Latin Blazons is called tortile, in ImhofPs vitta, and 
sometimes tenia, and by others corolla, taking it for a garland, which the ancients 
used of old to adorn their helmets with. 

The blazon then of such exterior ornaments already treated of runs thus : Which 
shield of arms is timbred with helmet and mantling suitable to the bearer's quality, 
and on a wreath of his tinctures for cre c t, &c. If the colours of the wreath be 
not of these of the arms then they are to be named. Furrs used. in arms are also 
to be found in the wreath. 



Wreaths are sometimes laid aside, and in their place crowns, ducal caps, or eccle- 
siastic tiars, upon which stand the crest j of which I shall speak in the tollowing 


When crests are used alone, as upon the sides of seals, coaches, and other uten- 
sils, we find them always placed on a wreath. Gerard Leigh says, " That in the 
" reign of Henry V. no man under a knight durst place his crest on a wreath, but 
41 on an escrol ; but now he > who has liberty to timbre bis. arms with helmet and 
" mantlings, may place his crest on a wreath." 



THE crest is the highest part of the achievement, being placed upon the most 
eminent parts of the helmet, but yet so, as that it admitteth an interposi- 
tion of the mantle, wreaths, chapeau, crowns, &c. It is named crest from crista, 
tvhich signifies a comb or tuft, such as many birds have upon their heads ; as the 
cock, and peacock, lapwing, lark, &-c. The Persians called the Carians (an an- 
cient people in Asia) cocks, because they appeared in battle with crests on their 
helmets ; and to them some heralds ascribe the rise of arms and crests. 

The French heralds call them cimiers, from time, which signifies the height or 
top of any thing ; by the Latins, cimerium, quasi in cimo collocation ; by the Ita- 
lians, cimiero : and Minshew, in his Dictionary, calls it, conus galece, apex ; and 
adds, " Est in armatura signum ad familiarum differentiam, quod gestant nobiles 
" in scuti suprema partc, has cristas vocant." Syl. P. S. calls it, acroterium, in his 
j2d chap, de variis tesseraria galea acroteriis. It is sometimes called by heralds, 
ibimbrum ; but that is too general a term, for all the ornaments- which adorn the 
helmet are called timbre of the shield. 

The word tbimbrum or tymbrum, some derive from timbus a tomb, or monument 
of the dead or living, from which the verb timbrare, i. e. to timbre the shield with 
crown, helmet, mantlings, wreaths, crest, &c. as Hoppingius, cap. 9. " Nostri 
" timbri utuntur voce, facta forsan ad cimbri, hoc est busti analogium ; indeque 
" verbum timbrare, sive timbro galeam ornare." 

As for the antiquity of crests, it appears that the ancientest of the Heathen Gods 
wore them even before the use of arms, and were made of iron or steel. Jupiter 
Ammon bore a ram's head for his crest ; Mars,, that of a lion or tyger, casting out 
fire at his mouth and nostrils ; and Minerva, the mistress of arts and goddess of 
victory, bore a sphinx between two griffins, the emblem of secrecy; Proteus, whom, 
the fable represents to us in so many shapes, was a chevalier, who every day 
changed his crest, sometimes having the head of a lion, at other times the head 
of a boar, of a horse, of a bull, of a dragon, &-c. by which he was looked upon 
as a monster of many different 1 forms; as the first horsemen were looked upon 
to be Centaurs, that is half men half horse. Hercules, for his crest, used the head 
of a lion, and with the skin covered his body ; Aventinus, as descended of him, 
had the same ; Alexander the Great had also the head of a lion, and sometimes 
the head of a goat, to show that he was descended of Jupiter Ammon ; Julius 
Cassar carried sometimes a star, to show that he was come of Venus, at other times 
the head of a bull, elephant, and wolf; Marcus Corvinus, a noble Roman, had 
upon his helmet a raven, to commemorate a notable victory which he obtained ; 
because, in the time of a fight, the raven sat on his helmet, which his posterity per- 
petuated by such a figure. As Virgil, lib. 5. 

Corvinus phoebsea sedit cui casside fulva, 
Ostentans ales, preavitae insignia pugnse. 

Thus we see that crests are derived from the remotest antiquity, though now 
not used in war, armour being laid aside ; but in coat-armour they still continue. 

For the ancients using them on their heads or helmets, historians and heralds give 
several reasons ; first, For the carrying the parts of fierce animals, that the mili- 




tary men might appear fierce to strike terror in their enemies ; as Tacitus speak- 

ing of the Parthiaus ; 

Ore ferarum, rictuque horrificant galeas. 

And Virgil, lib. 8. 
Terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomtntem. 

And 2f/,)-, To the end they might appear the more beautiful, and so much taller 
than they were, yily, Some earned erests out of superstition, as a token of respect 
and reverence; as the Swedes, by the relation of Tacitus, who says they sunersti- 
t.ously earned the boar. His words are, - ln,igne superstition* formas aprorum 
gestans Hayton in hi* History of the Tartars, tells, That since the Km- 
peror Zingi was delivered from his enemies by the means of an owl which 
' perching up.,n a tree m which lie was hid, made his enemies believe there could 
be no man th iv ,,emg the owl so tamely took her rot: Upon which account, 
as a lucky bird, the kmgs ot that country bore the owl for their crest; and the 
Tartars had that bird alter in great veneration, and thought themselves happv if 
they could get any ot its leathers to wear upon their heads." 
4%, They were used to distinguish in time of battle, and to be known by their 
men, that they might stick fast to them then, and rally again about them if dis- 
persed ; and, therefore, says an English writer, " Esquires, who had no notable 
command, were not permitted to wear such on their helmets " 
The primitive Christians, says Menestrier, had for their crests and cognizances 
burmng crosses, i. ^crosses with rays. There is a resemblance of this custom yet 
with us m the Highlands; when invaded, the inhabitants send burnt crosses through 
the country to make all run to arms.. 

f old none were allowed to use crests and cognizances, but those that were 

MlrTh 5 aS t D v lodorU f ? culus in , his History of Egypt; neither did the Romans 
allow them to be used by any under the degree of a knight: And the Emperor 
Vespasian d.scharged the use of them from those that had not saved seven citizens 
Qui septem cives non servassent." Anciently those devices or cognizances were 
arbitrary taken up, and laid down at pleasure, and were not fixed and hereditary 
marks of families as atterwards: But we may say the first use of them became the 
seed and elements ot armories, when they passed from the heads of heroes to their 
ds, banners, pennons, and gideons; but, in later times, these cognizances or 
devices, we may say, do now pass from the shield to the helmet first used upon it 
laving the same signification and import; as is observed by Hoppingius de Jure 
Insrnvm cap. 9. memb. 8. lllud fere regular* est quod ea-demgalel imponun! 
rU S - 

"r-> q" casu, q u* originis causa in 
'" "* di Ut P lurimi ' ra ' - "obilissimi 

The family of COLONNI in Italy it seems used on their helmet a pillar for their 
SSdTS " iVC ?fl f hcir "r me C LONNA ' which the ^ aft "vvards placed in the 
6 arm " alUre f ' 16 fomll a " d Since have P laced *S ^ a crest! 

And a I 

a I h .v, 

m?,] ^ erV befol f e ' R h13 M-W George, King of Great Brinun, has now in 
royal achievement of Britain the wild horse of Saxony, ingrafted by way of 
*te, which before was the crest of the Dukes and Prince of Brunswick Bu 
more of such changes immediately. 

Hie crest, of whatever figure, was first carried of old by heroes on the top of 

icii "helmets, anaently called by us and the English badges, and calces by 

he French and Itahans, for their symbolical import. Devices and iSSZtZ 

an o der use than arms; and some say, that those ancient badges being afterward 

jegulate fixed, and made hereditary marks of honour, to the descendants of a ft 

Sem SS " SUrC ^ tS ; ^^ Sh ' lMs > d othcr militar ^ utensil - were from 
them called arms and tor a long time continued within the form of the shiek 
without any embelhshments adorning the outer parts of it as now 

Me of those embellishments in adorning the helmet were used in 
attles ^general musters;, and especially in tournaments and joustings in Frlncl 


and Germany, where these military exercises first began ; and then proceeded to | 
other countries, \\here great men desired to be known, and to signalize them- 
selves: And it being requisite that they should all bear different things to be 
known by, that great variety, among such a number of commanders, was very 
agreeable by the variety of crests, which were taken for some particular cause 
and motive; and accordingly they had some mysterious signification, to express 
some remarkable action, or other notable thing appertaining to their family or 

Our historians have mentioned some solemn tournaments holden with us in the 
reign of Alexander II. ; and much about the time that the English solemnized 
them in the reign of Richard I. where I doubt not but the armorial shields of 
knights were then trimmed fashionably, as those of France and Germany. 

Old seals apppended to evidents, especially those called sigilla imaginis, do repre- 
sent the dresses of knights of old, having the image of the owner in a military 
dress, fashionable to the times, most frequently on horseback, brandishing a sword 
by the right hand ; on the left arm the shield, and on the head a helmet, ensigned 
with his crest or cognizance, for which called an equestrian seal. The other side, or 
reverse, called sigillum armorum, which contains the shield of arms without any em- 
bellishments, and sometimes trimmed with exterior ornaments. A few of which 
shields I shall here mention, appended to evidents and authentic deeds. 

Equestrian seals were first used by great men represented on horseback, having 
their shields of arms on their left arm, and their heads covered with helmets, 
mantlings, wreaths, and crests ; which trimmings came afterwards to timbre the 
<hield of arms. 

As for the ancient use of them with us, I shall begin with Sir James Balfour, 
Lyon King at Arms in the reign of King Charles I. who, in a manuscript of Ex- 
terior Ornaments, said to be written by this author, the use of which manuscript I 
had from Balfour of Denmiln, a near relation of his, and have a copy of it by me, 
says, in his I2th chap. " That after all the enquiry and search he could make for 
" old seals in Scotland, he could find no seal timbred with helmet and crest, till 
' the reign of King David I. except one which belonged to GILCHRIST Earl of 
ANGUS, who lived in that king's reign, and had on his helmet a flourishing 
" branch of a palm tree; which seal was appended to a charter of his to the mo- 
" nastery of Dunfermline. And near about that time, says our author, the Earl 
' of SUTHERLAND had on his seal a shield of arms timbred with a helmet, and 
' thereupon for crest a cat salient, which is carried to this day by the family." 
WILLIAM DE LA HAYA, (one of the progenitors of the Earls of Errol, High Constable 
of Scotland) his seal of arms appended to a charter of donation, granted by him 
of the lands of Ederpollis en le Carss, to the abbacy of Cupar, (which donation 
was confirmed by King William, in the yth year of his reign) had the shield of 
arms of Hay, as now carried, timbred with a helmet, and, for crest, a falcon volant : 
But it seems there were no supporters, otherwise our author had not omitted them. 
He tells us also of Sir WILLIAM WALLACE, Governor of Scotland under John 
lialiol, the then pretended king, who had on his seal a shield of arms timbred with 
a helmet, and, for crest, a swan's head couped, appended to a gnint of his, thus: 
Willielmus Wallace, miles, custos regni Scotia; sub Joanne rege, &. cum con- 
' sensu communitatis ejusdem regni, dedisse officium Constabularitatis Jacobo 
Scrymgeour de Dudop, militi regis vexillario :" He likewise gives the seal of 
Sir JAMES DOUGLAS, the Flower of Chivalry, having his shield of arms timbred with 
a helmet, and, for crest, a bird. He lived in the reign of Robert 1. 

I have seen the armorial seal of JAMES Earl of DOUGLAS and MARR, Lord of the 
barony of Cavers, handsomely embellished, appended to a charter of his of the 
date^the ayth of July 1389, where his arms were, quarterly, first and fourth a 
man 1 * heart, and on a chief three stars for Douglas; second and third a bend 
betwixt six cross croslets fitched, for Marr, timbred with a helmet and hachements, 
and wreaths ; and,- in place of a crest, topped with a plume of feathers : the 
chievement was supported' with lions gardant, and at their backs a tree growing, 
all within a pale of wreathed wood. In the year 1442 there was a judicial tran- 
sumpt of this charter taken before the Abbot of Melrose, with the description of 
the seal by a notary, which I thought fit to insert here, and is as follows, " Charta 


" bonai memoriae domini Jacobi comitis de Douglas & de Marr, ac domini ba- 
*' roniae de Cavers, cum suo vero sigillo, rotuirdo in cera rubra albas impressa, 
" modo chartarum penden. sigillatum, in cujus quidem sigilli rotunditate seu cir- 
" cumferentia sculpebantur h;ec verba, sigillum Jacobi comitis de Douglas & in- 
" fracircumferentiam sculpebatur clypeus tnangularis, &t supra dictum clypeum le 
" timrale, &- qiuedam bosca de plumis, fit ex utraque parte ejusdem clypei quaedam 
" arbor cum ramis. Dictus vero clypeus gestus erat cum bestia sylvestri, ad mo- 
" dum leonis seu leopardi ; & infra dictum clypeum sculpebuntur tres stelluhe Si 
" unum cor, & in ijifima parte idem, &. in secunda &- intima parte sculpebantur 
" sex cruciunculae, vulgariter diet, croyslets cum le band in medio eorundem; & 
" in duabus superioribus partibus dicti clypei erat sculptura facta modo contrario 
" ad inferiorem sculpturam." The last words import what heralds say, first quarter 
and fourth the same, second and third the same, being all counterposed in quartered 
bearings. 1 have added this blazon lor its antiquity given us by a common no- 
tar. If he had begun with a description of the shield before he had begun with the 
outer parts, it had been better. 

Let this instance be sufficient for the practice of our nobility having their hel- 
mets adorned with plumes of feathers (instead of other things) for their crests, 
which was agreeable to the practice of other nations, who had feathers only for 
their crests ; as Lipsius observes, " Nescio quo naturae ductu, ubique terrarum fere 
" bellatores hoc aifectant, orientales passim atque etiam rudes isti in novo orbe, et 
" majores nostri et hinc insignia ista familiarum varia quibus superbimus." And 
Polybius, speaking of the exterior ornaments as we are doing, says, " Procter hsc 
" omnia adorantur corolla plumea, pennisque puniceis, albis & nigris, erectis 
" longitudine formae cubitalis, quae in summo vertice caeteris armis addide- 

nnt. " 

The ostrich feathers, most glorious, were more desired and sought after than 
others, for embellishing the helmets of great men. 

The cognizance and device of the Princes of Wales is a coronet adorned with' 
these feathers, since the battle of Cressy in France, where Edward the Black 
Prince of Wales took it from the head of John King of Bohemia fighting for the 
French. And such feathers became also, with some variation in their tinctures, 
a device to other sons of the royal family of England ; of which before in the 
First Part of this System. 

The tufts and plumes of feathers in old books of tournaments were called plum- 
ail fs or plum tr.r, says Menestrier, and were placed in pipes, which rose from the 
top of the helmet, frequently to be seen on the old helmets of the Germans, as also 
these of the Dukes of Savoy ; and these pipes have been by some writers taken for 

The Germans of old, and at this time, have their helmets adorned with the 
wings of birds, called voles, with the figure of some animal, as also with winding 
horns, which they used in tournaments, and sometimes with high caps called 
spiteboods, ordinarily of the tincture of the arms, and charged with the proper 
figures after the partitions of the field, *s parti, coupe, tranche, taille, and quarterly 
cheque, and lozengy, paly, and bendy ; as may be seen in their books of arms. 

But to return more particularly to crests, which were sooner used upon the hel- 
met of the chevalier in battle, and afterwards on heads of their images in 
equestrian seals, and then upon the helmets, which timbres now 'the shield, 
both with us, the English, and other nations, of which I shall add here a few 

I have observed no crests on the equestrian seals of our ancient kings, but on 
their heads, helmets, and on their crowns : Neither, are there any crests to be 
found, as I am informed, upon the seals of the kings of England, till Edward III. 
who began his reign 1327. " And .as he was the first king," says Sandford in his 
Genealogical History of England, " that quartered the arms of France and Eng- 
' land in one shield; so he was the first that used a crest, viz.. a lion passant %ar- 
' dant, crowned upon a chapeau, with which his figure on horseback was adorn- 
" ed, as on his royal seal. " 

The first crest to be met with on the seals of the Earls of Flanders, (given us by 
Olivarus Uredus de Sigillis Comitum F/andria) with whom arms were in high 


esteem, is that of PHILIP Earl of FLANDERS, where he is represented in armour orr 
horseback, supporting by his right hand a square banner, whereon was depicted 
the lion of Flanders, and on his left arm a shield with the same lion, and upon the 
top of the helmet on his head, for crest, a demi-lion. Which seal of arms was ap- 
pended to an evidence of his in the year 1 101. 

One of his successors ROBERT Earl of FLANDERS, had on his seal, in the year 
1104, his own picture in armour on horseback, holding by his left arm the shield 
of arms of Flanders, the helmet on his head adorned with a capeline or mantling 
uncut, upon which stood, for crest, a dragon ; and another like unto it was placed 
upon the head of his horse : on the reverse, or other side of his seal, was the es- 
cutcheon of his arms, neither trimmed with crown, helmet, mantling, or crest. 
His successor LODOVICK CRESSIACENSIS Earl of FLANDERS -1329, had a lion seiant, 
between two horns, for a crest, on the equestrian side. And his son and successor 
LODOVICK MALEANUS Earl of FLANDERS, anno 1346, had not only for crest the lion 
upon the equestrian side, but on the other side or reverse a shield coucbe, charged 
with the lion of Flanders, and timbred with a helmet and capeline ermine, and 
upon it a demi-vole for crest : And upon another seal of his in the year 1382, there 
is a lion seiant, holding the escutcheon of Flanders, with its head in a helmet (in 
place of that which timbres the shield) and thereupon a crown relevate with 
flowers, and issuing out of it a demi-lion between two voles for crest. And this is 
the first practice of timbring escutcheons with helmet, capelines, crowns, and 
crests, upon the seals of the Earls of Flanders. 

As for the ancient seals of the nobility in Scotland, one side .of them for the 
most part were equestrian, long before they timbred their escutcheon of arms 
with the above-mentioned ornaments ; of which I shall give three or four in- 

On a seal of ROLLAND, Constable of Scotland, he is there represented on horse- 
back in armour, with a sword in his right hand, and on his left arm a shield 
charged with a cheveron ; which figure was also on the caparisons of his horse, 
before and behind. This seal was appended to a charter of his, wherein he is 
designed Roll and in, filius Uthredi constabularius regis Scotorum, granted to Allan 
Sinclair, and Matilda his spouse, of all the lands which William Morville, gave to 

them : which charter is in the custody of Sinclair of Herdmanston, Dr. 

of Medicine. 

I have seen several seals of the ancient Earls of Dunbar and March, appended 
to evidents and charters ; as that one belonging to PATRICK Earl of DUNBAR, who 
married Ada, daughter to King William, granted by him to the abbacy of Mel- 
rose : which seal had but one side after the equestrian form, a man in armour on 
horseback, holding in his right hand a sword, and on his left arm a shield charged 
with a lion rampant, within a bordure charged with roses. His grandson Patrick 
Earl of Dunbar had such another equestrian seal in the year 1251, with this vari- 
ation, that the arms of Dunbar, as above blazoned, were also 'on the capari- 
sons of his horse ; and on the back of the seal, or reverse, was 'the impression of a, 
lesser seal, having a shield charged with a lion rampant, and the legend round Si- 
gillum Armrjrum. 

His successor PATRICK Earl of MARCH and DUNBAR, who lived in the rei^n of 
King Robert I. had only a plain shield on his seal of arms, viz. a lion rampant 
within a bordure, charged with eight roses, without helmet, crest, or any other 
exterior ornaments. 

The first of this family who had a shield of arms timbred, was that of GEORGE 
Earl of MARCH Lord ANNANDALE and MAN, with a helmet, and for crest issuing 
out of a wreath, the head and neck of a horse bridled ; the supporters of these arm* 
were two > lions seiant, and behind them two trees : which seal was appended to a 

u art r r , / S Ot the lands and wood of Sonowlsfield to the abbacy of Melrose 
8th of May 1400. These charters and seals I did see in the custody of Mr David 
Simson Historiographer for Scotland, who told me he had them from the Earl o 
Morton's charter-chest. 

THOMAS RANDOLPH, who married a sister of King Robert the Bruce, on his seal 
of arms appended to a donation of six merks out of the lands of Redpath to the 
juonks of Melrose, to say prayers for the soul of Alexander III. was only 'a shield- 


charged with three cushions, without any other exterior ornaments. His son 
THOMAS Earl of MURRAY, Lord ANNANDALE and MAN, had his shield of arms as his' 
father, without any exterior ornaments. Which two seals of arms were placed 
upon a compartment like a rose, and are supposed to be sif ilia privata, their pri- 
vate seals, which are not trimmed so as their great seals. Sir James Balfour, in 
his foresaid manuscript, says, " That he has seen the seal of this Thomas Earl of 
" Murray, nephew to King Robert I. which had the arms of Randolph, a shield 
" charged with three cushions within- a double tressure, ilowered and counter- 
" flowered, the shield timbred with helmet, roantlings, and wreath, out of the lust 
" issued a dcm-lion gardant." 

ROGER QUINCY Earl of WINCHESTER in England, who came to Scotland in the 
reign of King William, and obtained great possessions, being Hiprh Constable there 
in -right of his wife, the eldest daughter of Allan of Galloway, Constable of Scot- 
land, granted several charters, one of which I have mentioned in the First Part oE 
this System, to Secher de Seaton, to which is appended his seal in red wax, with 
two sides ; the face is equestrian, having a. man in armour on horseback brandish- 
ing a sword, and on his left arm a triangular shield, charged with seven mascles, 
three, three, and one, and had the same figure on the caparisons of his horse, and 
below its belly a winged dragon, with these words round the seal, Sigil. Rogeri de 
Shiincy cGinitis Wincestrits; On the other side of the seal, called the reverse, is a 
man standing in a coat of.mail, with a sword in his right hand, and supporting a- 
long triangular shield by his left, with the foresaid figures, being in a posture as if 
he were combating with a lion erect, having his two fore paws on the shield, and 
below his hinder feet a rose ; the -man's head and face being covered with a close 
helmet, ensigned with a circular diadem, but not adorned with flowers; upon which 
stands a dragon with wings and tail nuved for crest ; and the legend round, Sigil~- 
lum Rogeri de ^lincy constabularii Scotia: which charter and seal is in the Earl of 
Winton's charter-chest : the charter has no date. This Roger is said by our 
historians to have died in the year 1264 : and on the account of his relation, 
with the family of Seaton, it is thought that that family, being dignified 
with the title of Earl of Winton, carries the same dragon which Quincy used for 

Sandford, in his Genealogical History of England, gives us the seal of arms o 
THOMAS Earl of LANCASTER, who died in- the reign of Edward II. on which he is 
represented on horseback, in his coat of mail, with the surcoat of his arms; upon* 
his helmet stands a wiveron or dragon for his crest, and from it lambrequins* 
Our author says, " This is the first crest and mantle he observed in the royal fa- 
" mily of England, his horse being also caparisoned with his arms, \\-L.gules, three* 
" lions passant g ardant or, the wiveron being also fixed on the head of his horse. 
" His seal had also a reverse, upon whieh was a large shield charged with the said 
" three lions, and a label of five points." But this shield was not timbred with 
helmet, mantling, and crest, as afterwards. For our author tells us in his fore- 
cited book, " That the first shield he observed timbred with helmet, mantling, and 
crest, was that of THOMAS MGWBRAY, who was made Earl of NOTTINGHAM by King 
Richard II. pe r jimc turam g ladii ; and, by patent, Earl Marshal, the 1 2th of Fe- 
bruary 1382, being the first Earl Marshal of England ; those before him were 
only marischals, without that title of dignity : And afterwards upon the 2gth of Sep- 
tember 1397, he was advanced by the same king to the dignity of Duke of NOR- 
FOLK. His shield of arms was then timbred with helmet, mantllngs, and cha- 
peau ; upon which stood a lion passant gardant-, gorged with a duke's crown for 

If this be the first practice for limb-ring shields of arms in England, the practice 
has been sooner with us, as is given by the fore-mentioned instances. I shall add 
another well known, viz. the armorial seal of JOHN STEWART Earl of CARRICK, 
eldest lawful son of Robert High Steward of Scotland, who, before his father was 
king, had his shield of arms timbred with a helmet, mantling, and wreath, and 
upon it- for crest a demi-lion : Which seal was appended to a charter of his 
to tne church of Glasgow, in the year 1360; and his seal of arms, after his 
father's accession to the crown, was not only timbred, but supported by twu. 

VOL. II. li 


- y 

The figures of animals and other things placqd upon the top of the helmet of 
heroes for crest, in battle or in tournaments, were made of pasteboard, parchment, 
or boiled leather, formed and illuminate with colours suitable to the things they 
would have them represent, as Columbier tells : And that sometimes they were 
made of timber or thin iron ; but these being weighty, they were more frequently 
made of the foresaid matter, and fixed to a piece of leather, which was also fixed 
to the top of the helmet, and which leather was covered with the capeline or 
maiulings. The crests of the Knights of the Garter set upon their stalls at 
Windsor, Ashmole says, are either placed upon the wreath, or on a crown or 
ducal cap turned up with ermine ; and of whatsoever form their crests be, they 
are neatly carved in wood, and either gilt, or wrought in their proper colours 
in oil. 

When placed on the heads of heroes they look straight forward ; but when 
they top the helmet which timbres the escutcheon, they follow the position 
of the helmet direct forward in profile or side-ways ; and when more hel- 
mets are on a shield than one, they look to one another, as before men- 

All who are allowed to place on their shield of arms a helmet, may adorn it 
with mantlings, wreath, and crest; as Sir George Mackenzie in his Science of He- 
raldry, page 90. For men choose what crests they fancy ; only it is not proper to 
choose such things as could not stand, or be carried by warriors upon their hel- 
mets, as balances or other things, which cannot either stand fixed, nor wave 

I proceed to give account of crests, whose various forms depend upon the 
fancy of the bearers, who made choice of such which best pleased them for the 
time ; yet, it is presumed, many has assumed crests upon divers considerations, of 
which I shall add some from the practice of armories. 

Many considerable persons have taken the armorial figure, the charge within 
the shield, or a part of it for crest ; then the helmet is said to be armet, as the di- 
minutive of the arms : Generally the German casques are so armet ; and when the 
crest with them is of no figure, or part of the charge, yet that it may show forth 
the tessera of the family, they make it of the tinctures of the field, or by the pur- 
tition lines of the arms it timbres. 

The crest of Scotland is a lion (the armorial figure of the kingdom) seiant full- 
faced gules, crowned or, holding in his dexter paw a naked sword, and in the si- 
nister a sceptre, both erected. 

That of England is a leopard, or, as they call it, a lion passant gardant or, be- 
cause three of them are the armorial figures of that kingdom. 

The Emperor's crest is a double eagle ; the Kings of France have a flower-de- 
luce, and the Kings of Castile and Leon, a castle and lion, the proper charges of 
their imperial ensigns ; so that their helmets are armet, as the French say. 

The helmets of subjects are often armet with crests, being a part, or the haill of 
their armorial figure. A few examples I shall here add ; as HOME Earl of HOME 
has his helmet armet with a lion's head erased argent, his armorial figure being a 
lion. KER Earl of ROXBURGH, who carries in his paternal coat three unicorns' heads 
erased, takes one of them for a crest ; and KER Earl of LOTHIAN has for crest tiie 
! UD 1 in ., hls 8 lor 7. because he carries the same in his coat of augmentation. SEATON 
DUNFERMLINE, the Earl of MELVILLE, and the Lord CATHCART, have crescents 
their crests, which are the armorial figures in their shields ; and FORRESTER 
Lord FORRESTER has a hunting-horn, having three for his arms. Many other in- 
stances might be added, which I omit for brevity's cause. 

Sometimes the crest is a part of one or other of the supporters, which are placed 

sides of the shield; as that of KEITH Earl MARISCHAL, who carries for 

hart s head proper, having two harts for supporters. The Earl of LIK- 

;ows crest is a demi-savage holding a batton, his lordship's supporters being 

two savages wuh battons. The Earl of WEMYSS has for crest a swan and for sup- 

ters i two of the same. Supporters might have been as well said to have been 

>m crests, being more ancient in armories than supporters : and I doubt 

: some have been so, for crests have been used in armories before supporters. 

jeneral way of speaking, as to their particular forms, and shapes, crests, 


might have been later in families ; for every one may alter his crest as he thinks 

The armorial figures within the shield are not all fit to be used for crests, espe- 
cially the honourable ordinaries, or such things as cannot stand fixed, or wave with 
beauty ; in which case they are necessitated to take other figures fit for that end ; 
as the principal family of the name of STK^VART and its branches, carrying only a 
fesse cheque, took other figures for their crests ;. as JOHN Earl of CAKKICK. before 
mentioned, he and his predecessors had demi-lions, or lions' heads for their crest : 
The STEWARTS Earls of LENNOX a bull's head : SIEWARTS Earls of ATHOL a wolf's 
head, because many such creatures were in that country ; and the STEWARTS Earls 
of IJUCHAN, a garb, the armorial figure of that kingdom ; and tiie STEWARTS Earls 
of GALLOWAY and MURRAY have but one figure for their crest, vix. a pelican feed- 
ing her young, but with different mottos ; and the S TEWARTS of Ochiltree, for crest, 
;i civet cat. 

1 shall here mention the two seals of ROBERT Duke of ALBANY, Earl of FIFE and 
MONTEITH, brother to King Robert 11. winch I have seen. The first of them was 
appended to a precept of his to the abbacy of Mclrose 26th of May 1399, before he 
was made a Duke. The shield of this seal \\uscouclj<i, charged with a fesse cheque,. 
and surmounted with a lion rampant, and timbred with a helmet standing forward 
and open, adorned with a capeline, and upon it a wreath cheque of three tracts, 
out of which, for crest, issueth a wolf's head and neck with an arrow sticking in 
it, and holding in his mouth a rose. This achievement was supported by two 
lions seiant nod gardant. His other seal, when Duke of Albany, was supported 
and timbred as the former, with this alteration only within the shield, that it was 
quartered first and fourth, a lion rampant ; second and third, a fesse cheque, with 
such a wreath as the former with the crest upon it, which does readily show to 
whom the crest belongs. 

Noblemen of old, in the solemnities of riding of parliaments, creation of nobility, 
and other solemn meetings and processions, were in use to have their badges, be- 
ing their crests, embossed, or wrought out in plate of gold or silver, and placed 
upon their servants' coats or mantles, being of silk : And since these solemnities 
are in desuetude, their crests are placed on their silver plates^ with the wreath 
and motto, by which silver plates or seals it is known to what family they belong, 
though their shield of arms be not there placed. Also the descendants of noble 
families carry the crest of their chief, which they have right to do, as well as their 
arms, but cannot be so well distinguished by these badges without some mark re- 
lative to their descent; and, they not being willing. to add such marks of cadency 
to their crests, as Sir George Mackenzie observes, they choosed rather to carry dif- 
ferent crests, which is the reason we see so many various crests carried by gentle- 
men of one name and family. I am of opinion the variety of crests might have 
been prevented, and may be for the future, by placing their marks of caden- 
cy on the crests of their families from which they are descended, and which has 
been formerly practised by some, and especially by the princes of the blood royal, 
kings' children, brothers, uncles, and nephews, in Scotland, England, and France, 
who not only carry the royal arms, but their crests, with their marks of filiation ; 
and even the natural sons of kings do the same, having their marks of illegitima- 
tion, or placing them on their crests. 

No other subject of whatsoever quality is allowed to carry the crest of a sove- 
reign prince without licence from him. THOMAS MOWBRAY Duke of NORFOLK,, 
Earl Marshal of England, by concession of Richard II. of England, carried the 
'.re.-,t of England. HOWARD Duke of NORFOLK, as descended of a daughter and 
heir of the foresaid Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, carried the royal arms marshalled 
with his paternal; and for crest that of England a lion passant g ardant gules, gorg- 
ed with a ducal crown, which descended to his successor Thomas Duke of Norfolk, 
and his son Henry Earl of Surrey, who were arraigned for treason upon several ar- 
ticles ; one of which was for quartering and using arms which belonged to the king 
and prince, which the Earl justifying that they pertained to his ancestors, by the 
records of the Herald Office, nevertheless was found guilty, and executed on Tower- 
hill, by order of Henry VIII. of England ; as Sandford, in his Genealogical History. 
This family afterwards being reponed to fortune and honour?, carried the foresaid 


royal ensign, and all the noble branches of that family cany them also ; as irs 
Guillim's Display of Heraldry. 

JOHN Duke of LAUDERDALE obtained, a special warrant from King Charles II. to 
bear the crest of Scotland, with a flower-de-luce in the sinister paw of the lion, in> 
place of the sceptre : And others before him, for special services to the king and king- 
dom, have been rewarded with pieces of the sovereign's achievement to be their crests; 
as JOHN. RAMSAY Viscount of HADDINGTON, and Earl of HOLDEKNESS in England, 
carried, by royal permission, for his crest, the device of Scotland, viz. a thistle vert, 
ensigned with an imperial crown or : And the honourable family of CUNNINGHAM 
Earls of GL^NCAIRN have been in use, for a long time, to cany for crest, an uni- 
corn's heiid couped argent, horned and maned or, being the head of the royal sup- 
porter of Scotland. As also HOME of Wedderburn, for his frequent services against 
the English, carries the same, with the addition of being gorged with an open 
crown, a.-, in the royal achievement, as may be seen on the church of Dunglass 
(if they have not been of late defaced) whereof he the said Wedderburn was a 
founder, with the Earl of Home's progenitors ; as also on the frontispiece of ths 
House of Wedderburn, and on a seal of arms in custody of his progenitor Sir David 
Home of Wedderburn, appended to a discharge of his to Sir Alexander Home of 
that ilk, the 27th of January 1443. 

The Barons of Craigmiller, of the name of PREST'ON, were in use of old to have 
for crest an unicorn's head and neck gorged with an open crown, and issuing out 
of a ducal one in place of a wreath ; which is still to be seen on the gate of. th-i 
House of Craigmiller, timbring the arms of Preston. 

These then that have not their crests from any part of the sovereign achieve- 
ment, or their own, take other figures that best pleases the assumers. 

Some, to show their alliance to honourable families, do take for crest that which 
best fits their design ; as that used by the Earl of STRATHMORE, being the bust of 
a kdy, holding in her right hand the thistle of Scotland, and surrounded with a 
circle of laurel, in memory that one of the family married King Robert II. his 
daughter, of whom they are descended. 

BETHUN.E of Balfour, upon the account of marrying with the heiress of Balfour of 
that Ilk, not only quarters the Balrbur's arms with their own, but also used their 
crest, viz. an otter's head erased. 

Crests are sometimes assumed to perpetuate some eminent action done by their 
progenitors or themselves. DALZIEL Earl of CARNWATH hath, for crest, a sword in 
pale, to perpetuate a martial deed of one of his progenitors ; of which story be- 

The Lord SOMERVILLE has had for crest, of old, a monstrous creature like a dra- 
gon, spouting out fire before and behind, standing on a wheel, upon the account 
(as the story goes) that JOHN SOMERVILLE Baron of Linton in Teviotdale, (one of the 
progenitors of this noble family) in the reign of King William, killed a monstrous 
destructive creature in Teviotdale, by a little fiery wheel at the end of a spear ; 
and which crest has continued still in the family. 

The crest of KIKRPATRICK of Closeburn is a hand couped, holding a bloody dagger 
m. pale, upon the account that his progenitor Roger Kirkpatrick, who stood early 
tor the interest of Robert the Bruce, killed dead his enemy John Cumin, to-named 
Red, in Dumfries church ; and using a motto relative thereto, /'// make sicker. 

Sir WILLIAM SCOTT of Thirlstane, baronet, or, a bend azure, charged with a mullet 
pierced betwixt two crescents of the first, within a double tressure flowered and 
Counter-flowered of the second. Which arms are timbred with helmet and mant- 

igs; and upon a wreath of his tinctures has for crest a mural crown, and issuing 
six horsemen's banners or spears, with pennons thereat, three and three 
Jsposed in saltier, with the motto, Ready ay ready, with suitable supporters, as in 
the I5th Plate ot Achievements, Vol. I. 

King James V. was pleased to honour JOHN SCOTT of Thirlstane, a gentleman.of 

loyalty, for his frequent and ready services to his Majesty, with a special 

concession of a part of the royal ensign, the double tressure, and other suitable 

KTanH t?^ \ armor ^ c beari S. which I have seen under his Majesty's 

id, and the subscription of Sir Thomas Erskine of Brechin, secretary, which I 
have caused msert m the First Volume of this System, page 97 . And a genea- 


logical account of this family is to be seen in the Appendix annexed to this vo- 

Sometimes crests are taken to represent the offices and employments of the 

The chancellors of France adorn their arms ordinarily with the proper crest of 
office, being the figure of a woman representing France, holding by her right hand 
a sceptre, and by the left the great st-al of the kingdom. 

The old Earls of Dunbar and March, who were hereditary keepers and wardens 
of the marches of Scotland and England, from which they had the title of March, 
had always, for crest, a horse-head bridled, to show their readinesss in prosecuting 
out-fang and in-fang theft. The Lords JOHNS-CONS, now Marquis of ANNANUMJ:, 
as wardens of the West Marches of Scotland with England, took, for, crest a spur 
with wings, to show their readiness. And in Annandale, JARDINK of Applegirth, 
an ancient Family, who joined with the Johnstons, has a spur-rowel for crest. 
Others in civil employments have, for crest, the chief instruments of their trades, 
as writing-pens carried by clerks and writers, to show their rise by these employ- 
ments ; of such I have given several instances in the First Volume of this System 
from the Lyon Register. 

Crests are sometimes assumed as relative to the name and designation of the 
assumers. COCKBURN of that Ilk, a cock; CRAW of Heugh-hcad, a craw; ROCH- 
HEADS of Craiglcith and Innerleith, the head of a man in profile all rough or 
hairy: And such practice is used abroad by the UK.SINI in Italy, who carry a derni- 
bear for crest, in allusion to the name: And some have crests relative to their de- 
signation, as by the Scons Earls of BUCCLEUCH, and by the present dutchc 
buck's head erased, proper ; and Ross Lord Ross of Halkhead, a falcon's head 
erased, relative to his title. 

Such as change their arms upon just and honourable grounds retain ordinarily a, 
figure of their old arms for their crest, to- show their descent from the original 
house. Thus the Dukes of BRUNSWICK., now known by the title of Prince Elector 
of HANOVER, carried the wild horse for their crests in their old arms for West- 
phalia : But now, as I showed before, since King of Great Britain, ingrafts by way 
of ente the Westphalia horse in the arms of Great Britain. 

The Counts of THOULOUSE carried anciently a sheep, which they use now for 
their crest, having got new arms, viz. gules, a* cross clethe, vuide, and pomette or. 

The family of COLONNA, which formerly carried a mermaid for their arms, has 
now a pillar, and the old figure, the mermaid, for their crest. 

The BRUGES of Skelton, in England, carried for arms argent, a lion rampant 
azure; and, when one of the family married the heiress of Annandale in Scotland, 
laid aside his paternal coat, and carried only those of his lady, vi-/.. or, a saltier and 
chief gules, but retained the old figure, the lion, for a crest; as by BRUCE Earl of 
ELGIN, and many ancient families of that name with us, who have the lion, the 
old figure of the name, for crest. 

STEWART Earl of TRAQKAIR, to show his descent, has a garb for crest, as come 
of the Stewarts Earls of Buchan; and some, to show their maternal descent, take a 
figure from their maternal coat for crest ; as SEATON of Touch has a boar's head 
couped or, (the figure of Gordon) being descended of Sir Alexander Seaton, and 
his lady the heiress of Gordon of that Ilk. And the same practice is in England, 
where STURTON Lord STURTON has for crest a monk in a Franciscan habit, holding 
in his right hand a scourge, or whip, carried formerly by the surname of Monk, 
whose heiress one of the progenitors of the Lord Sturton married j and from them 
descended the family of Sturton. 

Though these instances make crests to appear to be hereditary and necessary to 
all the descendants, as well as arms, yet this science and its rules, by the practice 
ot all nations, has allowed a freedom to change their crests, and alter them after 
the fancy and circumstances of the bearers, being but an ornament of coats of 
arms, and so more of the nature of a device than a fixed settled piece of hereditary 
armorial bearings. Hence it is we see so many families of one stock and name 
use different crests, to show their inclinations upon several accounts, as before 

VOT . TI. K V 


We find, as before observed, that most part of crests used by the ancient heroes. 
and since by knights i:i their exercises, in tournaments, and other festivals, from 
which the use of timbring arms proceeded, were nothing anciently but the devices 
and marks of gallantry and love, as Paulus Jovius tells us; who likewise says, 
" That when Charles VIII. and Lewis XII, of France marched into Italy with 
" glorious armies, the French officers being then fond of devices, and to distinguish 
" their companies, adorned ensigns and banners with such; which amused the 
' Italians, who fell in line with such figures, and afterwards improved them to 
" greater perfection than any other nation, under certain nice rules and prescrip- 
" lions; and so laid the foundation of the curious science of devices, in which they 
" 'excel." I am not to treat of that science here, being out of my road, but of 
motios which adorn arms. 

C H A P. VI. 


THESE three are often taken for one another in this science, and all called 
devices; but to distinguish them, I shall treat of them separately in this chap- 
ter, and here to speak briefly of them. 

Mjttos and cries, of war consist of a word or words without any figure; and the 
tit-vice here mentioned is a figure without a word, being a representation and em- 
blem, or hieroglyphic, painted to express something that is to be kept in mind ; 
and these were much in use among the Egyptians, and other ancient nations. 
The word without a figure, and the figure without a word, are looked upon as 
imperfect devices; but when the word and figure are joined together, making an 
allusion, to shqw the inclination and humours of the assumers, or of something 
done, or to be done, though they be not easily understood by the vulgar, are 
perfect devices, consisting of a body (the figure) and soul (the word), as heralds 

These were much used in former ages, and in later times they are more used, 
with the addition of a motto to explain the signification. Great and curious men 
h ive been in use to have them embroidered or painted on their furniture of military 
and civil dignities, and on their seals accompanying their armorial achievements, 
for which heralds reckon them amongst the ornaments of armories ; so that I shall 
treat of them separately here, with some few remarkable instances, which will not, 
1 hope, be disagreeable to the reader. 

Motto is an Italian word signifying verbitm, that is the word or saying which 
gentlemen carry in a scroll under or above their arms; it is likewise Latined dictum, 
a saying, from whence comes our old word ditton; as in our ancient books of 
blazon of arms. Camden, for motto, says inscriptio ; and some calls it epigraph, 
because mottos are often of many words, which make proverbs, witty and religious 
sentences, most frequently relative and explanatory to the name and arms of the 
owners, and may be used by any person who has right to carry arms. 

When they have no relation to the name and arms of the owners, nor to the 
crests, they are then proper mottos, and cannot be called devices; of which I shall 
add a few instances. The family of BOURBON, in France, has the word Esperance 
Hope; the House of NEVERS, Fides: With us the Duke of GORDON has, for motto, 
Bydmid; the Duke of ARGYLE, Ne obliviscaris ; the Marquis of TWEEDDALE Spare 
naught; DONDAS of that Ilk, Essayez; INNES of that Ilk, Betraist; HOME of Wed- 
derburn, the word Remember; and so of many others such like instances that have 
no relation to the name, or any part of the arms of the bearer, are to be found in 
our old records ot the arms of the nobility and gentry, who have made choice of 
these mottos, to express their predominant passions, either of piety love or war 
or upon some adventure befallen them; and those short expressions ha-iug had 
such original, have been made hereditary in many families. 

However mottos for the most part are relative to some part of the achievement 
and especially to the crest; and from them arises a comparison, the one explaining 

e other, and so make a proper device; as by these following instances The an- 


sient motto of the Earls of SUTHERLAND, Without fear, ^pcak.s to the crest, a wild 
cat sitting. 

Vircscit vulnere virtus, the motto or ditton of STEWART Earl of GALLOWAY, is n 
lative to the crest, a pelican vulnered feeding her young in a nest, proper; which 
figure is an emblem of our Saviour: And the same figure, tor crest, the: Si :.\\ 
Earls of MURRAY use, with the motto, Stilus per Christum redemptorem. The JVLii 
quis of SEAI-ORTH'S crest is a mountain in (lames, with the motto, Luceo, non uro, \ 
shine and not burn; which dittnn is used by MACKENZIE Earl of CROMARI Y, and 
applied to his crest, the sun in hii, splendor. 

The motto Dread God, relative to a hand holding a thunderbolt, by CARNEGIL 
Earl of SOUTHESK. 

GRAY Lord GRAY has, for crest, an anchor, proper; \\ith the motto, Anchor, f,i ' 

ELPHINSTON Lord Balmerino's crest, a dove argent, crowned or, its feet en- 
vironed with a snake, proper; motto, Prudentia fr audit nescia, Honesty knows no 

M'K.AY Lord RAE has the words Manuforti, By the hand of a -trong man; and, 
for the figure, a hand holding a sword, proper. 

ARBUTHNOT Viscount of ARBUTHNOT has the words Laus Deo; to his crest, ;i 
peacock's head and neck, proper: ARUUTHNOT of Fiddes to a peacock passant, 
proper, lias these words, Tarn interim (juam extcrna, to intimate that he desires to 
be both beautiful within and without: And ARBUTHNOT of Fifldowrie, has for motto, 
Internet prestant, to the same figure. 

In cruce salvs, a frequent motto used upon account of religion, as Uy those of 
the name of ABERCROMBY, with a cross for the figure : But AKERCROMBY of Glass- 
haugh has for motto, Vive ut vivas, Live that ye may live, relative to a bee volant, 
proper: And the same figure, the bee, has BEATSON of Kilrie for crest; with the 
motto, Cum prudent ia sedulus'. AYTON of that Ilk, in Fife, a hand pulling a rose, 
proper; with the motto, Decerpta dahunt odorem, as other families of that name. 

DOUGLAS of Caver's motto, Do or die; crest, a dexter hand holding a broken 
lance in bend. DRUMMOND of Hawthornden's crest, a pegasus, proper, maned and 
winged or; with the motto, Has gloria reddit honores. 

DRUMMOND of Blair, for crest, a nest of young ravens, proper: motto, Deus pro- 
videbit, God will provide. , 

DRUMMOND of Innermay's crest, a hand holding a flaming heart; with the motto, 
Loyal au mort. 

Many more such instances I could give, but refer the reader to the sculptures 
in the plates of the First and Second Volume of this System; and shall add more 
instances upon different accounts. 

All Europe over some mottos are assumed to relate to the name of the bearers. 

The family of CAMPI, in Placenta, have the words of the xcvi. Psalm, Gaude- 
liiint campi, et omnia qiue in Us sunt, i. e. Let the fields be joyful, and all that is 

The family of MY-PONT, in Burgundy, has for motto, My-pont difficile a passer, 
i. e. My bridge is hard to be passed. 

VERE Earl of OXFORD, in England, had for motto, Vera nihil verius, i, e. Nothing 
truer than I 'ere; said by some to have been pronounced by Queen Elizabeth in 
commendation of the loyalty of that family. 

CONQUEROR of Frierton has the word llctoria, i. e. Victory, relative to his 

CALDER of Liniger, tfgilan.! /ion cadet. 

Mottos are assumed also to show the origin of the bearers, either from the father 
or mother's side: As the M'!NTOSHES of that Ilk, Captains of Clan-Chatton, have, 
for crest, a cat salient, proper; with the motto, Touch not the cat but in glove; as 
descended from the Ca^ti, by the mother's side, a German people, who came to 
Scotland, and said to have curried the said figure: And the MACPHERSONS, as a 
branch of the Clan-Chattons, have the same crest and motto; for which see Ap- 
pendix, page 44. 

STEWART of Phisgall, as descended of John Stewart, who married the heiress of 
Bonkill, in the shire of Berwick, and had buckles for her armorial figure, has, for 


crest, a demi-lion, holding in his dexter paw a buckle or; with the motto, Suffibu- 
latus majores sequor. 

BALNAVES of Carnbody has, for crest, a hand holding a football; with the motto, 
Hinc origo, i. e. From thence my rise : because the first of this name (being for- 
merly called Naves') playing at the football before the king, who cried, Well balled 
.SV/-w, took the surname Balnaves. 

Mottns do also perpetuate great and glorious actions of a family; as that crest 
and motto of the SCRYMCEOURS of Dudop, a lion's paw, holding a sword, proper: 
motto, Dissipate ; from one of the ancestors of this family, who defeat the kings' 
enemies. See Appendix. 

Some families of the name of CRAWFORD have, for motto, Tutum te robore reddttm, 
i.e. I'll save thee by strength; to perpetuate the seasonable action of one of the 
progenitors of the name, who opportunely relieved King David I. when dismount- 
ed from his horse by the stroke of a deer, when hunting near Edinburgh, where the 
abbey of Holyroodhouse now stands; and a deer's head, with a cross betwixt his 
horns, became the ensign of that abbacy, and all the baronies belonging to it, as 
the Canougate, &c. As also the armorial figure of the Crawfurds descended 
from the above Crawfurd. 

CRAWFURD of Jordanhill, descended of Captain Thomas Crawfurd, a younger son 
of Crawfurd of Kilbirnie, (which family carries a fesse ermine for arms) who sur- 
prised and took in the impregnable castle of Dumbarton, the 2d of April 1571, 
took, for crest, a castle; with the motto, Expugnavi. 

ALEXANDER Earl of STIRLING, having planted Nova Scotia, took, for motto, Per 
mare et terras. 

RAMSAY Viscount of HADDINGTON, upon his happy rescuing King James VI. 
from the bad attempts of the Earl of Cowrie, ^and his brother, whom Ramsay killed, 
took, for motto, Hac ilextra vindex principis et patriot. 

OGILVIE of Ban-as, who had a main hand in the preservation of the regalia of 
Scotland, till King Charles II. his Restoration, took then, for motto, Praclarum 
regi et regno servitium. 

Mottos are sometimes taken to perpetuate events and accidents of families: Thus 
the Lord MAXWELL, being forfeited, and thereafter restored, took, for motto, Re- 
vin'sco, I stand in awe to offend. Mackenzie's Heraldry. 

Mr DAVID WATSON of Sauchton having recovered these lands by purchase, after 
they had been sold by his progenitors upwards of a hundred years, upon recovery 
ot them, took, for motto, Insperata floruit, relative to a branch sprouting out of an 
old stock of a tree, his crest. 

Mottos are also assumed to show offices and employments: Thus the Lord JOHN- 
STON, of old, when Warden of the West Marches, had these words, Light thieves all; 
that is, Light from your horses, and render yourselves; and since dignified with 
the title of Earl of ANNANDALE, the family use, for motto, Nunquam non paratus, i. e. 
Always ready. 

These of the name of FORRESTER have ordinarily, for motto, Blow Hunter thy horn. 
Severals who have risen to honour and fortune by their employments, such as no- 
taries and writers, as I have observed before, have taken writing-pens for their 
crest, and mottos apposite thereto, to show their fidelity and sedulity in their em- 
ployments: As Mr ROBERT ALEXANDER of Boghall took, for motto, Fidem serva: 
And Sir JAMES ELPHINSTON of Craighouse, Sedulitate. 

Some mottos relate neither to the crests nor figures within the shield, but to the 
supporters; As that of the House of BDCCLEUGH have the word Amo; their sup- 
porters, two women in rich apparel. 

The Earl of ROTHES'S motto Grip fast, alludes to his supporters, two griffins. 
CARNEGIE Earl of NORTHESK has, for supporters, two leopards spotted, proper; 
and, for motto, Tache sans tache. 

The mottos relative to crests are placed above them upon escrols, which sur- 

the achievement; when they relate or speak to supporters, thev should be 

upon the compartment on which the supporters stand ; which the reader 

in the sculptures of achievements in the First and Second Volumes of this 

f which I shall mention an example, the achievement of Sir JOHN LAUDEK 

I'ountamhall, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, who Hs for c ^ 3 


tower argent^ masoned sable, and a man looking over the embattlements; and, for 
motto, relative to it, upon an escrol, Turns prudentia custos; and below the achieve- 
ment, upon the compartment, on which stand the supporters, these words, Ut mi- 
gratunis habit n. 

When there are three mottos, or more, they are disposed about the parts of the 
achievement to uhich they relate; as tho^e which adorned the achievements of the 
Karl of WiN'i UN'S crest, a dragon, proper, spouting out fire; and above it an escrol, 
with the motto, Hazard jtitfordward: And upon another escrol, which passes over 
the middle of the supporters, and behind the middle of the shield, are these words, 
(relative to the blazing star in surtout) Intaminatis fulgrt bonorihus; and, on the 
compartment, whereupon stands the supporters, (as relative to them) Invia virtutl 
via ntillfi; as in the Plate of Achievements, Vol. I. 

The Spaniards have another method of placing their mottos within the shield, 
bordure-ways, of which I have seen severals, and shall here mention only that of 
the Archbishop of TARRAGON in Spain, whose name was JOHN TEREYS, who car- 
ried, for arms, a lion rampant holding a cross; and round the lion were these word-,, 
for his device, Hi/ji/f I'htitte omnia. 

The Popes, do the same on their seals of lead, where, on the one side, are the 
heads of St Peter and St Paul affronts ; and, on the other side, a shield quarterly ; 
in the first quarter, the words Sanctus Petrus, in the second, Sanctus Paulas; and 
iu the other two quarters the names of the present Pope; and round these quarters, 
bordure-ways, the device of the present Pope, being ordinarily a short sentence or 
verse taken from the Scripture when he is elected. 

Having treated I think sufficiently of mottos and devices as private epigraphs, I 
shall proceed to public ones, viz. cries of war. 

Cries of War were well known of old by the ancients, and much in request, I 
may say, by all nations; by the French called cris di guerre, and with us called 
slughorns. These have a great affinity with mottos and devices, and many times 
are taken for one another; so that the cry has become mottos to ancient families. 

Cries of war consist ordinarily of three or four words, called by the Italian Syl- 
vester Petra Sancta, clamor militaris. It belonged anciently to none but to so- 
vereign princes, dukes, earls, great barons, and chiefs of potent families, who had 
the command of troops of men ; by which cry they gathered them, led them on to 
battle, and, when distressed or put to confusion, did rally them. 

Menestrier says, " That those who had right to carry a banner with the cry of 
" war, were taken for great gentlemen, who used them not only in real fights, 
" but in tournaments, where the heralds not only blazoned their arms, but pro- 
" claimed their cries before them that they might be known; as in the formula of 
" the tournaments of Shovanncy in the year 1282." 

These cries are either taken from the name of the chief commander of troops, 
from the place where they are to meet and rendezvous, or from the figure on the 
banner or standard. 

As for the first, the cry of the family of BOURBON, was Bourbon; and other great 
families besides the name added some eulogium, to show their best qualities; as 
tht; cry of the Counts of HAINAULT, Hainault the Noble; the Duke of MILAN, 
Milan the Valiant; and the King of ARMENIA, cried Armenia the Noble King. With 
us the cry of the old Earls of DOUGLAS was, A Douglas, a Douglas, which was very 
formidable to their enemies who had found their valour. 

Cries from the place of rendezvousing were frequent with us ; as that of the 
HOMES, A Home, A Home, intimating the meeting at Home Castle ; the MACKEN- 
have for cry, Tullochdar; the CLAN-CHATTONS, Craig-gow, or Craig-owie; and 
the GRANTS, Craig-ellachie, &c. which were cries taken from the places where those 
clans do rendezvous, and proclaimed through their countries by such as were ap- 
pointed carrying a cross of wood burnt at the end, called a fiery cross; upon which 
all the vassals and dependents met at the respective places of their clans ; and 
the cry continued in their expeditions, and in action to distinguish their different 

Cries of war have been taken from the names of patron saints ; as the kings of 
i LAND had St Andrew ; the Kings of ENGLAND, St George ; the Dukes' of AN- 
jou cried St Maurice; and the Kings of FRANCE Montjo\e St Dennis. Severals have 
VOL. II. L 1 


endeavoured to explain this cry ; some calling it a joy, as Moult Joy ; some Latin 
it, meum gaudhnn ; others, as Matthew Paris, montis gaudium. 

Menestrier, in his Treatise of Exterior Ornaments, calls it a cry of rallying, and 
signifies nothing but the standard of St Dennis, which the ancient kings of France 
did carry in their wars ; and montjoyr, in old French, signified a mount or heap of 
stones gathered together, for directing the high-ways from place to place, with 
crosses set upon them, especially in the way from Paris to St Dennis, and are still 
called the montjovs of St Dennis ; so that the cry of France signifies nothing but 
the banner of St Dennis, after which the army marched, and to it rallied. The 
Dukes of BURGUNDY, who had the image of St Andrew on his cross upon their 
ensigns, cried also, montjoye St Andrew ; and the Dukes of BOURBON, who had the 
image of St Mary on their ensigns, cried, montjoye notre dame. 

This author, in his former treatise, gives us several sorts of cries of war, of which 
I shall mention a few. First, These of resolution, assumed by those who undertook 
the holy war, cried Dieu le veut, i. e. God willeth it. Cries of invocation, such as 
that of the Lords of MONTMORENCY, Dieu aide au premier Crestien, i. e. God assist 
the first Christian, upon account the family was the first Christian one in 
France. Ashmole, on the Institutions of the Garter, says, " That the kings of 
" England cried, montjoye notre dame St George, having the images of the Virgin 
" Mary and St George on their standards." This author likewise observes in the 
fore-mentioned book, page 189, " That Edward III. of England, at a skirmish 
" near Calais 1349, had for his cry, ha St Edward, (meaning the Confessor) ba 
" St George. 

Menestrier gives us cries of exhortation ; as that of the emperor's, a dextre et a 
sinistre, to exhort the soldiers to fight valiantly on the right and left hand. For 
cries of rallying, he gives that of the Counts of FLANDERS, au lion, for the soldiers 
to follow or rally to the standard, upon which was the lion of Flanders. And our 
author says, that montjoye St Dennis was just another. And Barry, a French he- 
rald, observes, all the great men in France had for their cries, montjoye, who carried 
flower-de-luces. And hence the word montjoye is become the name of the princi- 
pal Herald of France. 

Cries of wars are ordinarily placed as mottos upon escrols above the crest ; as 
that of France, at this time, is placed over the pavilion of the arms of France ; 
as also that of the Dukes of LENNOX, avant Darnly, ever since the old cry became 
the motto of the family. Many old families with us and abroad use their old cries 
in place of mottos, having no use for them of late, the way of fighting being al- 
tered; so that now they are only marks of greatness and power, and continued 
for the antiquity and honour of families. So much then for the devices which 
consist only of words. I shall proceed to devices of figures, which have no word or 
words, many of them being initial letters of the name, and others of them figures, 
with pious sentences added to explain them. 

Sovereigns have been for a long time, and are yet in use to place at the sides of 
their shields of arms, on their coins, the initial letters of their names; as our kings 
of the name of James had J. R. at the sides of their shields ; Queen Mary M. R. 
and for Charles C. R. The kings of France of the name of Charles had the 'let- 
ter K. at the side of their shields ; and the four Henrys had the letter H. and 
these of the name of Lewis the letter L.; which letters were ensigned with crowns. 
The family of the HOTMANS in Paris, place the letter H. on the collars of their 
supporters, being lions. 

The ancient device of the house of GUISE, was an A. within a circle, which, as 
Menestrier says, signifies, chacun a son tour, i. e. every one to his turn! The let- 
'. the Mark of the Pope, and that letter surmounted with a saltier cross 
the mark of a martyr, as pro Christo. The superscription which Pilate caused 
place upon the cross of the Holy Jesus, was the device of CONSTANTINE the Em- 
per r upon his signs and banners, as Menestrier. 

The device of the Order of the Jesuits consists of the letters T H S Jesus 
hominum salvator ; and when the addition of the three passion-nails] and a cross 

led to them, they are then the complete ensign of that society 
The Emperor FREDERICK III. took for his device the five vowels of the alphabet, 
A, -t, 1, U, U, interpreted, Ainiila est imperium orbis universe. 


The device of Savoy consists of four letters, F, E, R, T, which, by some, signi- 
fies, Fortitudo ejus Rbodum tenuit, i. e. his bravery preserved Rhodes. Others say 
these letters import, that his motto or cry was, frappez, entrez, rompez tout, i. e. 
beat, enter, break all, which AMADEUS of Savoy took with the white cross for his 
device when he assisted the knights of Rhodes against the Turks. 

The family of FELIX, in Piedmont, have for their device three F's, to signify, 
Felices fuenint Jideles, i. e. the Felices were faithful, because they stood firm and 
loyal for Amadeus Count of Savoy, anno, 1227, when all Piedmont revolted from 
the Count except the town of Rivoli, in which the family was the mo^t consider- 

Devices which consist only of figures without words, are the same with the 
hieroglyphics and emblems used by the ancients, of old, to signify their minds, con- 
ceptions, and intentions ; and from such came orriginally crests, and other armorial 
figures placed on the shield above, or at the side of it, some being temporary, and 
others of a longer duration. 

The thistle, an old device carried by the Kings of Scotland, and after assumed 
by the Dukes of BOURBON, in France, the roses in England by the houses of YORK. 
anJ LANCASTER., the fusile by the Dukes of BURGUNDY, the porcupine and salaman- 
der by the Kings of FRANCE, were properly their devices; whose intentions and 
significations at first were not well known, till afterwards opposite words and sen- 
tences were applied to them, and were ordinarily placed at the sides or below the 
shield : as the caltrapes of the Earls of PERTH, the salamander of DUNDAS of that 
Ilk, the thistle and rose in his Majesty's achievement issuing out of the compart- 
ment, the known devices of Scotland and England united in the person of 
J -ES VI. Before which time, Henry VII. of England, representer of the House 
of Lancaster, joined the red rose of Lancaster with the white one of the House of 
York, and placed them below his shield of arms issuing out of the compartment, 
to show the incorporate union of these two families, by his marrying Elizabeth the 
heiress of York ; so that the device of England was then a rose parted per pale, gules 
and urgent. This king had also at the side of his shield of arms, for a device, a 
portcullis, to show his descent by his mother from the family of Beaufort ; to 
whu i he added these words, Ahera securitas, meaning thereby, that as the port- 
cullis, the device of the Duke of SOMERSET, the eldest son by the third wire of 
JOHN of Gaunt Duke of LANCASTER, fourth son of Edward III. is an additional se- 
curity to a gate or porch of a fort, so his descent from his mother strengthened his 
other title; and from this device he instituted a pursuivant by the name of Portcullis. 

The portcullis has been a device used by our kings since King JAMES I. of that 
name in Scotland ; as may be seen on the old buildings and medals of our kings' 
houses, since the marriage of the said king with Jane Beaufort, eldest daughter of 
John Earl of Somerset, eldest son of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, fourth 
son of Edward III. and righteous heiress of the House of Lancaster; as Sir George 
Mackenzie observes in his discourse concerning the three unions, page 25. to show 
their maternal descent from the royal family of England. 

Since 1 have fallen in with the devices of the royal family of England, which, 
were very frequent upon the pretension of the Houses of York and Lancaster to 
that crown, I hope my reader will not be offended (since they adorned their 
achievement with such devices, which obscurely intimate their intents and de- 
signs) to give a short account of them with their several accessions to the crown. 

The fore-mentioned John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (in the reign of Richard 
II. who had no issue) pretended a right to the crown, and that before the house 
of York ; He placed at each side of his achievement an eagle standing on a pad- 
lock, essaying to open the same, intimating, that by the king of birds he would 
force oft" his fetters of subjection; for which see Sandford's Genealogical History of 
England, who gives us his arms in sculpture, with that device adorning his achieve- 
ment. His son and successor HENRY (surnamed Bolingbroke, from the place he 
born) Duke of LANCASTER, before he usurped the crown, under the title of 
Henry IV. in a combat (allowed by King Richard II.) with MOWBRAY Duke of 
NORFOLK, appeared in his armorial hereditary ensigns, with devices accompanying 
them being swans and antelopes. The Duke of Norfolk, on the other hand/ ap- 
peared with his armorial ensigns, being lions and mulberry trees as rebuses to the 



name of Mowbray ; which living creatures became the supporters of the descendants 
t these families. And here it maybe observed, that .the word rebuses is used 
when a coat of arms or crest alludes to the name or. the bearer, which the trench 
call parlanh-s, and the English, canting arms. 

EDMOND Duke of York, lirth son of King Edward III. upon his brother John 
Duke of Lancaster's aspiring to the crown, took a figure tor device, resembling that 
of his brother's viz. a falcon in a fetter-lock, implying, that he was shut up trom 
his right to the crown. He observing his sons viewing it one day, asked them, 
what was Latin for a fetter-lock? who returning no answer, he saidjnc bac hoc face- 
atis advising them to be silent, for God knows what may come to pass. Which 
story his grandson King Edward IV. reported, and (as Sandford in his history) com- 
manded his younger son, Richard Duke of York to use that device, with the tet- 
ter lock opened ; and Camden, in his Remains, page 215. says the same 

EDWARD IV. the first of the house of York that ascended the throne of England, 
to show his .right and descent to the crown, used several devices ; as the white 
lion of the Earl of MARCH, in whose right, by descent, he pretended to the crown ; 
as also by the line of the BURGHS, Earls of ULSTER, who have sometimes used a dragon 
seiant sable, crowned or, the cognizance of that family ; neither did he omit the 
device of the house of CLARE, viz. a bull sable hoofed and horned or, with these 
words, ex honors de Clare, ur)on the account that Elizabeth, one of the co-heirs of 
Clare and earldom of Gloucester, was wife to John de Burgh, and mother of Wil- 
liam Earl of Ulster : and to complete the four probative proofs of his noble des- 
cent, he used also a white hart attired, accolled and unguled or, standing on a mount 
vert* with the words, ex rege Ricardo, which was the device of RICHARD II. taken 
from that of his mother Princess Jean of Kent. This King Richard, anno 1387, 
nominated ROGER MORTIMER, his successor, who was grandfather to King Ed- 
ward IV. 

RICHARD III. of the family of York had a boar for his device, and was the last 
king of the House of York. 

HENRY VII. of the House of Lancaster, married the heiress of the House of York ; 
so that the red and white roses (as before) were united, to show the union of these 
two houses ; and besides he had a red dragon for a device, which was used by Cad- 
wallader the last king of the Britons, from whom, by masculine line, he derived 
his pedigree ; and from this device the king made a pursuivant, called Rouge Dra- 

HENRY VIII. of England, son of Henry VII. had for his device a greyhound 
collared and courant, to show his descent from his mother, being one of the de- 
vices of the House of York ; and used also a red rose, a flower-de-luce, and a gol- 
den portcullis, which Sandford calls his hereditary devices or badges. 

His daughter MARY Queen of ENGLAND had a red and white rose with a pome- 
granate knit together, to show her descent from Lancaster and Spain. But our au- 
thor tells us, that afterwards the English wits began to imitate the French and Ita- 
lians in their devices, by adding regular mottos, to show some temporary emer- 
gents ; and instances that of Henry VIII. who, upon the interview he had in France 
with Francis I. and the Emperor Charles V. as arbitrator in accommodating some 
difference betwixt them, took, for device, or impress, an English archer in a green 
coat, drawing his arrow to the head, with the inscription Cui adhero protest, i. e. 
He to whom I adhere will prevail. 

But these temporary devices or impresses being the subject of another science, 
I shall go no further into them, and advertise my reader that those I have men- 
tioned of a longer duration, as hereditary cognizances of a high descent, adorn 
the achievements of noble families, and frequently become the supporters of 
these various ones which attended those royal achievements of England I have 




THESE, ns the former Exterior Ornaments which I have been treating of, were 
originally only ancient devices, which by custom came to embellish armorial 
en.iigns, and formally to timbre and support them, from which they are generally 
called supporters, and by the Latins susttntncula, from their holding tlie shield : If 
they be of the figures of angels, men or women, they are called tenents by the 
French, because they hold the shield of arms in their natural posture ; but when 
the shield is supported by the figures of other creatures, such as beasts and fowls, 
as lions, bears, horses, &c. eagles, griifins, falcons, &-c. being erect and out of 
theii natural posture, they are called properly supporters : And those that write in 
Liit.n want not their fancy in calling them (ttlnntides, from the fable of Atlas sup- 
porting the world; as also telamones, because painters represent Telamon carrying 
his mistress, called also by architects Colosses, (Pru. Hero.) " Colossi isti &- susu-n 
" tacula aliquum onus, quasi in sublimi sustinentes, nomen acceperunt ;" for sup- 
porting weighty things on high they have their name. But telamones may be 
said, as some will, to be composed of these two words, tellus et homines, (the earth 
and men) and understood for giants filii terra:, 

When inanimate things are placed at the sides of the shield by way of sup- 
porters, the English call them cottises, as if the shield were cotised with them : 
which word the English bring from costa the ribs, in Guillim's Display ; but Sir 
George Mackenzie more properly from the French \voidcote, the side; and for such 
things the Latins say, stipantes latera scuti. 

I shall here add what the ingenious gentleman, the author of the new English 
Dictionary of Heraldry, printed in the year 1725, says in the title of Supporters: 
" Things placed on the sides of the achievements, representing sometimes things 
" living, and sometimes dead ; but these of some blazoners are termed supporters, 
' whose conceit therein I can hardly approve, quia diversorum diversa est ratio ; 
" and, therefore, the blazon that 1 would give unto things so different in nature, is, 
" that if things be living, and seize upon the shield, then shall they be called pro- 
" perly supporters, and if they are inanimate, and touch not the escutcheon, then 
" shall such arms be said to be not supported, but cottised of such and such things ; 
" for, how can those properly be said to support that touch not the thing said to 
" be supported by them ? To persons under the degree of bannerets it is not per- 
" mitted to bear their arms supported, that honour being peculiar to those that 
" are called nobiles majores. And those cottises have their name agreeable to the 
" things whose quality they represent, and are so called of costa, the rib, either of 
" man or beast ; for it is proper to the rib to inclose the intrails of things animal, 
" and to add form and fashion to the body : In like manner do those inclose the 
" coat-armour whereunto they are annexed, and do give a comely grace and orna- 
" ment to the same. Having heard what is in that word concerning that impor- 
" tant part of armory ; for the better understanding of it, here shall be added some- 
" thing of what the French heralds, who were masters of the English, say to this 
" purpose. These which we call supporters are no other than certain animals, 
" quadrupedes, birds, or reptiles ; as lions, leopards, dogs, unicorns, eagles, grif- 
" fins, dragons, and several others placed on the two sides of the escutcheons, as 
" if they were appointed to guard it, supporting and lifting it up with their paws or 
" claws. Asfor the tenents, which most men have confounded with the supporters, tak- 
" ing them for the same thing, 1 find this difference, that the supporters hold up, 
" and the tenents hold, and do not lift up the escutcheon, but hold it under their 
" hands ; as we often find when they are angels or human creatures, or the like. 
" The supporters and tenents are generally taken from some parts of the coat- 
" armour, but sometimes are quite different from it, there being nothing to oblige 
" them to it." 

As for the origin and first use of supporters, as we now see them, there are dif- 
ferent opinions : First, as I said in the former chapter of emblems and .devices, 
they were placed at the sides of the escutcheons by the owners, to show some 

VOL. II. Mm 


mystical meaning, and so through time became their supporters. But other 
eminent heralds bring the first use of supporters from tournaments and joustings, 
and others from the solemnities of creating nobility, of which 1 shall give a full 


Menestrier treats of supporters fully, and brings them from tournaments and 
joustings, to which, by the laws of exercises, none were admitted but those that 
were truly noble, and who were obliged to expose their arms, as proofs of their 
nobility, which they then adorned with their helmets, mantlings, wreaths, crests, 
and devices, sometime before the exercise began, to the end that they might the 
more easily be known and distinguished in time of battle. And as this was, as I 
mentioned before, the first rise of these exterior ornaments, so Menestrier and other 
French writers bring from thence the rise and progressive use of supporters. The 
knights nobles, qualified for such exercises, had their arms hung up on the bainer 
trees, palaces, and pavilions, near to the place of jousting, which were attended by 
their armour-bearers and esquires, to the end they might acquaint their masters 
what knight gave them a challenge to fight, which was done by touching the 
shield. Our author tells us the knights put their armour-bearers, pages, and ser- 
vants in such dresses as they fancied, making them sometimes appear like Sa- 
vages, Saracens, Moors, Sirens, and with other odd dresses ; and sometimes under 
disguise with the skins of lions, bears, &-c. to guard their shields of arms, and to 
give an account of the names and arms of those who gave the challenge, by touch- 
ing the shields of their masters. 

I shall mention here the formula of a tournament given us by William Segar 
Norroy King at Arms in England, in his book of Honour, Military and Civil. 
This tournament was holden at Ingueluer in France 1389, which several French 
lords and gentlemen occasioned, by giving a challenge to as many Englishmen of 
the same quality. A part of the challenge from the French side I shall here add 
from our author. " We likewise give you to understand that such order is taken, 
" that every one of us shall have a shield of arms and impress, (I. e. device or 
" crest) hung on the outside of his pavilion, to the end, if any of you desire to 
" run at tilts, then, that the day before, ye may, with a lance, or such weapon 
" as you intend to joust with, touch the shield of the defendant ; and who intends 
" to try his fortune both with blunt and sharp, must touch the shield with both, 
" and signify his name and arms to them that attend, or have their shields in 
" keeping." 

From these attenders and keepers of their master's shields, heralds bring the first 
use of supporters occasioned by such exercises, into which all that were noble or 
gentle by father and mother's side were admitted, and had afterwards right to carry 

I cannot omit to mention a famous tournament proclaimed by the order of King 
James IV. of Scotland, through Germany, France, and England, under the title, 
In defence of the Savage Knight, to be holden at Edinburgh on the festival of his 
Majesty's marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England. 

The fame of which tournament (says Hawthornden in his History of the 
' Jameses, and other manuscripts, which I have seen in the lawyers' library) 

brought many foreign lords and knights to Scotland, where challenges were 
" given and received in defence of the Savage Knight, for several days before the 
' prefixt day of exercise. The shields of the nobility and gentry of Scotland, 

that designed to joust or tilt, were hung up on the barrier and other places near 

by, guarded with strong and robust Highlandmen,,in savage dress, whose figures 
' afterwards became the supporters of some families who jousted in this tourna- 
' ment, though long before this time we had tournaments in Alexander II. his 
' reign; from which time I think supporters began with us, as by ancient seals, 
1 where savages are placed as supporters at the sides of the shields. " 

John Baptista Chancellor of Brabant, a learned gentleman in this science, in his 
commendable boo* Jurisprudentia Heroica, chapter Of Supporters, tells us, " That 

some are of the opinion that their rise and custom of hanging up shields was in 
' imitation of the Romans, who, after their return from victory han-red up 
' shields, helmets, and other trophies, which they had taken from their enemies, 
4 upon trees and public places, to show their valour and conquest," 


" Others again, says our author, impute the use of supporters to the vanity and 
" ambition of men to embellish their arms, and the tessera; of their descent, with- 
" such figures as pleased them, till they were restricted by the laws of nations, 
" which allowed them to none but to those who were able to erect a banner in the 
" field; such as high barons, bannerets, and knights, who were allowed the figure 
" of any creature they fancied to support their banners; for they could not stand 
" properly at the sides of their shields of arms without supporters holding them 
" up. Banners are more frequent in Germany than elsewhere." I shall add here 
our author's words ; " Sed cum vexilla, ha-c per se subsistere, circa insignia ne- 
" quaquam possent, excogitavit industria hominum, vel ambitio tenentes sive 
" sustentantes, quos cum uxuic atque vexilla ipsa indistincte assumerc non eru- 
" besceret." 

Our author is much for the opinion, as most reasonable, that supporters had 
their rise from tournaments and joustings, as I have given them from Menestrier 
and others ; for \\hich I shall here add his own words from the supplement to his 
book, page 139. " Alii originem telamonum verius derivant a certdminibus, ludi- 
" ens, seu hastiludiis, in quibus milites suas curabant deferri lanceas & scuta per 
" ephebos & pedissequos (youths and waiting-men) transformatos in ursos, leones, 
" silvestres, ethiopes, &. id genus alias formas, ut videre est in antiquis liistoriis, 
" &- memoriis Oliverii a Marca. Injungebatur his latoribus &. pedissequis ut 
" campum martium aperirent, affigerent scuti pendula arboribus aut columnis, in 
" viis publicis, vel locis ad dimicandum assignatis, ut contra prodituri in campum 
" tangerent ilia scuta, quibus promiscue ut custodes adstabant, pigmei, gigantes,. 
" silvestres, sarazeni, monstra, vel homines in forma animalium aderent &. feciales, 
" qui nomen inscriberent &- observarent illos, qui eorum scuta tangerent, atque 
" exinde nomen tenentium (gallice tenents) conflatum volunt." The import of 
which is the same which 1 brought from Menestrier in the former page, and 
needless here to be repeated, to wit, that the rise of supporters came from the 
customs of tournaments, in having the shields of the combatants attended by their 
esquires and pages in whatever dress they would. 

Those who were admitted into tournaments and joustings were obliged to make, 
a formal proof of their ancient nobility by both descents, paternal and maternal, 
before the heralds, who attended for that end ; and then their armorial ensigns 
with their crests and other devices were recorded, and formerly exposed with their 
pages and servants in several dresses or disguises. 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, chap. 31. Of supporters, gives 
another rise of them as follows. 

" Supporters (says he) are those exterior ornaments which are placed without 
" the shield at its sides, and were at first invented (as Petra Sancta observes) to 
" represent the armour-bearers of knights. But why then are they ordinarily two ? 
" And therefore I rather believe that their first origin and use was from the custom. 
" which ever was and is, of leading such as are invested with any great honour to 
" the prince who confers it. Thus when any man is created a duke, marquis, or 
" knight of St Andrew, of the Garter, or any other order, either in Scotland or 
" elsewhere, he is supported by, and led to the prince betwixt two of the quality, 
" and so receives from him the symbols of that honour: And in remembrance of 
" that solemnity his arms are thereafter supported by any two creatures which he 
" chooses ; and therefore, in the received opinion of all heralds, only nobiles majores 
' who have been so invested in these honours are allowed to have supporters : And 
" albeit chiefs of old families have used supporters with us, yet they owe these to 
" prescription, and not to the original institution of heraldry, as shall be observed. 
" Others, as Menestrier, think that when knights hung up their shields to provoke 
" all passengers to this combat, they placed their pages or armour-bearers under 
" the disguises of wild-men, lions, bears, &-c. to watch who offered to touch them ; 
" and thereafter they used these figures as supporters. But beside that this 
" fancy seems as wild as the supporters, it may be asked, why some men use 
" fowls or fishes ? To which nothing can be answered, save that beasts being once 
" allowed, each man choosed thereafter any living creature he pleased." I shall 
here subjoin what Sir George says in another place in the above-mentioned, 


" According to Chassaneus-his opinion, an heritable sheriff, or an eminent 
" judge may take supporters : and I crave liberty to assert, that all our chiefs of 
' families and old burons of Scotland may use supporters : For, besides that to be 
' a chief, was of old, and is still, reputed an honour, though it be adorned with no 
" mark of nobility, yet these chiefs have prescribed a right to use supporters ; 
" and that such a right may be prescribed, I have proven formerly ; and what 
" warrant is for most of our rules in heraldry, but an aged custom: And that 
" they have constantly used supporters, past all memory of man, even when they 
" were knights, is clear from many hundred instances. Thus the lairds of PITCOR 
l did, and do use two wild cats for their supporters ; FOTHERINGHAM of Powrie, 
" two naked men ; IRVINE of Drum, two savages, wreathed about head and loins 
' with holland, and bearing battons in their hands ; MONCRIEF of that Ilk, two men 
" armed at all points, bearing picks on their shoulders: And many of our noble- 
" men have only retained the supporters which they formerly had. And that, of 
" old, barons might use supporters dejure, seems most certain ; for they were 
' members of parliament with us as such, and never lost that privilege, though 
' for their convenience they were allowed to be represented by two of their num- 
' ber ; and therefore such as were barons before that time may have supporters, 
" as well as lord barons ; nor should we be governed in this by the custom of 
". England, seeing their is dispar ratio ; and this is now allowed by the principal 
" herald to judge at the time who have right. " 

Supporters are not so heritably fixed but they may be altered at pleasure, in 
their species and forms, by those who have right to carry supporters, as Colum- 
bier, Sir George Mackenzie, and others ; for it is fit that these extrinsic parts of 
achievements should not be heritably fixed, to the end men may have somewhat 
TO assume or alter upon considerable emergents: But if cadets keep their chiefs' 
supporters, they use to adject some difference ; as is to be seen in the Earl of 
Kelly's achievement. Mackenzie. 

Before I proceed to give instances of arms with supporters, and the occasions 
upon which they were given and taken with us and other nations, I shall insist a 
little here of their ancient use in general. At first one supporter was used to carry up 
the shield ; as by our ancient documents and seals, which represented the armour- 
bearer of knights, and afterwards came to be two, one at each side of the shield : 
And tor the verity that one supporter was used anciently, I shall add here the 
words of Jurisprudentia, page 369, par. 18. " Olim unicum duntaxat sustenta- 
' cultim ad primores viros usurpatum fuisse vetera nos decent monumenta. Ipsis 
' enim solummodo regibus, aut principibus bina assumere sustentacula licitum 
" erat. " For which our author cites many others. So then it is groundless to 
bring the first origin and use of supporters from the custom of leading such as are 
invested with any great honour to the prince, who conferred it as above shown. 
But from whence came the use of sovereigns having supporters, who w r ere not led 
by their equals to receive their imperial rights and diadems, being attended only 
by their subjects, and sometimes by officers, as armour-bearers and esquires, in 
royal solemnities ? And I am much in the opinion with Menestrier and others, 
who bring the first use of supporters from the armour-bearers of knights. And 
of old none but one supporter was used by those that were not eminent princes, 
as by our above-mentioned author; of which I shall add a few instances. 

Our ancientest seals had only the image of the owner, sometimes with his shield 
of arms hung about his neck, or holden up by his left arm, and he the only sup- 
porter; but afterwards these arms came to be supported by one creature or an- 
other: And Menestrier tells us, "That he has seen the shield of arms of the 
' old Dukes of BURGUNDY only supported by one lion, with its head in a hel- 
u met." 

Sandford, in his Genealogical History, gives us the seal of arms of Margaret 

duchess ot Norfolk, supported by an angel. Such another seal of arms I have 

:en which belonged to Mary Queen of King James II. which had the arms of 

Scotland impaled with her paternal coat, viz. two lions combatant, supported only 

by one angel. J 

The imperial ensign of Scotland is yet to be seen on the frontispiece of the 



outer entry to the abbey ofVHolyroodhouse, the shield supported only by one uni- 
corn seia/it. 

WALTER. LESLIE, designed Dominus de Ross, who married Elizabeth Ross, one of 
the co-heirs of Walter Earl of Ross, had on his seal of arms three shields lie, i. e. 
tied together, holden by the beak of an eagle for a supporter; of whose arms 

From Uredus's Collections of the Old Seals of the Earls of Flanders, we have 
many instances of arms supported only by one animal ; as that of LUDOVICK M\- 
LEANUS, appended to a diploma, whereupon is the shield of arms of Flanders sup- 
ported by one lion, an/i'j 1.359. PHILIP the Bold Duke of BURGUNDY, son of John 
King of France, who married Margaret, daughter and heir of the above Lodovick 
Earl of P landers, on whose seal was a shield, quarterly, the anm of Burgundy 
Ancient and Modern, and supported only by one eagle : But hisdutchess Margaret 
had on her seal a lozenge shield, with her arms dimidiate with those of her husband 
Philip, viz. four animals supporters ; her husband's two supporters the eagles stood 
upon the upper two sides of the lozenge shield ; and two lions seiant, supported the 
two under sides of the lozenge, being these which her father used. The like of 
which I never met with in any book or seals; which seals, as I have described 
them, were appended to diplomas in the year 1384. 

As for the antiquity of using supporters with us, Sir George Mackenzie, in his 
Science of Heraldry, gives us as uncouth an one as the last mentioned, being the 
shield of arms of MURIEL Countess of STRATHERN, supported on the left side by a 
falcon standing upon the neck of a duck, lying under the base point of a formal 
shield, and all placed within a lozenge, which he dates from the year 1284, and 
which is the oldest and ancientest that ever I met with. 

Sir James Balfour, in his Manuscript of Exterior Ornaments, says, " The first 
" use of supporters with us began about the end of the reign of Alexander II. and 
" were frequent in the reign of Alexander III. which began in the year 1249, 
" and who reigned 37 years :" But gives us no instances who carried supporters, 
till the reign of John Baliol ; and then tells us, " That JOHN CUMIN Earl of 
" BUCHAN, and great Constable of Scotland, had his arms supported by two snakes 
" or vipers ; and that THOMAS RANDOLPH Earl of MURRAY (who lived in the reign 
" of King David Bruce, and who first began the use of supporters in England) 
" had his supported by two winged dragons. " 

The seal of JOHN, Senchal of Kyle, eldest son of Robert Stewart of Scotland, 
was appended with his father's (who were both successively kings of Scotland, by 
the name of Robert II. and III.) to a charter of theirs to the burgh of Glasgow, 
anno 1364. The shield of arms of the Lord KYLE was coucbe, and supported 
by two savages ; as by the abstracts of the charter in the Scots College of 

I have seen the seal of arms of WILLIAM Lord of DOUGLAS, before he was Earl, 
upon which he had only the paternal coat of Douglas in a shield coucbe, supported 
by a lion seiant, with its head in a helmet, topped with a plume of feathers for 
crest, which timbred the shield. Upon this Earl's marrying Margaret, Countess 
and heir of Marr, for his second wife, he quartered with his own the arms of 
Marr, supported as the former, with the addition of two trees growing at the 
sides of his achievement ; and below the shield, by way of compartment, was 
a field seme of cross croslets and mullets, appended to a charter of his, in 
which he is designed Earl of DOUGLAS and MARR, to James Mowat of the 
lands of Easter-Foulis, dated at the Castle of Kildrumy, 26th of July, anno 


I have seen many of the seals of the Earls of DUNBAR and MARCH, which were 

all equestrian till the year 1400, whose shields of arms were afterwards supported 
by two lions seiant, and behind their backs trees. 

I have likewise met with the seals of arms of our ancient barons; as that of Sir 
ALEXANDER HOME of that Ilk, whose shield was supported by two lions: SOMER- 
VILLE of Linton and Cambusnethan supported with two greyhounds: And CRAN- 
STON of that Ilk supported his shield on the right side by a woman in rich attire, 
holding a bush of strawberries, and on the left by a roebuck. Those barons, with 

VOL. II. N n 


others, long before their families were dignified with the titles of lord or ear., 
kept still their old supporters. 

I have also seen those of other barons, whose families were never dignified ; as 
that of DAVID HOME of Wedderburn, appended to a discharge to his nephew, the 
above Sir ALEXANDER HOME of that Ilk, dated at Cockburnspath of January 
1443, supported with two falcons regardant; and ROGER KIRKPATRICK of Close- 
burn, one of the Barons of Inquest, in the service of WILLIAM Lord SOMERVILLE, 
heir to his father Thomas Lord Somerville, had, on his seal appended to the retour, 
the loth of June 1435, the escutcheon of his arms supported with two lions gar- 
dant; and his son Thomas, in the year 1470, carried the same, though now the 
family use for supporters two hounds. And on the seal of WILLIAM MURRAY 
of Touchadam, Constable and Governor of the Castle of Stirling, now designed of 
Polmaise, his arms were supported with two lions. Many more examples of our 
gentry using supporters are to be met with in our old book of blazons, on their 
houses and tombs, as representers of the ancient barons and chiefs of families; a. 
few of which I shall here mention. DUNDAS of that Ilk, for supporters, has two 
lions: FULLARTON of that Ilk, in the shire of Ayr, has two savages wreathed 
about the head and middle, holding battons over their shoulders. 

INNES of that Ilk, two greyhounds collared azure, charged with three stars. 

POLLOCK, of that Ilk two hounds, proper; and MAXWELL of Pollock had his arms 
supported, in the reign of Robert III. by two monkies, as by his seal of arms which 
I have seen. DUNBAR of Westfield, Heritable Sheriff of Murray, has two lions 
rampant argent. 

HALYBURTON of Pitcur two wild cats; and FARQUHARSON of Invercauld carries 
the like creatures. 

IRVINE of Drum two savages wreathed about the head and loins with laurel, 
proper, bearing battons in their hands. 

FOTHERINGHAM of Powrie two naked men. 

MONCRIEF of that Ilk two men armed at all points, bearing pikes on their 

SKENE of that Ilk, two Highlandmen, the one on the dexter side in a Highland 
gentleman's dress, holding in his right hand a skein, point downward ; and the 
other, on the sinister, in a servant's dress, with his darlach, and a target on his 
left arm. 

DALMAHOY of that Ilk has two serpents cottising his arms. 

Sir JOHN NISBET of Dean, baronet, his family has been in use for a long time, by 
allowance of authority, to carry supporters, viz. on the right side of the shield a 
savage wreathed about the head and middle, holding a batton in his right hand, 
aD proper; and on the left side a greyhound, proper: Which two supporters up- 
hold the principal arms of the family of NISBET of that Ilk, viz. argent, three 
boars' heads erased sable, armed and langued gules, with the crest of the family, 
laying aside the cheveron, a mark of cadency, used formerly by the House of 
Dean: in regard that the family of Dean is the only family of the name in Scot- 
land that has right, by consent, to represent the old original family of the name 
of Nisbet; since the only lineal male representer (the author of this System) 
is like to go soon off the world, being an old man, and without issue-male or 

EDGAR of Wadderly two greyhounds; and HAIG of Bemerside has, for supporters, 
two lions gules. 

In Workman's Illuminate Book of Arms there are several knights who have their 
j-rms supported; as Sir PArRicK BARCLAY of Towie with two hounds: motto, Hinc 
honor et amor. 

Sir GEORGE DOUGLAS of Redhouse's arms are there illuminate, being argent, a 
iron's head erased gules, in base a crescent of the last, and, on a chief azure, two stars 
argent, as descended of the House of Morton, and the crescent, as a vassal to the 
House of Seaton, supported by two griffins. 

Sir NIEL MONTGOMERY of Langshaw's arms, azure, a stoned ring, proper, between 
three flower-de-luces or; supporters, two dragons. 

Sir DAVID WOOD of Craigie, his arms supported by two savages wreathed about, 
the middle with laurel. 


Sir JOHN GRAHAM of Nerherness carried the arms of Montrose, with a label of 
three points for difference, supported on the right side by a hound, and on the left 
by a falcon, proper. 

BRUCE of Airth had two savages wreathed about the head and middle, proper; 
crest, a horse-head ; with the motto, Do well and doubt not. 

There are many more gentlemen, besides the ancient barons and chiefs of fa- 
milies, who have supporters added to their blazons in our New Register of Arms, 
having right, as I suppose, by concession. or prescription; of which 1 have given 
many examples in the Plates of Achievements in the First Part of this System, 
as also in this Second Part, to which 1 refer the reader. 

The right of using supporters is hereditary with us in the lineal heirs and re- 
presentatives of families; but not to the younger sons of collaterals, unless they 
become representatives of the family: neither in the greater or lesser nobility, 
which in the first seerrts strange, since the younger sons of dukes and marquises 
have the title of lord prefixed to their names, and take precedency of hereditary 
lords of Parliament. But though the titles they have be only temporary, and do 
not descend to their posterity, yet I am of opinion they may use supporters by the 
same right that knights-bannerets did, whose dignity was also temporary, and that 
with their marks of cadency upon them, if agreeable, and if not with other addi- 
tional figures: For the same reason that they now of late place the coronets of the 
respective dignities of their fathers on their helmets, to show the eminency of, their 

It bnot allowed to the nobility or gentry, who have right to carry supporters, 
to assume those of the sovereign's achievement, unless they be of the blood royal, 
or have obtained from the sovereign a special warrant for so doing, to show either 
the support and honour they had from the royal family, or for some special services 
they had performed to the same. Thus the Earl of STRATHMORE, being descend- 
ed of a daughter of King Robert II. has, for supporter, on the right side, an 
unicorn argent, maned, unguled, and horned or, (the royal supporter) and collar- 
ed vert, charged with a thistle or; and, on the left, a lion.^a&i, armed .and lan- 
gued or. 

BRUCE of Clackmanan was allowed the royal supporters; RAMSAY Earl of HOL- 
DERNESS, and Viscount of HADDINGTON, for his special service, besides other aug- 
mentations of honour, was allowed to support his arms with the unicorn of Scot- 
land on the right, and an antelope on the left: CAREY Viscount of FALKLAND had 
the like unicorn on the dexter, collared sable, charged with roses; and on the 
sinister a lion gardant argent, collared and crowned with a ducal crown ; and se- 
veral others have the like. 

It is allowed, by the practice of heraldry, for many different families to carry 
the same supporters without any ground of offence, or concluding them to be 
of one descent and kin; which practice is frequent with us, especially in using 
savages for supporters. The Marquis of DOUGLAS has one; and the Earls of ATHOL 
had two savages, though now but one, the other, a lion, being for Tullibardin ; 
the Earls of Sutherland, Morton, Perth, Roxburgh, Galloway, Seaforth, Cromarty, 
Stirling, Elgin, Viscount of Kenmure, Lords Herries, Kinnaird, Elphinston, Blantyre, 
Maderty, and many old barons, carry savages, some of them with laurels about the 
heads, and battons in their hands. The frequency of which with us I presume had 
rise in imitation of John, Seneschal of Kyle, eldest son of Robert II. King of Scot- 
land, who was king after his father by the name of Robert III. or else proceeds from 
that tournament proclaimed, and holden by King James IV. in defence of the 
Savage Knight ; of which I have given account before, where many of our nobility, 
and gentry appeared with their servants in the dress of savages, which became the 
supporters of several families. 

Supporters have been given and taken upon many ocasions; sometimes from the 
armorial figure within the shield, as those of SPAIN, two lions, the armorial figure 
of the kingdom being a lion. The Prince PALATINE of BAVARIA, the Duke of 
LUXEMBOURG, and other royal families in Europe, have lions for supporters, be- 
cause their armorial figure within the shield is such: And the same reason has 
occasioned our nobility to do the like; as HOME Earl of HOME, HOME Earl of 


GRAY, DUNDAS of that Ilk, because their armorial figures are such. As also many 
other families who have eagles, griffins, boars and bears, for their armorial charges;, 
and if they carry but a head of any of those creatures, they make use of their en- 
tire bodies for their supporters; as FORBES Lord FORBES, who carries for arms three 
bears' heads couped, has for supporters two bears, proper. 

When the armorial charges within the shield are not living creatures, nor figures 
fit to be supporters, I observe that lions are assumed by severals, but with some 
variation, upon the account, as I suppose, that the lion is the sovereign figure of 
the nation, or because he is said to be the king of beasts, and the most noble and 
fierce of all others. The family of ARGYLE has, for supporters, two lions gardant 
gules, armed or: GRAHAM Earl of MONTEITH two lions gardant gules, armed and 
langued azure, collared sable, and charged with three escalops or, the figures of the 
paternal bearing. MURRAY Earl of ANNANDALE supported his arms with two lions 
argent, crowned or, one of which the Lord JOHNSTON took when he was honoured 
with that earldom. MURRAY Earl of TULLIBARDIN two lions gules, collared or, 
charged with three stars azure, one of which is now one of the supporters of the 
family of Athol, which represents that of Tullibardin. And the Viscount of 
STORMONT, as descended of Tullibardin, had, for supporters, two lions gules, armed 
or, because none of those families' armorial figures were fit to be supporters, 
being girons, escalops, stars, or mullets; and many such examples may be added, 
which I think needless. 

Some families take supporters relative to their names or designations, when no 
figures in their arms speak to them. The family of URSINI in Italy has two bears 
in allusion to the name; and the GRIMALDI, Princes of MONACO, in allusion to their 
title Monaco, have for supporters two Augustine monks. NAPLES, anciently called 
Parthenope, from the name of a syren, or mermaid, whose tomb was there; 
upon which account the arms of the kingdom of Naples are supported with two 
syrens. The Duke of GLOUCESTER, seventh son of Edward III. surnamed Wood- 
stock from the place where he was born, had his shield of arms on his seals re- 
presented hanging on the stock of a tree, alluding to Woodstock. With us CUN- 
NINGHAM, Earl of GLENCAIRN has, for supporters, two conies, proper, relative to the 
name : OLIPHANT Lord OLIPHANT two elephants, for his name ; and RUTHVEN Earl 
of COWRIE had two goats supporters, relative to the earldom of Gowrie, which sig- 
nifies a goat. 

Upon the account of hunting and hawking, hounds and dogs of all sorts, as 
also harts, deers, bucks, hawks, and falcons, are used by many families. Sir 
George Mackenzie tells us, " The Earl of PANMURE changed his old supporters 
' to two greyhounds, because he was first noticed by King James VI. on the oc- 
" casion of his entertaining his majesty with excellent sport in the muir of Mon- 
" roben." 

Upon the account of employment, supporters have been assumed thus: M'KAY 
Lord RAE, when he went to Germany with a regiment of foot to assist Gustavus 
Adolphus, supported his arms on the right side by a pikeman armed at all points, 
and on the left by a musqueteer, proper. And General ALEXANDER LESLIE, when 
created Earl of LEVEN by King Charles I. supported his arms with two men in ar- 
mour, holding in their hands flying colours: KEITH Earl of KINTORE took two 
armed men with pikes : The Lord CARMICHAEL has his arms supported on the 
right by an armed man in all points, holding a batton in his hand, and on the left 
by a horse argent, furnished gules. Sir THOMAS LIVINGSTON being made Viscount 
oi TEVIOT, for his victory at Cromdale, had given him for supporters two white 
horses bridled and furnished gules. The Earl of ANNANDALE has such a horse, 
rushed, for one of his supporters, on account of his being Warden of the West 
Marches. SEATON Earl of DUNFERMLINE has two horses at liberty argent, with 
mane and tailor; and DOUGLAS Duke of QUEENSBERRY two pegasus, i. e. horses argent 
with wings or; and the same by DOUGLAS Earl of MARCH, a son of that family. 

.s creatures are used frequently to support arms, as griffins, dragons, 

5K.INE Earl of MARR two griffins, proper, winged or, membred sable: 

-1 ot RoTHEsthe same: And MONTGOMERY Earl of EGLINTON two dragons 

mrt, vomiting ; fire, carried by the family ever since they came from the House of 

family before that time had two angels in Dalmatic habits; as on the 

root ot the house of Seaton. 


The bodies of devices, which were anciently placed at the sides, above or below 
the shields of arms, as I observed before in the former chapter, have become sup- 
porters of arms. And 1 may begin with the unicorn, one of the ancient devices 
used by our kings, not only for his strength, courage, and particular virtue of his 
horn in dispelling poison, (as writers tell us) but as the emblem of unconquerable 
freedom; as Job, in his book, chap, xxxix. " Canst thou bind the unicorn with 
" his band? Will he be willing to serve or abide by thy crib?" A suitable device 
for Scotland, which became the supporter of its imperial ensign, and continues 
the badge of its independency. Other nations have likewise used their devices as 
supporters, which have been often altered upon emergencies, and different sue - 

Thus King CHARLES VI. of FRANCE, as Juvenal Ursini, in his History of that 
King, tells us, " That when hunting at Semis, he perceived a stag which had a 
" collar about its neck: The king ordered it to be taken alive; wnich being done, 
" the collar was of leather, having these words, Ctrsar hoc mibi dvnavit:" Whereupon 
that king took for his device a hart, or stag, with wings, and a golden crown about 
his neck ; and afterwards supported his arms with two such creatures, about tin- 
year 1380. LEWIS VII. of FRANCE made his device, a porcupine, his supporter, 
and FRANCIS I. took his device, a salamander, for a supporter. Bui of late the 
supporters of France have been two angels in Dalmatic habits, winged or, and on 
their breasts the arms of France, holding by one of their hands the banners of 
France accolle, with those of Navarre. 

Angels being "the ordinary supporters now of France, some heralds tell us, as 
Philip Moreau, " That none can use them but loose of the royal blood of France, 
" and who have a special warrant for that end, being now the fixed tenents of 
" France." 

But Menestrier tells us, " There are many instances to the contrary to be seen 
" on the tombs in churches, before and since the use of such tenents by the French 
" kings : For, of old, churchmen in France, and other kingdoms, would not allow 
" the arms of those that were interred in the church, to be adorned with their pro- 
" per supporters, being the representation of lions, dragons, saltiers, savages, and 
" other monstrous and fabulous creatures ^ but, in place of them^ with angels, 
" more properly becoming the chui'ch : Hence it is, says- our author, that we see 
" so many arms in churches supported by angels, which are not marks of honour, 
" but ornaments allowed by the clergy, even to- those who have no right to sup- 
" porters. Our author tells us also of many ancient families in France, as that of 
" Memorancy and others, many degrees of descent from the blood royal, who, with- 
" out special warrant, have been in use, and still are, to have angels for their sup- 
" porters ; as also that many dignified prelates were in use, within these two hund- 
-' red years, to support their arms with angels." 

With us angels have been frequently made- use of as supporters. Cardinal 
BEATON had his supported by two angels in Dalmatic habits, or, as some say, 
priestly ones, which are yet to be seen on his lodgings in Blackfriar's Wynd. 
BOK.THWICK. Lord BORTHWICK had his arms supported by two angels : as also KER 
Lord J EDBURGH, and the Earls of LOTHIAN, now Marquis, their arms are supported 
on the dexter by an angel winged or, and on the sinister by an unicorn argent, 
mancd and horned or, being the same with that which supports the arms of Scot- 

The supporters of the kings of England have been various, and taken from their 
old devices before they were used as formal supporters, a detail of which I shall 
hcie subjoin from the English writers. 

Some say that EDWARD III. was the first that supported the arms of England 
on the right with a lion gardant and crowned, (being one of those within the 
shield) and on the left by an eagle or falcon crowned also. And his grandson 
RICHARD II. supported them on the right, as his grandfather Edward did ; and on 
the left by a hart : But these do not appear on their seals of arms appended to their 
public deeds. 

Others again affirm, that RICHARD II. who began to reign in the year 1377, 
was the first King of England that used supporters, but used not the above-men- 
tioned harts, but two angels ; as Jacob Imhoff, who says, " That his successor 

VOL. II. O o 


r HENRY IV. the first king of the house of Lancaster, carried also angels for hi.' 
" supporters :" But others more confidently assert, that the last mentioned had for 
supporters an antelope and swan, though neither of those are to be seen support- 
ing his arms on his seals given us by Sandford. But these supporters they seem 
to bring from his devices, which he had on his horse-furniture when Duke of 
Hereford, and when he appeared in public combat against Thomas Mowbray Duke 
of Norfolk, in the reign of Richard II. 

His son HENRY V. is said to have the arms of England supported on the right 
by one of the lions of England crowned or, and on the left by an antelope : But 
on his seals, given us by Sandford, his arms are not supported, though the seal of 
his Queen Catharine, daughter to Charles VI. of France, has (as in Sandford's 
book} her arms impaled with the king's, and supported by two antelopes, botli 
gorged with coronets and chains thereto affixed ; and our author observes, that 
these were the first supported arms he found carried by any Queen in England. 

HENRY VI. son of Henry V. had his shield of arms supported with two antelopes 
argent, gorged with .coronets and chains affixed to them, and attired or ;. as our 
author, who says they were so carved over the gate of Eton College ; though 
others make the supporter on the left to be a leopard spotted proper, with fire 'is- 
suing out of his mouth and ears. 

EDWARD IV. the first of the house of York, used several devices or cognizances, 
to show his descent ; some of which I mentioned in the former chapter, which 
sometime after he used as supporters of his arms. Sandford gives us the following 
instances in three several places. First, " On a window of Trinity-church in 
" Chester his arms are painted standing on a falcon within a fetter-lock, and sup- 
" ported by the bull of Clare, being sable , crowned and hoofed or, and the lion of 
" March, being a lion argent gardant. idly, Over the Library Gate in the Uni- 
" versity of Cambridge, his achievement is supported with two lions gardant. 
' And, 3<#y, In Windsor Chapel they are supported with the lion of March and 
" the white hart, the device of Richard II." 

EDWARD V. son of Edward IV. had his arms supported with the lion of March 
on the right, and on the left by a white hind. 

RICHARD III. had his arms supported by two white boars; but some say he placed 
on the right the lion of March. 

HENRY VII. representer of the House of Lancaster, and restored again to the 
throne of England, supported his arms on the right side by a red dragon, on ac- 
count that that creature was the device used by CADWALLADER, the last King of the 
Britons, from whom he derived his descent ; and on the sinister by a greyhound 
argent, collared gules, in right of his wife Queen Elizabeth of York, of which be- 
fore : But on her tomb her arms were supported by two angels ; and their eldest 
>on, Arthur Prince of Wales, had his arms supported with two antelopes. 

HENRY VIII. of England, on his first seal, had a dragon and hound as his father; 
but afterwards he discontinued the greyhound, and supported his shield on the right 
side with one of the lions of England, viz. a lion gardant or, and transported the 
dragon to the left side. His son 

EDWARD VI. crowned the lion with an imperial crown, and had the dragon on 
The left side. 

Queen MARY had an eagle . on the right side ; but Queen Elizabeth restored 
again the hon to the right side, and the dragon as before on the left. 

Upon King JAMES VI. his accession to the crown of England, the dragon was 
scontmued, and in its place stands the unicorn of Scotland on the left side of the 
England, but on the right of that of Scotland, with the lion of Eng- 
on the left : each supporting the arms of these kingdoms, as they stand mar- 
Vv Inch position ot different supporters is to be observed : That is to say 
hailed arms the coat which is first on the right side is supported by the 
ter properly belonging to those arms, and those on the left by the supporter 
nguig to them ; but if they have none, then, for beauty's sake, the supporter 
e right is doubled on the left. In subjects' arms also impaled or quartered 
lie supporters uphold the arms of the family to whom they belong. 

e use of supporters on the plates of arms of the Knights of the Most 
: the Garter, which are placed upon their stalls in the Chapel of 


Windsor, (though they or their progenitors might have had them sooner else- 
ic) the same was but generally practised in the reign of Henry VIII. (a* 
A.hinole, chap. 7.5. . 3.) there being only two instances where supporters were 
added before Henry VIll. the one of JOHN BEAUFORT first Duke of SOMERSET of 
that name, made Knight of that order by Henry VI. and t'.ie other by ANTHONY 
WIDVILLE Earl RIVERS in Edward IV. And no other example can be given till 
Henry VIII. in whose time it was the common usage for the knights not only to 
have supporters,, but their mottos and devices engraven on their plates upon their 



WITH the Romans, diadems and crowns differed, not only in matter and 
form, but in their representations, for the diadem was a sign of kingly 
power, and the cown, of subaltern power, eminency, and triumph. After the sub- 
version of kingly government, the Romans could not hear nor see the diadem, 
but imprisoned those persons who attempted to honour the statutes of the Roman, 
kings with such, as historians tell us ; though the diadem was with them but a - 
piece of white silk or. linen, which went round the temples of the head like a 
fillet, called Candida fascia, such as these to be seen about the heads of. Moors, 
for which in blazon they are said to be diademate ; whence: the imperial double 
eagle, from the two circles which we see surround the two heads, is said to be dia- 
demate and not couronne : Yet with other nations the diadem was a circle of gold 
adorned with precious stones,, as it was afterwards with the Romans. As the 
author of Observations* Eugenialogica says, " Enimvero prisca ilia fascia, linea 
" nullo artiiicio operata, nullis opibus tumida, nullo accersito lumine corusca, sed 
" solo candore conspicua fuit ;. cui tamen simplicitati multa cohoerebat majestas : 
" Apud alias vero gentes magis ambitio aut opulentia, apud qua^ fascia 
" ilia aurea, et quidem gemmata fuit." 

Crowns, coronets, and garlands, being all ornaments of the head, and distinc- 
tive marks of dignity, or tokens of noble exploits, are all of them in Latin known 
by the name of corona. The first Roman emperors wore no other crowns but 
garlands of laurel, which betoken victory, because the people of Rome abhorred 
all signs of royalty : But as their power and ambition increased, they began to 
assume diadems. Antony the consul presented one to Julius Ciesar ; and that it 
might the more easily pass with the people, environed it with a laurel crown : 
The diadem to represent his kingly power, and the other his triumphant victo- 

They likewise had radiant crowns of gold, being circles of .that metal, bright- 
ncd with rays or points* and on each of these a star, the emblem of an heavenly 
crown, by which they showed their descent from the gods. 

The Emperor Aurelian is said by Selden to be the first Roman emperor that pu- 
blickly wore a diadem of gold. Constantine the Great used the same, and trans- 
mitted it to his successor, brightned or relevate (as the French say) with points, 
leaves, and arches, topped with a mond, ensigued with a cross ; so that the diadem 
and crown may be said to have been united on the emperors' heads. 

Other lesser princes and great men were anciently in use to place their triumphal 
;.';arlands and radiant crowns on their statues or images, as badges of their victo- 
ries, eminency, and high descent. Which statues so adorned with those and 
other trophies, were religiously preserved and esteemed by their posterity, as ho- 
nourable ensigns of their noble families ; and these statues so trimmed were ex- 
posed by the Romans at their festivals and solemnities of their funerals, as we do 
now our armorial ensigns; which, after the subversion of the Roman empire, camt 
in place of their statues ; of which I have fully treated in the first part of this 
System, chap. I. The right of having images or statues was allowed to none but 
those that were noble, and had jus imagiuum ; and from their practice of placing 



such crowns upon statues came the custom afterwards of placing such ornament, 
upon shields of arms. 

Crowns or coronets may be said to be in or on armorial bearings four manner 

of ways. 

First, As essential or internal parts of arms ; that is, when they are the principal 
figures within the shield, as the three crowns in the arms of SWEDEN ; and GRANT 
of that Ilk with us, who carries for arms gules, three crowns or. Many other fa- 
milies through Europe have the like arms : But crowns so placed are no marks of 
sovereignty and dignity of whatever form they be. 

-idly, When they are additional to armorial charges within the shield, they are 
but ornaments, whatever form they be of, and no ensigns of sovereignty or digni- 
ty ; as that which ensigns the hart in the arms of the name of DOUGLAS, and that 
which crowns the lion in the arms of OGILVIE. And so of other figures thus adorn- 
ed in many bearings with us and abroad. 

3^/y, When crowns are placed upon helmets which timbre shields of arms, they 
are then marks of sovereignty, being ordinarily so placed by sovereign princes : 
But when they are placed upon helmets by subjects, they are not signs of dignity, 
and only show the bearer to be a gentleman of name and arms. We find by prac- 
tice that many carry crowns on helmets in place of wreaths. Menestrier tells us, 
" That that custom is from the tournaments, especially those solemnized in Ger- 
' many, where knights are allowed to adorn their helmets with them ; as others 
i4 also, who have been allowed to exercise in such desports. Hence it is, says he, 
" we see so many German achievements, whose helmets are adorned with crowns." 
And, as I observed before, though there are many helmets ordinarily placed upon 
the German shields of arms, according to the number of the feus by which they have 
votes in the circles of the empire, yet we see but some of them adorned with 
crowns : And the reason our author gives, is, because some of these feus are not 
privileged to carry a crown ; or that the ancient possessors of them had never been 
;it tournaments. He gives us for example the achievement of DE FUSHEN timbred 
with three helmets, where one of them is only crowned. 

The custom seems to be ancient and frequent in England. Morgan, in his He- 
raldry, lib. 3. page 45. says, " That crowns above helmets are common to many, 
" but under the helmet to few." Sandford, in his Genealogical History of Eng- 
land, gives us the arms of ROGER Earl of MARCH and ULSTER in the' reign of 
Richard II. timbred with a helmet, ensignecl with a ducal crown, out of which 
issued a plume of feathers for crest, though he was not a duke but an earl, to show 
his eminent descent, being grandchild, of Lionel Duke of Clarence, third son to 
King Edward III. by his eldest daughter and heir Philippa. Many other modern 
instances may be met with in Guillim's Display of Heraldry, especially in the last 
editions of that hook, where ducal crowns are upon helmets in place of wreaths, 
by earls, viscounts, lords, who commonly have their respective proper coronets be- 
low the helmet on their shield of arms. 

With us also some noble families, though but earls, have been in use to place 
ducal crowns on their helmets for their wreaths; as the Earls of PERTH and WIN- 
TON having also their proper coronets between the helmet and the shield. This 
practice has been used by our lesser barons and knights with us; the family of 
PRESTON of Craigmiller have a ducal coronet upon the helmet in place of the wreath, 
out of which issues the crest, which is to be seen on the House of Craigmiller for a 
long time; and several other families do the same with us; some on the account 
>t favour, and others to show their eminent descent, as the younger sons of our 

4/%, When crowns are placed immediately above the top of the escutcheon, 
they are then ensigns of sovereignty, and especially the dignity of nobility whose 
Jegrees they show by their forms; of which by and by. But, first, of the crowns 
>t sovereigns, which are either imperial or royal. 

Imperial crown is properly that which is worn by the emperor; the circle being 
>f gold adorned with precious stones, and relevated or brightened with points 
sometimes flowery at the top, which the emperors both of the West and East an-' 
tly placed upon their golden helmets. Though they were open and not closed, 


\?t they appeared like close crowns long before such were in use by emperors, 
who were the first that assumed arched crowns topped with monds. 

The German emperors used close crowns first, and had the arches and bonnet 
very high, to show an eminency above kings: Hut those of France, in emulation 
of the emperor, took the same form of crowns, till the Emperor Charles V. turned 
hi < close crown to the form we see it now of, to distinguish it from other royal 
close crowns: Thus described by the best of writers, viz. " A circle of gold adorn- 
" ed with jewels and precious stones brightened or relevate (as the French say}- 
" with leaves like those of the oak tree, (the emblem of old age and strength) 
" and. closed with arches curiously wrought, rising from the circle, environing a 
" rich high cap, or tiara, open on the top, in such manner as somewhat re- 
" presents a mitre, (some say a crescent) and closes with a globe having a cross 

on it." 

The King of the Romans, and Archdukes of Austria, being ordinarily sons of 
emperors, had their crowns closed with an arch, and topped with a mond, since the 
year 1477: For MAXJMILIAN the King of the ROMANS, son of the Emperor Fre- 
derick III. had his shield of arms timored with a crown relevate with broad leaves, 
like those of the oak, and closed with an arch. And his son PHILIP, as Archduke 
of AUSTRIA, had such another, but relevate with poiuts: And when he was King of 
SPAIN he had only an open crown, as all his predecessors Kings of Spain; as in 
Olivarus Urcdus his Collection of Seals. 

Royal crowns being anciently open, and worn by every king, but now being be- 
ing closed at the top, they call them imperial ones, and themselves are said invest- 
ed with imperial power, altogether independent on any man. 

The royal crown of Spain was a circle of gold adorned with jewels and precious 
stones, and brightened with eight leaves of gold like those of the oak tree, but not 
closed with arches till Philip H. who married Mary Queen of England, and is now 
called an imperial crown. 

The crowns of SWEDEN, DENMARK., POLAND, and BOHEMIA, were all relevate with 
leaves of the oak, and open ; but are now closed with arches, and so named im- 

The crowns of the kings of France were and are relevate with flower-de-luces, 
(the figures of their arms) and were not closed with arches, and topped with a 
double flower-de-luce, till Charles VIII. of France, who is said by some to be the 
first that used a close crown, on pretension of being emperor of the Eastern Em- 
pire; as by his medals, where he is represented on horseback with a close crown 
upon his head, with the inscription, Carolo imperatori orientts, victori semper Au- 
gusta: But, as King of France, the close crown did not belong to him; therefore 
the first close, crown for that kingdom is more rightly ascribed to Francis I. who 
wore it in emulation of the Emperor Charles V. : As the author of Observationes 
Kugenifilogica;, " Franciscus primus Galliarutn Rex r Caroli quinti imperatoris amu- 
" lus, laminam aliam auream octo liliorum flosculis circumactum, tot superne ra- 
mulis concluserit, ex lamina prodeuntibus, & in unam aspicem qui lilio superno 
" terminantur reductis, adeo ut speciem quandam diadematis imperialis referat;" 
and for that cause the above-mentioned emperor altered his crown by making it 
like a mitre, and ending in the sommet like a crescent. 

In England the kings of the Saxon race had crowns (says Selden) after the 
fashion of other nations at that time, being a plain fillet, or circle of gold : And 
King EGBERT was the first that brightened it with points or rays; but EDWARD 
IRONSIDE tipped the points with pearls. WILLIAM the CONQUEROR, the first of the 
Norman race of kings, had his circle fleury: But by his seal, given us by Sandford 
in his above-mentioned book, the crown on his head is relevated with points and 
leaves; but the points are much higher than the leaves, and each of them topped 
with three pearls i and 2, and the cap or tiara topped with a cross patee. His son 
William's crown was only brightened with points pearled on the top-, and not ac- 
companied with flowers. Again, MAUD Queen of ENGLAND had her crown rele- 
vate with leaves and points, but the leaves or flowers were higher than the points: 
And all their successors to Edward III. had their crowns variously relevated with 
points and flowers alternately, sometimes the one higher than the other. EDWARD 
III. whom I just now named, brightened his crown with flower-de-luces and cross 

VOL. II. " Pp 


patees. And EDWARD IV. of the House of York, was the first King of England- 
that, on his seal of arms, is represented sitting on his throne with a close crown on. 
his head ; and on the reverse, with anutner, on horseback, and on it a lion passant 
gardant for crest : Which crown was relevate with flower-de-luces and crosses alternately, and arched, as I could understand by the seal witii four arches, 
and topped with a raond, ensigned with a cross patee. But his queen, ELIZABETH 
. WIDVIU.E, had over her arms, impaled with those of her husband's, a coronet (not 
arched) relevate with four cross patees, and as many flower-de-luces, and between 
them eight flowers of a lesser size, which Sandford gives us. 

EDWARD V: and RICHARD 111. had the same crown with Edward IV. and Henry 
VII. and all of them used the same on the heads of their effigies, iienry VllL 
not only had such an one on his effigies on his seals, but timbred his shield of arms 
with such, \vhom Sandford observes to be the first in England that did so; and the 
same form and practice continues. 

The ancient crown of the kingdom of SCOTLAND was of another form, (as our 
Irstorians tell us) that is, its circle of gold was brightened with stakes, or piles, so 
tormcd by FERGUS I. after his victory over the Picts, whom he attacked in tneir 
camp, and broke down their barriers or palisadoes; and that form of crown con- 
tinued with his successors till ACHAIUS, who entering into that solemn league with 
Charlemagne of France, relevated with flower-de-luces and crosses iieury alternate- 
ly, as a badge of that memorable league: Which alteration is not only attested by 
our own historians, but by foreigners; as Pet. Grego. de Repub. Limneus de Jure 
Pub. And Hoppingius, cap. 6. page 3. has these words, " Acceptis in coronas 
' circo quatuor liliis aureis, cum salutiferas crucis quatuor aureis sigms, paulo emi- 
" ncntioribus partibus intervallis discretis, ut inde Scotias gentis Chnstiaiue reli- 
" gionis. inviolatasque fidei observatio omnibus dignoscefetur." 

The crown of Scotland, after this form, I have seen on pieces of coins of ALEX- 
ANDER III. ROBERT the BRUCE, and their successors; and the first time i'met with 
it closed with arches, is on a silver coin of King JAMES II. where his elligies is re- 
presented with a close, crown on his head, and topped with a mond, surmounted 
with a cross patee : And in other pieces of his coins the crown is not closed witli 
arches, but open, and only relevate with flower-de-luces and crosses-lieury; and .so 
on all the coins of his son King JAMES III. that 1 had occasion to see: But on ths 
large pieces of coin of King JAMES IV. his head in profile is crowned with a ciosu 
crown, as are those of his successors. 

In the year 1704, I had the opportunity frequently to observe the forms or our 
regalia, viz. crown, sceptre, and sword of honour, by the favour of the ingenious 
Mr William Wilson, one of the Clerks of our Council and Session, who, for a long 
tune, was keeper of those honours under the Earl Marischal, during the Sessions of 
Parliament. And in the foresaid year, in presence of several gentlemen, anti- 
quaries, jewellers, architects, and others, whose names I could here mention, if con- 
venient, I drew, by their assistance, a particular description of the regalia' which 
unknown to me, was sent to England to Guy Miege, who, 1 cannot but say has 
used print it truly in his Present State of Scotland, 1707. But since I am here 
atmg or imperial crowns, I shall add a description of that of Scotland, especially 
e it hath been formerly misrepresented in its structure and form by writers 
painters, and engravers, who have made it the same in form with the imperial one 
of England. 1 he form of it is thus : 

ist, The imperial crown of Scotland is of pure gold, enriched with many pre- 

us stones, diamonds, pearls, and curious.enamellings. It is composed of a larire 

d circle, which goes round the head, adorned with twenty-two large precious 

tones viz. topazes, amethysts, garnets, emeralds, rubies, hyacinths, in collets of 

1 ot vanous forms, with curious enamellings; and betwixt each of these collets 

and stones are placed great oriental pearls, one of which is wanting 

.great circle there is another small one formed with twenty 

f ******* and 

3^/y, The upper circle is brightened with ten crosses-fleury, each bein ff adorned 


high flower-de-luces alternately betwixt the great pearls below on the j 
the second circle. 

This is said to be the form of the crown of Scotland, since the league made be- 
twixt Achauis King of Scots, and Charles the Great of France. It differs from 
other imperial crowns in that it is brightened with crosses-fleury alternateJy with 
flower-de-luces; whereas the crown of France is brightened with flower-de-luces, 
and that of England with crosses patee alternately with flower-de-luces. The Scots 
crown, t-ince King James Vi went to England, has been, as 1 have said, ignorantly 
represented by herald-painters, engraver-), and others, after the. form of the crown 
of England, with crosses patee; whereas there is not one cross patee, save that on 
the top of the mond, or globe, fur all the rest are cro^ses-ileury, such as we see in 
our old coins and clum : 

Our crown is closed thus: From the upper circle proceeds four arches, adorned 
with enamelled figures, wliich meet and close at the top, surmounted with a ce- 
lestial globe, enamelled blue seme, or powdered with stars, with a large cros* patee 
on the top, adorned in the extremities with a great pearl, and cantoned with other 
four in the angles. In the centre of the cross patee, on the fore part of the 
crown,, there is u great pearl, and below it, on the foot of the polar part of tin- 
cross, are these letters, J. R. V. ; by which it appears to some King JAMES V. 
was the first that closed the crnvn with arches, and topped it with a globe and 
cross patee: B.ut 1 have shown before that King James II. on his coins had a close 

The tiara or bonnet of the crown was of purple velvet; but, in the year 1685, 
there was put in a cap of crimson velvet, adorned, as before, with four plates of 
gold riclily wrought and enamelled, and on each of them a great pearl half an inch 
in diameter, which appears between the four arches, and the cap is faced wit!) 

Upon the lowest circle of the crown, immediately above the furr ermine, there 
are eight small holes, two and two together, in the four quarters of the crown, in 
the middle space betwixt the arches: To which, as I am informed, at the occasion 
of the coronation of our kings, they were in use to tie a fillet round, beset with 
precious jewels, as a diadem; after which solemnity they were loosed from the 
crown, being the proper jewels of the royal family at the time. The crown i? 
nine inches diameter, being twenty-seven inches about; and in height, from the 
under circle to the top of the cross patees, six inches and an half. It always stands 
on a square cushion of crimson velvet adorned with fringes, and four tassel 
gold hanging down at each corner, when carried to our parliament with the sceptre 
and sword. Which two last I shall describe in another place, and return to the 
descriptions of the crowns of other sovereign princes. 

The Dukes of SAVOY have closed crowns with four arches terminating in a globe, 
surrounded by a cross, taken by the Duke VICTOR. AMADEUS, at the time when 
assumed the title of Royal Highness, after the example of the DOGE of VENICE; 
who having taken upon him the title King of CYPRUS, and caused his ambassador 
at Rome to bear a crown closed, the Duke of Savoy, had as good a title to call 
himself King of Cyprus demanded the same privilege, and had it allowed, on ac- 
count that those two dukes possessed kingdoms with sovereign dominion. Now 
these dukes have been distinguished by the name of Kings of SARDINIA: Other re- 
publics, which do not possess kingdoms, nor have pretensions to them, as the Re- 
public ol LUCCA, have only open crowns. 

The crown of the great Duke of TUSCANY is open, and the circle is brightened 
with points alternately, with .trefoils and a large flower-de-luce on the fore part, 
which Pope Pius V. put on the head of COSMUS DE MEDICIS, when he honoured him 
with the title of Great Duke of TUSCANY, the 5th of March 1570. And on the inner 
side of the circle are these words, " Pius Quintus pontifex maxim us, ob eximiam 
" dilectationem ac catholicae religionis y,elum, pnucipuumque justitiui studjuin do- 
" navit." 

The crown of the DAUPHIN, the eldest son and heir of France, is a circle of gold 
brightened with four flower-de-luces, and as many leaves of the oak tree, like 
trefoils alternately ; and, of late, has been closed with four arches after the 
form of dolphins, meeting with their tails at the top, and surmounted with a high 



flo<ver-de-luce ; which form of a close crown was presented to Lewis XIV. by Ab- 
bot Briauville,' 1662. To pass by aU these fancies ascribed to the nature arid 
properties of the dolphin which the ancients have lett us, I think the greatest ho- 
nour done to him is his being earned by the eldest son ot the kings of France and 
next heir to the crown ; and that may, with good reason, be concluded to have 
proceeded only from the name. The DAUPHINS of VIENNE, Sovereigns of the 
Province of Duuphine in France, having taken it for their arms. Dauphin m 
French and dolphin in English, being the same thing. And the last oi those 
princes' having no issue, gave his dominions to the crown of France, upon condition 
that the heir of the crown should be called Dauphin, and ever bear a dolphin for his 
arms which they have accordingly done ever since, and been so nice in preserving 
that bearing to themselves, as never to permit any other subject to bear it, except 
the counts of FORREST, as descended of the Dauphin of Vienne. But in England, 
where that rule cannot cake place, there are several families that have dolphins in 
their arms ; as argent on a chief gules, a dolphin naiant embowed of the field, is 
borne by the name of FISHER ; and or, three dolphins haurient azure, is the coat 
of the family of VANDEPUT. 

With us several families carry dolphins ; as MONYPENNY ot Pitmilly in Fife,. 
taken notice of in the First Volume of this System, page 357. 

The crown of the Prince of WALES, the apparent heir of England, is brightened 
with flower-de-luces and cross patees alternately, as the crown of England itself, 
but open, and not closed with arches. Upon the restoration of King Charles II. 
it was ordered by the king in council, " That the son and heir apparent of the 
crown of England should bear his coronet brightened as before mentioned, and 
closed with an arch, adorned on the top with a mond ensigned with a cross 
patee, as the Royal Diadem." Likewise it was ordained, " That the Duke ot" 
York', and all the immediate sons and brothers of the kings of England, should 
use and bear their coronets brightened with cross patees and flower-de-luces al- 
ternately only, and not closed : as also their sons respectively, having the title 
of Duke, shall have and bear their coronets only brightened with cross patee? 
and trefoils alternately ; but the sons of nephews shall use coronets as other 
dukes, not being of the blood royal ;" as appears by the said act given us by. 
Sandford in his history, at the title of James Duke of York. 

Imperial royal crowns are ensigns of sovereignty, and ordinarily placed on the 
top of the helmets, which timbre the escutcheons of sovereigns ; (but otherwise 
placed by our nobility, of which afterwards) yet when sovereigns use not their 
helmets on shields, then they place their crowns immediately upon the shields : 
This was first practised in France, as Menestrier observes, by Charles VII. about the 
year 1422, who placed only a crown on his shield of arms ; and since that time 
the practice continues there : and 1 observe that the same is also practised in other 

Sandford, in his Genealogical History of England, observes, " That HENRY VI. 
'' who began his reign 1421, in the 23d year of it had on his seal of arms the ar- 
" morial shields of England and France, both timbred only with crowns of the re- 
" spective kingdoms; and that they were the first royal escutcheons, he could meet 
" with so adorned, the crowns being all open." 

Amongst Mr Sutherland's Collection of Coins, I did see a piece of gold coined 
by King ROBERT II. upon which was the shield of arms of Scotland adorned with 
an open crown ; and the same practice is to be seen on the coins of his successors: 
But King JAMES II. had on some of his coins, as 1 observed before, a crown closed 
with arches. 

Queens of sovereign princes did not, of old, timbre their shields of arms with 
the crowns of their husbands, but with those of their fathers. I have observed 
that, with us, King James II. his Queen, MAKY, daughter of Arnold Duke of Guel- 
ders, had on her seal of arms these of Scotland, impaled with her own the arms 
of Guelders, and only timbred with an open crown brightened with trefoils, such 
as these which now relevates the crowns of dukes, and I suppose was that of her 
father's: Which seal of arms was appended to a charter of her's to the Abbot and- 
Convent of Holyroodhouse, the i6th of April 1459. 


Menestrier gives another instance, " That in the church of St Dennis in France, 
" on the picture of MARY of Spain, wife to CHARLES of i > \NCE Duke of VALOIS, 
" is a crown mural, (i. e. crenelle or, embattled) to show she was descended i 
" the House of Castile: S > that queens, it seems, of old, by their ensigns of hun- 
" our, showed their parernal descent." 

Having now fully treated of the crowns of sovereign princes, I proceed to these 
of eminent subjects, and their forms. 

. Of old, none but sovereign princes used crowns ; but some time after their chil- 
dren, to show their descent, did use the same in their father's life, as L'Oseau ob- 
serves, rill of late, that Dukes, Marquisses, &-c. were allowed to bear crowns; which 
allowance had this rise. The children of kings, of old, in France, were kings, and 
so carried the crown ; but thereafter they were forced to take dutchies and 
. for their shares; yet they still retained their crowns to declare their extrac- 
: whereupon other dukes and earls did think they might likewise a--ume the 
, being in the same degree, which obliged the kings of France to distinguish the 
is of those crowns; as we now see from L'Oseau, chap. 5. Des Sei^nc'urie.f. And 
from this also did proceed the king's calling, all such of the nobility as bear crowns, 
his cousins, as the same author observes. 

The- forms of the crowns of the sons and brothers of France, whether dukes, 
marquisses, or earls, to show they are of the blood-royal, are brightened with flower- 
de-luces, as the crown of France. And that practice has been under consideration, 
when King CHARLES, by his act, (before mentioned) regulated the crowns of the 
princes of the blood-royal in England, that they be brightened with flower-de-luces 
and crosses patees, as the royal diadem ; whereas those of other dukes, marquisses, and 
earls are brightened with trefoils or leaves, like to those of smallage, both in France, 
Great Britain, and other kingdoms ; of which afterwards. It may be observed 
here, that the first peers that used coronets in Scotland and England, were sons, 
brothers, or nephews of those kingdoms. 

It is the opinion of many learned heralds, that the crowns of dukes, marquisses, 
&c. (not of the blood royal) which timbre the escutcheon of jheir arms, are not 
marks of noble descent, but of noble feus and dignities ; as the author of Obser- 
vationes Eirjenialvgicie, " Coronas hodie non esse indicia nobilitatis avitre, adeo ut 
" nemo ratione nativitatis jus habeat coronam gestendi, praeter regum seu impera- 
" torum filios, qui jure ipso naturse principes habentur, & jus coronas principalis 
" armis imponendi retinent, caeteri non nisi ratione possessiones territorii in corome 
" titulum avecti habeant." Therefore, with us, the younger sons of our high no- 
bility do not adorn their escutcheons of arms with the coronets of their fathers, 
because they do not succeed to their dignities ; and none can legally use coronets, 
but the children, brothers, and nephews of sovereigns, to show their royal descent. 
And from those who are dignified with noble feus and titles, the right of carrying 
coronets cannot descend to their younger sons, except they succeed to these feus 
and titles ; but if otherwise they assume them, they must place them on the top 
of their helmets, and not immediately on the shield. 

Others again adorn their shields by special concessions of their sovereigns ; as 
the BK.ANDILINS in Italy, by the concession of the King of Cyprus. ' And the 
kings of Spain have laws and edicts very strict against using of crowns, by these 
who have no right to them ; notwithstanding of which they have granted several 
concessions to families and cities to adorn their arms with crowns ; for which, see 
Obs rv at tones Eugenialogica:, at the title of Crown. 

The practice with us and the English, of using coronets upon helmets, in place of 
wreaths, by the younger sons of the nobility, without special licence, ought to be 
adverted to ; though they be not signs of dignity, as observed before, neither can 
they be proper ones of a noble descent, but rather marks of some merit, favour, 
or tolerance. 

The dignified nobility, being temporal peers of the realm, and lords of parlia- 
ment, are comprehended under the word ford baron, and have coronets ; of whom 
tlv>re are live degrees, such as the title duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and lord: 
And these are either declared such by feudal erections, their lands being erected 
by the king into a dutchv, earldom, &c. The dignity of \\ hich feu, of old, did, 
of itself, give the honour and privileges in whose favours the lands were so erex:t- 




ed otherwise, both with us and other nations, they were honoured with these 
titles by u formal creation; and, of late, by patents of honour irom the sovereign 
deelarine them dukes, marquisses, earls, viscounts, and lords, taking their titles of 
honour from a country, or part of the same, viz. a town, castle, places where they 
have estates or dwellings. And some have their titles ot honour from their oriices, 
as the Earls Marischals of Scotland and England. 

To proceed then to treat separately of the coronets of the fore-meauoned five 
degrees of dignified nobility ; they differ not only in form, according to the qua- 
lity of the bearers, but according to the nation wherein they are. For though the 
Scots and English have one form of coronets to the degrees of their nobility, yet 
they differ from those of the French. In describing of which I shall begin with 

that of a Duke. 

The title of Duke came from Dux, a leader and commander ot an army, who 
enjoyed the title no longer than the command. But in process of time, great 
estates being annexed to their office, this dignity became hereditary. King Ro- 
bert 111. conferred the title of Duke on his eldest son David Earl of Carrick, with 
the title of Duke of Rothsay, anno 1399, and was the first of that dignity with 
us : though others were soon after dignified with the title of duke ; as Robert 
Earl of Fife and Monteith, the said king's brother, was made Duke of Al- 

The form and ceremony of the investiture of a duke or earl, &-c. with us, 
was very solemn ; as by our antiquaries and writers, which I think is the same 
almost with those in England : for which I sh.\'l give an account of both their 

With us, the candidate to be dignified was led into the presence of the king, 
or his commissioner for that end, in ducal robes : and, after many ceremonies, the 
king or his commissioner girds him with a belt and sword, puts on his head 
a coronet, and gives him a golden verge in his hand, with the charter patent of 
his creation. 

The English give a more full account of the creation of their nobility. The 
first duke created with them was EDWARD, commonly called the Black Prince, 
eldest son to King Edward III. who created him Duke of CORNWALL in the nth 
year of his reign, and erected it into a dutchy ; as may be seen in the charter 
of investiture, taken notice of by Selden. There is no mention of any ceremony 
but the girding with the sword ; and ever since the sons of the kings of England 
have been Dukes of Cornwall without any other creation. But afterwards, in the 
charters of investiture of LIONEL Duke of CLARENCE, and JOHN Duke of LANCAS- 
TER, both sons to the said King, there is mention not only of the sword, but of a 
cap and coronet of gold ; and later times have mentioned the verge or rod of gold. 
Our author says, " The girding with the sword is to put him in mind, that he is 
" bound to defend the king and kingdom in time of war ; and adorning the head 
" with a coronet of gold is a token that he was a counsellor to the king and king- 
" dom in time of peace. " 

Since these times all kings have created dukes, and they are still growing more 
numerous. The manner of creating a duke in England, according to English 
writers is thus : " The person to be created, having his hood and surcoat on, is led 
" betwixt a duke and a marquis, a marquis going before with his sword, and before 
" him an earl with the robe and mantle on his arms. The mantle is of crimson 
" velvet, guarded about the shoulders with four guards of ermine : on the right 
" hand an earl bears the cap of state, (the same as the mantle) doubled ermine, 
" but not indented, as those of the blood-royal are. The cap within a coronet of 
" gold, adorned with leaves without pearls. On the left hand another bears a 
*' rod or verge of gold. All the said peers are to be in their robes, and thus to 
" conduct him to the presence-chamber, where, having made obeisance three 
" times to the king sitting in his chair, the person to be invested kneels down: 
" Then Garter King at Arms delivers the patent to the king's secretary, and he 
" to the king, who returns it to be read aloud ; and when they come to the word 
" investiimis, the king puts the ducal mantle upon him that is to be made a duke ; 
" and at the word gladio cincturamus, girds on his sword : at the words cappft U* 
" circuli aurei impositiouem, the king likewise puts on his head the cap and coro- 



' net of gold ; and at the words -uirjfa aurea traditionem, he gives the verge or rod 
' of gold into his hand. Then the rest of the charter being read, wherein he is 
" declared duke, the king gives him the said charter or patent to be kept. " 

I shall not insist here upon the privileges of dukes, but refer the readers to the 
English writers upon that subject. The eldest sons of dukes are, by the courtesy 
of England, stiled marquisses ; and their younger sons lords, with the addition oV 
their Christian name, as Lord John, Lord James, &c. and take place of viscounts : 
and the same practice is with us, though not authorised by any laws of the land. 
A duke has the title of Grace ; and being wrote unto is stiled Most High, Potent, 
and Noble Prince. Dukes of the blood-royal are stiled Most High, Most Mighty* 
and Illustrious Princes. 

The coronet of a duke with us, both of old and at this time, is a circle of gold 
adorned with precious stones, brightened with leaves like those of the oak tree, 
smallage, or great parsley: Such an one is to be seen adorning the shield of 
Alexander Duke of Albany, brother of King James III. on several impressions of 
his seal of arms. The tiara or cap of the coronets of all the dukes of England,. 
Scotland, and France, are of crimson velvet turned up ermine ; but the turning up* 
ermine is not indented, because that form belongs to the princes of the blood- 

The Saxon word Marquis was anciently appropriate to the Lords of the Marches, 
frontiers countries, and towns upon the sea-coasts ; which has since become a title 
of special dignity next to that of a duke. The manner of creating a marquis 
differs little or nothing from that of a duke ; and it were too tedious here to men- 
tion them again, especially since these ceremonies are in desuetude. The first that 
was dignified with the title of marquis in England was ROBERT DE VERE Earl of 
OXFORD, Marquis of DUBLIN in Ireland, by King Richard II. in the year 1337. 
And the first that enjoyed that title in Scotland were the Earls of ARKAN and 
HUNTLY, who were both solemnly invested in one day, (after the manner of 
a duke above mentioned) with sword and coronet, at Holyroodhouse, the iyth 
of April 1599, their titles being Marquis of Hamilton and Marquis of Huntly. 

The coronet of a marquis is a circle of gold, adorned with llowers or leaves, as 
a duke's, and points with pearls on them j but the leaves are higher than the 
points pearled. A marquis's mantle has only three guards of ermine and a half, 
to distinguish it from a duke's, which has four. The title given him in writing, is.' 
Most Noble, Most Honourable, and Potent Prince. By the king they are stiled' 
Our Right Trusty and Entirely Beloved Cousins. The honour is, like the others., 
hereditary; and the eldest son of a marquis is, by the courtesy of the land, called 
Earl or I,ord of a place ; but the younger sons are called Lord John, Lord Thomas 
or the like. 

The marquisses in France for their coronet have a circle of gold adorned with 
jewels, and brightened with four flowers (like those of the marquisses in Britain) 
between twelve points, each topped with a pearl. 

The title of Earl is more ancient than that of a Duke, or any of the five titles 
of dignity before mentioned. It is said, by Selden and others, to have come from 
the Saxon word Ear-etbel, which in time was abridged to Ear-el, and afterwards, 
by abbreviation, to Earl, signifying Noble of Honour. Some bring it from the' 
Saxon word Elderman, a judge, being of the same degree with the Latin Comes, by 
some called a Count, when speaking of foreigners ; and the same is still preserved 
in the consorts of our Earls, who are called Countesses. 

Earls were very anciently with us, even in the time of King Malcolm II. as 
appears by several passages of our laws and histories. Torfasus, in his History of 
Orkney, speaks of one Melbrigidus comes in Scotia, before the year 900, and of 
another Meldunus. Fordun, another historian of our country, tell us, " That 
' Kenneth III. King of Scotland, was killed by Finel, daughter of Gruckin Earl 
' of Angus. " And Sir James Dalrymple, in his Collections, is of opinion, " That 
' there might be such earls with us of old : But the dignity was not annexed to 
' their families, nor hereditary to their descendants, till the reign of Malcolm. 
' III. after whom there is frequent mention made of earls, and a constant succes- 
* sion of that honour in families, that possessed great lands and baronies in the 
" kingdom. '* 


By our old charters and evidents, it appears that the title Comes was only added 
to the Christian name, without mentioning their lands ; as in the charter of iving 
Alexander I. to the church of Scoon ; the witnesses there are Mains comes, Madach 
comes, who were Earls of Strathern and Athol. This charter was about the year 
1115 : as Sir James Dalrymple, Collect. Appendix, page 37^. 

In England the same practice was, as Selden observes ; of which he gives 
.several instances-! As Allanus comes, Rogerus comes, which continued to the reign 
of Richard I. who ascended the throne in the year 1180; and then the earls were 
designed after their countries and lands. 

In Britain there have been Earls, or Counts Palatines, who had a more eminent 
and royal authority within their territories than the ordinary earls ; as the Count 
Palatine of the Rhine in Germany is preferable to ordinary counts there. In En-g- 
land we find mentioned the Earls Palatines of Chester, Pembroke, and Durham : 
These, says Segar, had royal power within their own jurisdiction: The first of whom, 
Hugh Lupus, was made Earl of Chester by William the Conqueror, and the 
county of Lancaster was made Palatine by Edward III. as our last mentioned au- 
thor tells us, " That the Earl Palatine of Lancaster had under him barons, chan- 
" eery, and great seal ; and the same had the bishops of Durham and Ely. " The 
offices of the barons were to sit in council and parliament with their earls in their 
respective palaces ; and for magnificence these earls kept their grandeur and festi- 
val days in their provinces, as absolute princes. Our author here calls their place 
of residence a palace, which cannot be so said of ordinary earls : And I cannot but 
take notice, that King James VII. in his charter of erection of the earldom of 
Winton and lordship of Seaton into a free regality, through all the charter calls the 
house of Seaton palatium, a palace ; and, with submission, I think that those earls 
whose earldoms are erected into a regality, may be understood Palatines. We 
find few or none called Earls Palatines, mentioned in our records, but IValterus 
Comes Palatinus de Strachan ; and Sir George Mackenzie gives this reason why 
they were so few, " Because the Lords of the Regality had the same power. " 

The manner of creation of earls is the same almost with that of a duke. The 
robes of state almost the same, and honoured by the cincture of the sword, impo- 
sition of a cap and coronet of gold on their heads, with a verge of gold put into 
their hands. The robes and mantles are of crimson velvet, doubled with ermine, 
as those of dukes or marquises, but have only three guards of ermine ; and the cap 
is also of crimson faced up ermine, called galerus or beretum, especially with the 
Germans : with the English the coronet is a circle of gold, enriched with stones of 
several colours, of old not brightened either with points or flowers, as Sandford ob- 
serves in his Genealogical History of the Kings and Nobles of England, as by 
those coronets on the effigies of the deceast Earls, Henry Lacy of Lincoln, and 
William de Valence, whose circles were not brightened. And that the first circle 
or coronet brightened with leaves or flowers, was that of fohn of Eltham second 
son to Edward II. who was created Earl of Cornwall by his brother Edward HI. 
the second year of his reign. 

Of what forms, of old, were the coronets of our ordinary earls, I cannot be posi- 
tive ; but in latter times they are the same, as now used by the English, viz. a circle 
of gold adorned with jewels, and brightened with points topped with pearls, alter- 
nately with flowers, like these of the marquises, but the points are higher than 
the dowers, for difference. The title to an earl is, Right Honourable and Truly 
Noble Lord. 

French earls or counts, according to Columbier, wear only on their shield of 

arms, and not elsewhere, their coronets of gold, brightened with nine large 

pearls, raised on points above the rim. And other writers since Columbier tell 

'' That the counts in France have their circles brightened with nine great 

' pearls only. " 

^The immediate degree of dignity next to that of an Earl is a Viscount, in Latin, 

Vicecomes, quasi Gubernaturus comitatum, a lieutenant to an earl or count and so 

was only officiary, and the same with sheriff of a county or shire. Some' of them 

Iden writes) having obtained a feudal gift by inheritance or usurpation in 

ir jurisdictions, by these means they obtained a settled dignity, which kings 

afterwards bestowed on others. For having in their hands old dutchies and coun- 


ties by forfeiture, recognition, or otherwise, they erected out of them this feudal 
dignity. In France and Spain there are several nobles of this dignity, but none in 
Germany; nor were any with us till the year 1606, that King Janus VI. 
created THOMAS Lord ERSK.KNE Viscouat of FKNTON, (now Earl of KLI.LY), and 
JOHN RAMSAY Viscount of HAUDINGTON, afterwards Earl of HOLDERNLSS in i 
land. The reason Sir George Mackenzie gives for that dignity being so late 
with us, is, because our kings gave not the government of counties and shin- 
to earls, but appointed sheritfs, who depended upon themselves. The cere- 
monies of creation of a viscount with us is the same almost with an earl, 
with this distinction, that the robes- of a viscount have two bars ajid a half 

The coronets of viscounts with us are a circle of gold adorned with dia- 
monds, and brightened with thirteen great pearls only, without either points or 

Some French heralds give to their viscounts only a plain circle of gold : but 
Favin brightens the rim of it with pearls, and ordinarily with four : as the author 
of Obwrvationes Eiigenialogica:, thus, " Laminam auream nudam, vel quatuor tan- 
" turn unionibus- conspicuam." Menestrier brightens their circles with nine pearl*, 
3, 3, and 3 together. 

To let us see what the English say, besides Segar, Guillim, and others, I shall 
give the words of the author of the New Dictionary of Heraldry lately printed. 
" Viscounts, in Latin Vicecomites, says he, are well known to have been no other 
" than deputies or lieutenants to earls or counts, as proconsuls were the degree 
" under consuls. There were no such in. England before the reign of Henry VI. 
" who, in his i8th year, created John de Belmont a Viscount ;. and it is since be- 
" come a name of dignity between an earl and a baron, as the marquis is between 
" the duke and the earl ; whereas formerly it was only a name of office ; for the 
" sheriffs were called Vicecomites, as being vicegerents to the earls, on whom the 
" several counties depended. The ceremony of his creation is so much the same 
" with that of a baron that it is needless to repeat it here. He has also a sur- 
" coat, hood, mantle, verge, cap, and coronet ;. the doubling of the cap all white 
" without spots, as are the guards of his mantle, being two and a half, to dis- 
" tinguish him from a baron, who has but two ; and that fur is called? miniver, 
" being made up of the bellies of squirrels. The rim of his coronet of gold is set 
" round with pearls, not confined to any number ; which is another distinction 
" from a baron, who has but six ; but they must not be raised above the said rim. 
" The title given him is Right Honourable, and Truly Noble, or Potent Lord. 
" He has the privilege of having a cover of essay held under his cup when he 
" drinks, and a traverse in his own house ; and a> viscountess may have her gown 
" borne up in the presence of a countess by a woman, and out of it by a man. The 
" eldest son of a viscount has no title of peerage, nor are his daughters ladies ; but 
" his eldest son and daughter take place of all gentry, and before those of a baron. 
" In France, according to Columbier, viscounts have only a circle of gold, or a co- 
" ronet enamelled with four large pearls on it. '* 

Again, the said Dictionary tells us, " That a viscount's coronet has neither 
" flowers, nor points raised above the .circle, like the other superior, degrees, but 
" only pearls placed on the circle itself, without any limited number, which is his 
" prerogative above the baron. " 

Matthew Carter narrates, " That this title of viscount is derived from the same 
" order in France : And that viscounts at first were only substitutes to- earls ; 
" till getting themselves into power, got also to have the title Honorary and He- 
" reditary, between the earl and baron ;" it being the same word which signifieth 
our sheriff, and began not in England till about the i8th year of King Henry the 
VI. who then created John Lord Beaumont Viscount of Beaumont, by letters 

Though Sir John Feme tells us of it in the time of King Henry I. and King 
Stephen ; and though the elder sons of dukes are stiled earls during their father's 
lifetime, as also the eldest sons of marquisses are stiled by their fathers viscounties 
and baronies, and called lords, and the younger sons saluted with lord, yet it is by 
courtesy only that they assume these titles. 

VOL. II. R r 


To this degree of a viscount was allowed (by the Parliament of England m 
the reign of King James I. monarch of Great Britain) a surcoat, mantle, hood, 
and a circulet, without either flowers or points as tbresaid, and is created with 
the same ceremonies that those of a higher dignity and title of honour above him 


The last degree of our higli nobility is the Lord Baron, or Lord of Parliament. 
Which title of baron is as ancient in Britain as any of the titles before mentioned, 
and came in place of thane, as a barony did for thanedome ; since which time tin- 
word baron denoteth all kinds of lords of parliament, as well earls as others : And 
baronage is a collective of all dignities. For now there is no duke but is also mar- 
quis, earl, viscount, and baron, and so are those of the dignity of marquis, earls, 
and viscounts ; and all of them are barons or possessors of honourable possessions, 
which is the root of all feudal dignities. 

The word baron is variously interpreted, as first coming from the Greek word 
baria, which signifies authoritas gravis, a wise and discreet man. Bracton inter- 
prets it, robur belli. Again, Sir Henry Spelman saith the Gothic word bar, barn, 
or bern, is the same in Latin with vir, whose derivation is from vi, force ; and from 
thence, sit fit et alii potentes sub reg e qui die untur bar ones, id est, robur belli. And 
taking it in that sense we now understand it, Sir Henry Spelman calls him cliens 
feudalls, and vassalus capitalis. " Husjusmodi sunt (saith he in his Glossary, page 
" 79-) f l u i P a S s > urbes, castra, vel eximiam runs portionem, cum jurisdictione 
" acceperunt a rege ;" and the word vir or homo (as with the English, baron and 
femme, for man and wife) may be applied to those who had territories given them 
under the tenor of homage, as becoming a man to him that gave them, and were 
called barons. But not to insist farther on the derivation of the word baron, I shall 
give the words of the author of the new Dictionary of Heraldry, lately printed at 
London, 1725, in octavo, as follows : 

" Baron, from whence derived, is no easy point to determine ; the Romans hav- 
" ing had no such dignity among them, though they had the word : and Bracton 
" says the word barones imports men of valour. They are the lowest dignity 
" among the English peerage, but were of great power and authority in former 
" ages, as may be seen by those that read the barons' wars. All that is said about 
' their original, being only guess work, we shall pass it by, and speak of what is 
" evident. All the peers of England sit in Parliament by their baronies, though 
they be besides, dukes, marquisses, or earls; and the archbishops and bishops 

have baronies annexed to them, as abbots had formerly, in right whereof they 
' are said to sit among the peers. But there is no doubt of the spirituality being 

" a distinct body from the temporality, and so they were formerly reputed in 
" England, and are to this day in other nations, howsoever they may be here 

looked upon now, which is not our business to discuss. Barons are divided into 

three sorts, viz. barons by tenure, barons by writ, and barons by patent. The 
' barons by tenure are the bishops, who enjoy their baronies by virtue of their be- 
' ing chosen to their sees. A baron by writ is he that is called to sit in Parlia- 
' ment by the sovereign without any preceding title, of which there have been 

; many instances ; and the sons of noblemen during the lives of their fathers, 

when they had no right as yet by their birth to sit among the peers, have been 
' often summoned to the House of Lords in this manner." 

The manner of erecting a baron by patent is thus : He appears in court in his 
long robe and hood, attended by several persons of quality, two heralds walk 
beiore him followed by Garter King at Arms holding the king's writ ; a baron, 
supported by two gentlemen of distinction, brings the robe or mantle, and so 
' they come into the king's presence, kneeling three times. Garter delivers the 
; writ to the Lord Chamberlain, which is then read, and when they come to the 
1 word therein, investimus, we have invested, the king puts on his mantle, and the 
writ being read out, declares him and his heirs barons. The writ is 'given to 
the king, who delivers it to the new baron, who, after returning thanks tor 
the honour received, withdraws with the same attendance as he came to enter- 
tain the nobles that introduced him at dinner. When dinner is brought up 
'.arter coining to the table with the heralds, cries largess, and repeats the king's 
itles, and then, at some farther distance, they again cry large** and 


ts proclaims the titles of the new made baron thus: The most nMe Lord N. A r . 
" Baron of N, &-c. and then bowing, they withdraw, crying, twice more, largess, 
" largess. Where note, that these declarations are made in French. So Mr 
" Glover in his /W>. Pol. et Civ. of Barons made by writ, he says thus, The new 
" baron having received his writ, wh r :n the House of Lords is sat, Garter King at 
" Arms, ban headed, and wearing his kingly coat, goes before the said baron, 
" who is led, by two of the last barons in their robes, into the Home, ami brought 
" before the Chancellor, to whom, after kneeling twice, he delivers his writ to 
" read. The Chancellor having read it, congratulates him upon his new honour, 
" and so dismisses him to take his seat, which is showed him, Garter still going be- 
" fore ; and the Chancellor delivers the writ to die clerk of the Parliament to DC 
'" laid up : After which the baron enjoys all the honours ajid prerogative-, due to 
" a baron." Glover as above. 

King Richard the 11. was the first that erected a baron by patent, in the year 
1388, being the nth of his reign, when he conferred that honour on JOHN BEAU- 
CHAMP of Holt, Baron of Kidderminster, investing him withasurcoat, hood, mantle, 
cap, and verge, being all the same with those of a viscount, only with this ditfe- 
rence, that a viscount has two guards and a half of miniver, and a baron bvit two. 
The baron is not girt with a sword, nor had they any coronets till the reign of 
King Charles II. who gave them a circle of gold with six pearls set close to the 
rim. The title given a baron is Right Noble Lord, and it is allowed him to have 
the cover of his cup held underneath whilst he drinks : and a baroness may have 
her train held up by a woman in the presence of a viscountess : The eldest son of 
a baron has no particular title, nor are his daughters ladies, but the eldest son and 
eldest daughter take place of all other gentlemea and ladies : The coronet of a 
baron in France, says Columbier, is a circle of gold enamelled with a string of 
pearls round about it, which they place over their arms.. 

In former times great lords and knights of renown used chaplets of pearls,, and 
did set them on their heads in summer or hot weather ; such was the chaplet of 
pearls given by King Edward the III. of England to EUSTACHE DE RJBEAUMONT, his 
prisoner of war, as to the person that had fought best, and forgave him his ransom. 
For they mistake who think it was a count's coronet, the same being only a pre- 
sent and honourable reward in token of valour and liberty, according to the custom 
of those days. 

The word baron, says Matthew Carter, is a general title in England (as it is al- 
so in Scotland) to all lords of the Great Council of Parliament, and in Naples and 
Lombardy, where all those lords that are called titulati are in general stiled barons. 
This word was used by the Danes in the stead of thane, which was among 
the Saxons a title of honour, and being next the king, he was called the king's 

And Selden tells us,, folio 87. " That in the laws of" William I. instead of the 
" earl, king's thane, and middle thane of the Saxon times, the title of count or 
" earl, of baron, and of valvasor'are used." By which we understand it to have 
been, though not in the same name, yet notion, a feodal honour of great antiqui- 
ty. And Sic Henry Spelman says, " They were such as had not only castles, 
" towns, or great part countries in their juridiction, but they had their valvasores, 
" (minores^. I conceive ; for there were then valvasores, majores, et minor es ; inili- 
" tes, et libere telientes} which should signify an honour of command in the com- 
" mon wealth." 

It has been a common opinion, that every earldom in times past had 'under it 
ten barons, and every barony ten knights' fees holding of him : But those knights' 
fees (says other authors) were uncertain for number. However, we find many 
barons, created in the times after the coming in of the Normans, that held both of 
knights' service, and of the crown in chief, which were either spiritual or tempo- 
ral ; and it is certain, that all honorary barons, from, the Conquest till the latter 
time of King John, were only barons by tenure. 

The spiritual barons were distinguished from the temporal thane, in time ot the 
Saxons, by holding their lands free from all secular service, excepting trinoda ne- 
cessitas, (as it was called) ; which was assistance in war in building of bridges and 
castles j and this continued till the fourth year of William I. who then made the 


bishopricks and abbies subject to knights' service in chief, by creation of new 
tenures ; and so first turned their possessions into baronies, and thereby made 
them barons of the kingdom by tenure, as says Mr Selden in his Titles of Ho- 
nour, chap. v. fol. 699, 704. " That all bishops, abbots, priors, and the like, 
" that held in chief of the king, had their possessions as baronies, and were ac- 
" cordingly to do services, and to sit in judgment with the rest of the barons in 
" all cases, but cases of blood, from which they are prohibited by the canon 

" law." 

William the Conqueror of England distributed the lands there amongst his Nor- 
mans, into several possessions, called counties and baronies, to be holden of him 
for military services. As before him did our King Malcolm M'Kenneth his lands 
of Scotland, which he possessed by a hereditary right, to his native subjects, in- 
to earldoms and baronies, from which they had the honourable titles of earls and 
barons. And these again distributed parts of their lands to their followers, called 
milites, who likewise give part of theirs to other men called vassals, each hold- 
ing subalternately of others, and the barons of the king for military services, and 
other feudal duties. So that these king-, knew thereby the strength of their, king- 
doms, and what number of horse and foot they could bring to the field in time 
of war. 

Barons were those who held their possessions immediately of the king, and were 
heritable members of the king's council, now called Parliament, by the tenure of 
their holdings, as well with us as in England ; where, about the end of the reign 
of King John of England, there arose a distinction of barons, majores et minores. 
To the first, as being more potent, particular writs were issued to each of them, 
summoning them to Parliament, and the minores were called by a general sum- 
mons executed by the sheriffs in their several counties, whose title of baron dwind- 
led into that of tenant in chief, 

From the reign of King John to the middle of King Richard II. anno 1387, 
there were two kinds of barons, as saith Selden, the one sort by writ and tenure, 
and the other barons by writ only. The first were those who were actual barons 
by possession, and had particular summons to Parliament ; the other barons by 
writ only were such as were called by virtue of summons to Parliament, though 
they possessed no baronies. 

Mr Carter's account of those two kinds of barons, as in his Analysis of Honour 
and Armory, page 44, 45", and 46, take as follows, " Barons (says he) by tenure 
" are barons spiritual, as I said before, which are reputed peers of the realm, and 
" were ever first in nomination, and take place on the prince's right hand in Par- 
" liament, being capable of temporal dignities, and some of them are accounted 
" Count Palatines in their jurisdictions." 

" And by tenure temporal, which are such as hold their honour, castle, or ma- 
" nor, as the head of their barony,^r baroniam, which is grand sergeantry : By which 
" tenure they ought to be summoned to Parliament. See Bracton, lib. 5. fol. 351 
" and 357. But he is no lord of the Parliament until he be called by writ to the 
" Parliament." 

These barons by tenure, in the time of the Conqueror, and after, were very 
numerous; and, in his time, as I conceive, distinguished into majores et minores, 
and summoned accordingly to Parliament : The majores by immediate writ from 
the king, the others by general writ from the high sheriff at the king's command. 

But they had also another distinction, which was, " The first were called only 
' barons by tenure, and the last tenants in chief, which were after quite excluded 

the Parliament, as Mr Camden says, fol. 122. in the reign of King Henry III. 

by a law made, that none of the barons should assemble in Parliament but such 
' as were summoned by special writ from the king. And that King Edward I. 

summoned always those of ancient families that were most wise, but omitted 
their sons after their death, if they were not answerable to their parents in un- 
' demanding." But Mr Selden's opinion is, " That not long after the grand 
' charter of King John the law for excluding all tenants in chief was made." 

From whence came that other dignity of barons by writ, the king summoning 
whom he pleased, though he were a private gentleman, or knight, as many seculars, 



pviors, abbots, and deacons also; all which have been since omitted, that held 
nothing of tiie king in chief, or giand tenure. 

Tim title of baron by writ is by some esteemed only temporary pro tcrmino pfii 
litimcnti. But that cannot be, for the ceremony of his admittance signifies mure- 
than a titular or temporary honour, which is this. He is first brought by the 
Garter King at Arms, in Ins sovereign coat, to the Lord Chancellor, between two 
of the youngest barons, who bear the robe of a baron ; there he shows his prescript, 
which the chancellor reads, then congratulates him as a baron, and invests him 
with these robes, and sends him to take his place; then the writ is delivered to 
the clerk of the Parliament, and he by the Garter showed to the barons, and placed 
in the house; and from thence is this title allowed him as hereditary. 

Since thes two sorts of barons in the time of Richard II. another has been 
established, viz. barons by letters patent; which indeed are now more usual, and 
continue to this day, who are all lords of Parliament, and of the last degree of our 
high nobility. For the said King Richard, in the nth year of his reign, first 
< reared JOHN DE BEAUCHAMP, Steward of the Household, Baron of Kidderminster, 
him and the heirs-male of his body. And this coming afterwards to be the only 
way of creation, they had (says Selden) commonly creation-money granted them, 
as Sir Ralph Boteler, who had one hundred merks granted him annuity out of the 
county of Lincoln. 

Some of these minores do yet remain, as the barons of the cinque ports, barons 
of the exchequer, &-c. which are called barons, yet have not the honour; such are 
those that were created by Count Palatines, as the Baron of Kinderton, and some 
few others. 

As concerning the descent of this honour, and the extension of it, it many times 
descends to heirs-female, as when there is no special entail on the heirs-male; yet, 
then, no husband of that heir-female shall enjoy the title and honour, in right of 
his wife, unless he have issue by her; as was decreed by King Henry VIII. in the 
case of Mr Wimbry, for the stile of the Lord Talboys. 

With us here in Scotland there was no distinction of greater or lesser barons, 
but all were admitted to come to Parliament who had a free barony and power of 
pit and gallows; till about the end of the reign of King James I. when, by an act 
of Parliament, anno 1427, it was statuted and ordained, ' That small barons need- 
" ed not come to Parliament, but only two commissioners from each shire. All 
" prelates, dukes, earls, lords of Parliament, and bannerets, or banrents, to be sum- 
" moned by the king's special precept." Here we have the first distinction of 
small barons, and barons lords of Parliament, so called, because they were sum- 
moned out of the prime barons to come to Parliament. And, shortly after, follow- 
ed their solemn creation and letters patent for making them lords of Parliament ; 
the form and ceremony of their creation being thus : He is brought in his robes 
of state before the king, or his commissioner, by two of that order, his friends car- 
rying before him a pinsel of tafteta rolled up, whereupon is his crest and motto, 
and next a banner also rolled up, whereupon is his whole achievement; and after 
the ordinary oath is administered to him, the cincture of the belt and sword is 
performed by the king or his commissioner, who also puts into his hand a patent of 
his dignity ; then the Lyon King at Arms proclaims his titles, Sir A B of C, 
knight, baron, and banrent, lord of our sovereign's Parliament, lord of D. But 
these ceremonies have been dispensed with, as also those in the creation of higher 
dignities these everal reigns by-past; and the delivery of letters patent, passing 
the seals, are sufficient now for that end. The robes of lords have two bars 

Lords or barons, with us, as well as in England, had no coronets till King 
Charles II. by a warrant under his hand, in June 1665, allowed to barons or lords 
of Parliament in Scotland a crimson velvet cap, with a golden circle decorated with 
six pearls on the top, equally distant one from another, being the same with the 
barons' coronets in England, a circle heightened with six pearls. The which war- 
rant being registrate in the books of his Majesty's Secret Council of Scotland, I 
here insert as follows. 

The signature following being presented and read in council, was ordained to be 

Edinburgh, June 29. 1665. " Our sovereign lord ordains a letter to be made 

VOL. II. S s 


" and passed under the Great Seal of this kingdom, mentioning, That whereas the 
" noblemen of higher degree of this kingdom, by titles of honour, were distinguish- 
" ed from gentlemen of lower quality, in all coronations and parliaments, by scar- 
" let robes and other marks of honour, wherewith they were adorned at their crea- 
" tion, many ages ago, with no small lustre; in their particular degrees and places 
" they were manifestly known to be ditferent in their several stations: amongst 
" which distinctions, the divers forms of coronets ordained for, and appointed to 
" be carried by dukes, marquisses, earls, and viscounts, at the most magnificent 
" coronation of the kings of Scotland, added no small ornament and state : All 
" which considered, by reason the barons and lords of Parliament of this ancient 
M kingdom, most famous in former times, who had place and vote in Parliament, 
" and all other public conventions, by heritable right, have not had hitherto any 
' ornament to their head in such solemnities as became their rank : And because 
" it is just and reasonable that those of the degree of peers carry a mark of honour 
" suitable to that of the peers of a higher degree, his majesty, willing to show all 
" those of that degree, in time coming, his royal favour, doth by these presents or- 
" dain and appoint, that they and their heirs, barons and lords of Parliament, 
" made or to be made at any public or solemn conventions, shall have and carry 
" on their head a certain crimson velvet cap, with a golden circle decorated with 
" six pearls on the top, equally distant one from another, on the day of the coro- 
' nation of his majesty's successors kings of Scotland; and also in all time and place, 
and after the same manner that the viscounts of this kingdom, and other peers 
of higher degree of honour, carry and use their coronets, or may by right and 
custom use and carry the same : As also, that they may set it on their coats of 
arms, or anywhere else they please ; and his majesty ordains these his letters 
patent, that they may be the better known, to be insert and registrate in the 
registers of his chancery, together with the figure of the said .cap: And also, 
4 that they be forthwith insert in the public office of the Lyon King at Anns, 
' amongst the public acts thereof, whereby his servants, the Lyon, and the 
' heralds, may have the surer knowledge of his majesty's command and com- 
1 mission, to observe and obey the same in all time coming, so often, and when- 
' soever it shall be necessary, or occasion shall require. And these presents shall 
be a sufficient warrant to the Director of the Chancellary to write, and the 
1 Lord Chancellor, or Keeper of the Great Seal, to append the same thereto: As 
also, to the Lyon King at Arms, to registrate the same in the books of his office, 
and give out extracts thereof. Given at our Court of Whitehall the 2d day of 
June 1665 years." 

The forecited M. Carter, in his Analysis of Honour, page 48. tells us, " That a 
baron of England, as a lord of Parliament, is reckoned among the peers of the 
realm, and privileged amongst them in all those things. As first, In all trials 
of criminal causes, he is not tried by a jury, but a bench of peers. If for treason 
he be indicted, and shall stand mute, he shall be convicted, but not prest; but if 
it be for felony, his standing silent shall not convict him. Upon any trial of 
peers, the lords that are to give verdict are not, like a jury, put upon their 
oaths, but upon their honour. A peer of the realm is not to be empannelled in 
any jury but what concerns the king's inquiry. Neither are they to be arrest- 
ed by any warrant of a justice of peace, either for the peace or 'good behavi- 
our. Neither is he to be put upon his oath, upon any appearance he shall make 
in court; but his honour to be esteemed as binding. And whereas all burgesses 
of the commons are sworn to supremacy, the barons of the upper-house of Par- 
liament are not, 5th Eliz. C. i. with many other privileges." 
Mi Miege, in his State of Britain, tells us'likewise, " That the nobility of Eng- 
land, (now all those of Great Britain since the Union) are also free from all ar- 
for debts, as being the king's hereditary counsellors. Therefore a peer can- 
not be outlawed in any civil action, and no attachment lies against his person 
But execution may be taken upon his lands and goods. For the same reason 
: free trom all attendance at courts leet, or sheriff's turns : Or in case 
t not^ from attending the service of the posse comitatus. And to secure the 
lonour of, and prevent the raising of any scandal upon peers by false reports 
there is an express law, called scandalum magnatum, by which any man convict 
of a false and scandalous report against a peer of the realm, is condemned on an 


" arbitrary line, and to remain in prison till the same be paid. They have other 
" privileges which I pavs by tor brevity's sake ; yet none has that of the grandees 
" of Spiiin, to be covered in the king's presence." 

The form of creating a baron by patent, according to the said Carter, ib. page 
40,. is in this manner. " The king sitting in state in the presence-chamber ; 
" first, The heralds by two and two, and their Garter Principal King, alone, pro- 
" c'ced, bearing in his hand the patent of creation; next to him a baron, bearui"; 
" the robes, and then the person to be created followeth betwixt two other barons. 
" Being entered the chamber of presence, they make their obeisance to the king 
" three times. Garter then delivereth the patent to the Lord Chamberlain of the 
" Household, and he to the king, and the king to one of his principal secretaries 
" of state, who readeth it, and at the word investiiniis, the king putteth on him 
" the baron's robe. So soon as the patent is read, it is to be delivered to the k 
" who gives it to him that is created. Then he returning thanks for his great 
" honour, withdraws in the same manner he came in, the trumpets sounding ; 
" and so he goes to dinner, where, after the second service is gone up, the Garter, 
" with the rest of the heralds, cometh near the table, where first pronouncing- 
" largesse, with a loud voice, he declareth the king's stile in Latin, French, and 
" English; and then standing somewhat further off, pronounceth largesse again, 
" with the stile of him that was newly created. In which form (says Mills) win 
" WILLIAM CFXIL created Lord BURLEIGH, 151!! of February, 13. Elizabeth." 

Silvanus Morgan, lib. 3. p. 24. observes, " That the circles of the crowns of 
" all the degrees of nobility are of one form (though variously heightened as be- 
" fore described) to show them to be pares regni." 

The coronet of a lord in France is a golden circle adorned with bracelets of 
small pearl. 

Our learned countryman, Sir George M'Kenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, 
page 91, tells us, " That the first origin of crowns in arms, was from the Romans, 
" App* lib. 2. de Bell. Civil, for they rewarded the great actions of their citizens 
" and warriors with different and suitable crowns, which I here narrate out of the 
" ingenious Mr Cartwright." 

Cor on n mumus, this was due to him that was first seen upon the wall of the 
enemy. The forecited author of the new Dictionary says, " That a mural crown 
" or garland was of gold, being a circle, and on its battlements like those of a 
" wall, given to him that first mounted the breach, or any ways was the first that 
" broke into an enemy's town : which honour was due to the meanest soldier, 
" as well the greatest commander, if he could prove he had been the first that 
" entered the place. On the circle of this. coronet there were lions engraved to 
" express the undaunted valour of the bearer. Again there was the corona cas- 
" trensis for him that made a breach in the camp of the enemy." The said 
dictionary says, " That a vallar-crown or garland, called also castrensis, was of 
" gold, and consisted of palisadoes, or the likeness of them, standing up all about the 
" gold circle, given by the general of the army to him that first broke into a for- 
" tified camp of an enemy, or forced any place palisaded after the manner that 
<; the outwards of strong places generally are, and therefore the palisades were re- 
" presented upon the coronet, to denote the exploit performed by the bearer." 

Again the Romans had the corona navalis, the naval crown or garland, which 
was of gold, adorned with the heads and sterns of ships, or gallies, as also sails. &-c. 
given to him that had first boarded an enemy's ship or galley, and been, by that 
means, the occasion that the same was taken. With such a coronet her late Ma- 
jesty Queen Anne honoured Captain JAMES MOODIE. commander of the ship Prince 
George, to ensign his helmet with, instead of a torce, and thereon to place hi; 
crest, for his merit and great services done to her, and, in particular, for relie\ 
the town and castle of Denia in Spain, when besieged by the French in the ^ 
1707 and 1708. As in the Appendix to this book, page 23. 

The Romans had also the corona triutnpbalis, or triumphal crown or garland, 
which was made of laurel, and granted only to generals who had vanquished their 
enemies, and had the honour of a triumph granted them by the senate of Rome. 
This was said to have been taken from Apollo's crowning his head with laurel 
after killing of the Delphic serpent, and it was as much esteemed by the Romans 
as if it had been of gold. 


Corona avails, oval crown or garland, was made of myrtle, and granted to 
those who had obtained a victory with little hazard ; and was first yiven to those 
that were victorious at the loliau games, instituted by the Thebans in memory of 
their hero lolus, near his tomb ; and therefore this was a mournful garland. The 
Romans bestowed the same sort of garland on their generals who had vanquished 
their enemies without bloodshed, or surprised some important place without strik- 
ing a stroke, as also on those that had subdued slaves or pirates, not reckoned worthy 
of the Roman valour, and consequently not to deserve a triumph. 

Corona obsidialis, or obsidional crown or garland was made of grass, and given 
to him that held out a siege, or caused it to be raised, repulsing the enemy, and de- 
livering the place. So Fabius Maximus had no greater reward than this crown, for hav- 
ing delivered the city of Rome from Hannibal, after the unfortunate battle of Canme. 
Corona civica, or civic crown or garland, was given to a brave soldier who had 
saved the life of a fellow-citizen, or rescued him after being taken prisoner by 
the enemy, exposing himself to save another. And this was only made of oaken 
leaves with the acorns, if they could be so had; because that tree was dedicated to 
Jove, who was reckoned the protector of cities, and their inhabitants. This crown 
was made of oaken boughs, says Sir George M'Kenzie. 

Corona olivalis, olive crown or garland, was made of olive leaves ; and was 
given, among the Greeks, to those that came off victorious at the Olympic Games, 
kept in honour of Jupiter, at the foot of Mount Olympus. But, though highly 
valued amongst these people, this, and others like it, were only a reward for run- 
ning, wrestling, or such like exercises ; and therefore nothing comparable to the 
martial rewards among the Romans, who also gave this crown to those who had, 
by their wisdom, reconciled two enemies. 

The said Sir George M'Kenzie mentions also the corona populea, which, he says, 
was given to young men that were found industrious and studious in the exercises of 
virtue. But, amongst these rewards of honour, that of ivy, called corona bederalis, 
was only appropriated to the poets. 

The aforesaid Roman crowns or garlands, though made of leaves or grass, were 
as highly valued as if they had been of gold, because they were only bestowed on 
such as had purchased them by their singular bravery ; whereas, of late, golden 
coronets have been too frequently bestowed upon no other desert than wealth, and 
even that sometimes meanly gained. All the ancient rewards of garlands are now- 
expired, and it is well they are when so little regard is had to real merit. Favour 
and affection are sufficient to advance the least deserving, and very often those who 
have done most are the least looked upon, if they have not some powerful interest 
to support them. He that runs away sometimes carries the prize from him that 
fought the battle. 

There is another ancient crown, being a circle with high points rising therefrom, 
called an open or antique crown, which Silvanus Morgan says is that crown borne 
by Homager Kings, and by John Baliol, when he held the crown of Scotland of 
Edward the I. of England. But I beg the gentleman's pardon (says Sir 
George M'Kenzie, ibid, page 92.) to tell him, that, of old. the Roman Emper- 
ors carried no other than these, after their apotheosis, and being numbered amonr 
the gods, 

Fulminibus manes radiisque ornabit & astris. LUCAK. 

And generally all kings of Christendom, of old, as I said before, carried theirs 
of that shape, as L'Oseau also well observes. 

There is also a Turkish crown, if we may so call it ; for, in reality, the Grand 
Signior has no crown, but instead of it he wears on his head a great turban of fine 
muslin, held out by a wire that keeps it from falling together, and adorned on the 
sides by two rich jewels of diamonds and carbuncles, with fine heron's feathers 
standing up above, and costly pearls hanging below, and sometimes crescents, or 
half moons, two chains of gold and precious stones hanging at the two aforesaid 
jewels, and crossing the turban before. The Bashaws and other great men have 
turbans of another sort. 

The Doge of Venice wears for his crown a great pointed cap of cloth of gold 
encompassed with a gold circle, covered with precious stones, two long ears or lap- 



pets of the same cloth of gold hanging down on the sides of it pointed at the ends; 
though they have lately taken the close crown like monarchs. 

I shall only observe (and then have done with this chapter on crowns) that the 
name is originally derived from horns ; for the ancient Jews and Gentiles looked 
upon horns as tokens of supreme honour and power, and, in scripture, we often 
find the horn taken for royal dignity ; and therefore Moses's face is said to have- 
been horned, the same word in the Hebrew fignifying a crown and a horn. The 
most ancient knights and warriors wore horns for their crests ; but, in process of 
time, great men left them off, and, instead of them, took crowns. The most an- 
cient kings wore only wreaths, either white or purple, in nature of the present 
Turkish turbans, as a token of royalty, or else circles of gold with points rising 
from them like that of the open or antique crown I before mentioned. 

And now having sufficiently treated on the crown and coronet, with its tiar or 
cap, I proceed to the cap of state, which also adorns the achievement. 



TO leave nothing untreated of that embellisheth hereditary achievements of 
families, I have added this chapter, wherein I shall describe this cap of state 
or dignity, and its ancient and modern use. 

It is of crimson velvet faced up ermine, with two points turned to the back, not 
unlike in figure to our Scots cowl, so called. 

It is frequently used in armories by the English, which they say is from, or in 
imitation of, the caps of the Roman generals, who having obtained a victory, and 
returning in triumph, had this cap of state carried before them, by their most 
worthy captive. 

It is now called a ducal cap. For the wearing of this cap had a beginning from 
the dux, or duke, who was so called, a ducendo, being leader in war, that is, ge- 
neral of an army to emperors and kings, and is now given to others of inferior dig- 
nities, and so cannot be an ensign of dignity, but given as a token of triumph and 

Yet, of old, by the ancient practice of the English, and ourselves in Scotland, 
hone but princes and dukes used to wear it on their heads or helmets, or timbred 
their achievements therewith as an ensign of royalty or dignity. Mr Sandford 
"tells us in his Genealogical History of the Kings of England, " That King ED- 
" WARD the III. and his successors Kings of England, down to King EDWARD the 
" VI. had on their seals of arms this cap of state. For on the cuts of their seals 
" there is to be seen on one side the figure of the several kings represented on 
44 horseback in armour, with this cap of state on their heads, and the crest of 
44 England set thereupon." Which helmet, cap, and crest adorn also their es- 

Prince EDWARD, eldest son of King Edward the III. had the same cap on his 
head, surmounted with the crest of England, and charged with a label of three 
points. And HENR.Y Duke of LANCASTER, the second of that dignity in England, 
carried on the helmet of his achievement such another cap, in place of a wreath, 
whereupon was placed his crest, being a lion passant gar dant. 

The author of the dictionary to Guillim says, <4 That the word chapeau is the 
" common French word for a cap or hat ; but here it is taken for an ancient cap 
44 of dignity worn by dukes, being scarlet coloured velvet on the outside, and lin- 
44 ed with a fur ; of late frequently to be seen above a helmet instead of a wreath 
44 under gentlemen's crests. But formerly (continues he) they were rarely to be 
44 found the right of private families : They after became frequent, together with 
44 ducal coronets by the grants of Robert Cock, Esq; Clarencieux, and others since 
44 him, but by his in particular." Thus that author. But I do not find this ducal 
cap in any other called cbapeau, except in the Display, where it is more properly 
also called a cap of dignity ; and Columbier calls all sorts of such caps bonnets ; but 

VOL. II. T t 



gives the name of cbapcau to that which we properly call a hat, and not to a cap 

or bonnet. . ., 

With us Sir James Balfour, Lyon King at Arms, in his Manuscript of 
Ornaments, says, " That he has seen the seal of arms of Archibald Earl of Doug- 
" las Duke of Touraine, Great Constable of France, appended to a charter grant- 
ed'by him to the progenitor of the Earls of Winton ;" which charter is supposed 
to be in their custody ; on which seal is the said duke's achievement, and the hel- 
met ensigned with a cap of the same form, as mentioned before. The present 
Duke of Douglas had the same on his achievement painted and illuminated on his 
coach, which I saw anno 1708 ; but observed that, through ignorance, the painter 
had drawn the points of the cap forward, which ought properly to be turned to 
the back or sinister side of the helmet. 

The said Sir James informs us, " That he had likewise seen the seal of arms of 
John Stewart Duke of Albany, Earl of March, Lord Annandale, and the Isle of 
" Man, Governor of Scotland in the minority of King James the V. appended to 
" a treaty with King Henry the VIII. of England, upon which was his achieve- 
" ment/and on the helmet placed above the same, was set, instead of the wreath, 
" this cap of state." 

And the present Earl of HOME, carrying in his armorial achievement for crest, 
a lion's head erased, with this cap of state, gules, turned up ermine. I could 
give several other examples ; but these may suffice to prove its usage here in Scot- 

But now this chapeau, or cap of state, has lost its former eminent dignity, by 
the bad practice of some modern heralds, who not only give it to all the degrees 
of high nobility, which is somewhat tolerable, but even to the lesser nobility, as 
may be seen in Richard Blome's Treatise of Honour, Military and Civil, subjoined 
to Mr Guillim's Display of Heraldry. Where the achievements of knights, baron- 
ets, and batchelors and esquires are represented engraven on copperplate, having 
their helmets and other parts of their achievements ensigned with this cap of state, 
which ought not properly to be carried by any below nobility, considering that 
none but kings, dukes, and high nobility were allowed, of old, to carry the same 
in their armorial bearings. 

Yet the French have no such chapeau, as a sign of dignity and eminent virtue, 
though they have of another form, used by their chancellors, and presidents of 
Parliament, as ensigns of their civil dignity, and with which they always adorn 
their arms ; of which after. But first of marks of ecclesiastic dignity, of which I 
-hall treat in the next chapter. 



AND first, as to the Pope, who is the supreme dignity in the church, being 
the head bishop, and, as it were, sole monarch in spirituals among Roman 
Catholics, throughout the whole world. He is chosen by the cardinals, and his 
See has always been at Rome, whence his orders, by the name of briefs and bulls, 
are dispersed throughout the universe. The bulls are so called from bulla, a great 
leaden seal hanging to them. This may suffice concerning him, as being sufficient- 
ly known ; and yet the controversies about his authority are endless ; and there- 
fore it is needless to say any more of him, but only what relates to the exterior 
ornaments that he is in use to carry in adorning his armorial bearings. 

The POPES of ROME have been in use to carry and adorn their paternal arms, not 
on a formal or ordinary shield, but an oval cartouch, as it is called, and the 
Italians, for the most part, have their shields of arms after an oval form, in imita- 
tion, it is thought, of those used by popes and other eminent churchmen. This 
oval cartouch the popes adorn with their papal ensigns, being the tiara, keys, and 
cross staffs. 

The tiara papalis is an ornament of the head, being a high cap of silk envi- 
roned with three crowns of gold, placed one above the other, adorned with pearls 


and precious stones. The top of the cap surmounted with a mond of gold, or 
precious stone, ensigned with a cruss, as that of the emperors ; having two labels 
or pendents at the sides of the tuir, hanging down, and again turned up ; which 
tiar or triple crown, called the regne, is the sign of sovereign supremacy, as 
they say, over the universal church, and is placed above the cartouch of the pope's 

The author of the new Dictionary of Heraldry says, " That the papal crown is 
" like a deep cap or mitre, of cloth of gold, encompassed with three coronets or 
" circles of gold, adorned with ilowers, and all embellished with precious stone-, 
" and on the top the globe, and on it the cross." There are several of these triple 
crowns kept in the Roman sacristy, some say to the number of four, with as many 
rich mitres, which serve only for ornament and show, being too heavy to wear. 
The richest of which was made by Pope JULIUS the II. An account of which may 
be seen in Motraye's Travels, vol. i. page 346. 

The two keys, one of gold and the oth~r of silver, are placed in saltier on the 
banner of the church, which is of red silk. And they were also placed behind the 
cartouch of the pope's arms saltier-ways, as symbols of their power in opening and 
s-huttingthe gates of heaven and hell. The pope carries also, by way of supporters, 
two angels proper, who are placed in a sitting posture one on each side of the car- 
touch, and each with one of their hands supporting and bearing up the triple 
crown, and with their other hands holding each a long staff with three traverses 
near the top ; which traverses end in trefoils, and are of the same metal with the 

The cardinals are now become the first of all the clergy of the popish church, 
next to the pope. That which raises them above bishops and patriarchs is the 
power they have during the vacancy of the see of Rome ; as having the right to 
choose a new pope, and being themselves the persons on one of whom that elec- 
tion falls. These high prerogatives have gained them the title of princes of the 
church ; and, as such, few princes in Italy contend with them for precedence, 
being reckoned little inferior to crowned heads : For this reason the popes have 
thought fit that they should be clothed in scarlet, especially upon public occa- 
sions, as kings and emperors commonly are, though that colour was given them, as 
they say, to put them in mind that they are always to be ready to shed their blood for 
the true faith. But though they wear red garments on ordinary days, that being 
the colour of blood, yet, on days of sorrow, they put on violet or purple, which is 
more dark and mournful. Pope INNOCENT the IV. was the first that gave them 
the red hat. At the council of Lyons, in the year 1244, BONIFACE the VIII. 
granted leave to the secular cardinals to wear the scarlet robe, when the popes 
began to wear white. PAUL the III. gave them the red cap ; and, lastly, GRE- 
GORY the XIV. allowed the religious cardinals to wear it, but that they should 
still be clothed in the colour of their order. The creation of cardinals is wholly 
in the pope, who only communicates the same to other cardinals, and they give 
their approbation. '1 he new created cardinals go the same day to visit the pope, 
who puts the red cap on their heads, they kneeling, and the master of the cere- 
monies puts on their rochet ; then having taken off the cap, the new cardinal 
kisses the pope's foot and hand, and then they rise, and the pope embraces them ; 
after which, when the pope gives them audience, they sit down and are covered. 
The red hat is afterwards given them in a public consistory, on their knees, and 
then they go to church, and Te Deum is sung. The pope performs the ceremony 
of shutting their mouths in a private consistory, and they are opened again in the 
same manner a few days after ; that done, he gives each of them a title of bishop, 
priest, and deacon, putting a gold ring on their fourth finger, to signify their be- 
in^ married to the church. The cardinals that are absent when chosen have the 
cup sent them, and is set on their heads by the sovereign in whose dominions they 
!e. As for the red hat, and the other ceremonies, they cannot be performed 
anvwhere but at Rome; for the hat must be given by the pope himself, who al- 
so confers the title, after the ceremonies of shutting and opening the mouth. 
Thus many cardinals die without ever receiving the red hat, because not at Rome. 

The cardinals' exterior armorial mark of dignity is the red hat, with which they 
timbre their shields, having red strappings, with fifteen tassels hanging down at 


each side of the shield. Pojie INNOCENT III. discharged them to use coronets or 
other badges of their secular dignities, but few complied therewith, save the Ita- 
lians, for those of Fiance continued to carry in their achievements all their marks 
of dignity, politic, civil, and ecclesiastic. As Cardinal RICHLIEU, commonly design- 
ed the Cardinal, Duke, Peer, High Admiral of France, and Commander of the Royal 
Order of the Holy Ghost. For he in his armorial bearing carried below his cardi- 
nal hat a ducal crown placed upon his escutcheon, and round it the Order of the 
Holy Ghost, and behind the ..shield two anchors disposed in saltier, for his badge, 
as being High Admiral of France. 

ALBERT Archduke of AUSTRIA, son of Maximilian II. Emperor of Germany, who 
married Clara Eugenia, Infanta and daughter of Philip II. King of Spain, placed 
on his escutcheon an arched crown, and above it a cardinal's hat, with fifteen 
tassels hanging down at each side of the shield, which he carried as being a cardi- 
nal. See his seal of arms exhibited by Olivarus tJredus. 

Archbishops, primates, and legates, place a cross staff with two traverses at the 
top, erected in pale in the middle of the back of their shields of arms, and above 
the same a green hat with ten tassels hanging down at each side of the shield ; as 
Monsieur Baron, in his Abrege Metbodique, blazons the achievement of CAMILLE 
DE NEUVILLE de VILLEROY, Archbishop and Earl of LYONS, Primate of France, and 
Commander of the Royal Order of France, viz. azure, a cheveron between 
three anchors of the last : which shield of arms is environed with the blue ribbon, 
and thereto affixed the pendant of the royal order, and timbred with an earl's co- 
ronet ; and behind the shield is placed, in pale, a cross staff, with two traverses 
near the top, surmounted of an archbishop's green hat, with its proper number of 
tassels, being ten on each side. 

Bishops place on the dexter side, and on the top of their shields of arms, a mitre 
affronts, (i. e. looking forward) and behind the sinister side of the said shield they 
carry a crosier, erected in pale, with its hooked head appearing above the shield 
as high as the mitre, turned to the left, and the foot of it appearing below at the 
bottom of the left side thereof; and above all, a green hat with six tassels hanging 
down at eachside of the shield. 

I do not find that our bishops in Britain have used to carry hats and tassels, as 
a part of their armorial ensigns, before the year 1520, but only mitres and crosiers ; 
for I have seen several seals of our ancient bishops, in formal shields placed .below 
the images of saints or mitred bishops, supported by angels, and adorned with 
mitres and crosiers only. 

Particularly I have seen the seal of WILLIAM FRASER Archbishop of St An- 
drews, who flourished in the reign of King Robert the Bruce, where the shield of 
his arms is only timbred with a mitre below the feet of St Andrew. 

And on the seal of JOHN CAMERON, Bishop of Glasgow and Chancellor of Scot- 
land, appended to an indenture between Jean, widow of King James I. and Sir 
Alexander Livingston of Callender, concerning Sir Alexander's keeping of the 
young king's person, dated 4th September 1439, where his arms are only timbred 
with a mitre, and at the sides of the shield are two salmons erected with rings 
in their mouths; and the legend round the seal is, Sigillum Joannls Episcopi 
Glasguen. The same arms are cut in stone, with a. salmon below the shield, 
as they are to be seen on the vestry of the church of Glasgow, which that bishop 

The modern method that our British bishops use in adorning the shields of their 

That our archbishops only place a mitre affront 6 on the top of their 

shields, with two labels or pendants fixed thereto, hanging down, waved and 

Ided on each side of the shield ; and behind the same, two crosiers disposed in 

Itier, with their hooked heads appearing above, and the points of the same com- 

g out below the bottom of the escutcheon. And, in most of paintings and he- 

Iry books, bishops only adorn their shields of arms with a mitre placed on the 

top thereof, with pendants hanging down as aforesaid, without making use of any 

other exterior ornaments. 

Abbots of the popish church timbre their arms with a mitre in profile or stand- 
ing sideways, on the dexter side of the top of their shields, and a crosier erected in 
pale, placed at the back of the sinister side thereof, with its hooked head appear- 



ing above the shield, raised us high as the mitre, and turned to the right, and above 
both is a black hat, tram which issueth a knotted cord, with six tassels hanging 
down on each side or" the shield. 

But on the beautiful abbey of Paisley are to be seen the arms of GEORGE SH.VU, 
(a brother of the family of Sauehie) Abbot of the said abbey, who adorns only the 
shield of his arms with a crosier, erected in pale, at the back of the middle there- 
of, with its hooked head appearing above the same. 

As also on the abbey of Holyroodhouse is to be seen, cut on stone, the arms of 
Abbot ARCHIBALD CRAWFURD, a brother of the house of Haining, and Treasurer to 
King James 111. where his shield of arms is only adorned with a mitre placed on 
the top thereof. But I never could find that any of our abbots of old made use of 
the black hat and tassels, as an addition of exterior ornaments to adorn their ar 
rial bearings. 

On the seal of ANDREW, Commendator of Jedburgh, I saw his arms cut, 
adorned only with a crosier erected in pale, placed at the back of the middle 
of the shield, and the hooked head thereof appearing above the same, turned to 
the right. 

Abbesses carry their arms in a lozenge shield, and adorn the same with .t 
crosier erected in pale, at the back of the middle thereof, with its head above 
the lozenge, turned to the right, and the shield is ordinarily either environed 
with a chaplet of flowers, two palm branches, or a crown of thorns tied to the foot 
of the crosier, that appears below the base point of the lozenge. 

Prothonotaries of the church of Rome timbre their shields of arms with a black 
hat, having three tassels hanging down at each side thereof. 

Priors and Provosts of the said church carry, behind the middle of their shields, 
erect in pale, a pastoral staff, like to that of a pilgrim's bourdon. And the shield 
is also adorned with two palm branches tied to the foot of the said staff, appear- 
ing below the shield, and raised on each side thereof as high as the top of the 

Deans of that church carry a crosier erect in pale behind the middle of their 
shields, with its hooked head appearing at the top thereof, turned to the left, 
adorned with two palm branches, disposed after the same method as carried by the 
priors above. 

Chanters of the same church carry the staff or mace of the chapter, erected in 
pale at the middle of the back of the shield, with the head thereof appearing at 
the top. Also they adorn the shields of their arms with two palm branches dis- 
posed after the same method as the last. 

And other inferior ecclesiastics of the church of Rome abroad trim and adorn 
their shields of arms with cherubims, who are said to be the second of the nine 
orders of angels. 

AS for the ancient use of these ecclesiastic marks in armories, Menestrier tells 
us, " That the cardinal's hat, the crosier, and cross staff, have been in armories 
" above three hundred years; and which figures have made up the arms of 
" many churchmen. " 

The custom of timbring archbishops' and bishops' arms with the hat was 
first practised in Spain, as some will, and the arms of Don Roderico Fernando, 
Bishop of Jaen, was so trimmed in the year 1400, Which are still to be seen at 

In Alimond's History of the Council of Constance, printed at Augsburg in 
the year 1483, are the arms of four patriarchs, viz. of Antioch, of Constantinople, 
of Venice, and of Jerusalem, timbred with green hats. 

The hat upon arms of bishops is not ancient in France, says Menestrier ; and 
the use of it was only brought in there by Tristan de Saladzes, Archbishop of 
Sens, a Spaniard, about the year 1520. But I find in England, out of Sandford's 
Genealogical History, that HENRY BEAUFORT, (second son of John Duke of Lan- 
caster, by his wife Catharine Swinford) who was a cardinal, had his arms timbred 
with a hat. And with us in Scotland our ancient bishops carried mitres and cro- 
siers only ; but in all my readings 1 have not met with any of them to have car- 
ried hats before the year 1520. 

VOL. II. U u 


The mitre is made forked, to intimate that those who have right to carry it, 
ought to be known both in the Old and New Testament. And though very ancient, 
yet it is not universally to be met with on escutcheons of arms ; because upon 
sepulchral monuments, where they are most ordinarily to be found, we meet fre- 
quently with the representation of the person interred cut on stone, upon who^c 
head is set the mitre, and not upon his shield ot arms, just as we find crowns on 
the seals of kings, &c. first on the bearers' heads, before they were placed on their 
shields of arms. 

As for the antiquity of prothonotaries, placing on their arms a black hat doubled 
with green, Charles de Grasaria, in his ( Treatise of such Ornaments, printed in the 
year J545, says, " Protonotarius timbrum addit ex pilio nigro duplicate viridi co- 
lore. " And about this time chanters began to place the staff or mace of the chap- 
ter behind their shields of arms. 

It has also been the custom of the commanders of the religious orders to place 
the badges of these orders in their arms, by way of composition. But as to the 
antiquity of churchmen impaling and quartering their arms with those of their 
sees, the same is to be found in the year 1329, and sooner. 

It is to be observed, that all the above churchmen who use and carry the exte- 
rior crnament of a hat above their arms, have also a cordeliers, (issuing out of the 
same) which is a cord with two running knots on each side, whereat hang down 
the foresaid tassels on both sides of the shield, and are always advanced in number 
according to the person's degree in ecclesiastical preferments, from a protonotary 
to a cardinal. 

Sir George Mackenzie tells us in his Precedency, pages 29 and 30, That the 
Roman patriarch was by Phocas the Emperor raised above all the rest in the year 
606, since which time they have raised themselves by several degrees to the pa- 
pacy ; though it cannot be denied but, even before that time, the bishop of Rome 
had the first seat in all councils, as is clear by Justinian's Novella, 131. cap. 2. 
But the power of presiding did still belong to the emperors, as has been fully 
cleared by Cursius and others. And though it be pretended that Constantine the 
Great did, from Christian humility, prefer the successor of St Peter (as vicar of 
Jesus Christ) to himself, yet the Emperor Frederick I. did conscientiously debate 
this precedency with Pope Adrian IV. since which time it has been variously ac- 
quiesced in by popes and emperors. And though the legates be representatives 
of the popes, yet Thuanus tells us, lib. 98. that the learned Brissonius, President of 
the Parliament of Paris, would not suffer the pope's legate to precede him ; and at 
the coronation of the Emperor Charles V. the pope's legate was denied the prece- 
dency from the electors. 

The cardinals have debated for precedency with patriarchs; though by the 
Novjlla 132. cap. 2. Justinian places patriarchs next to the pope; and Panormit, 
in Cap. Antiqua. X. de Privileg. ^ Excess. Pr<rlat. prefers the patriarchs to the 
cardinals. But now, by the concession of Sixtus Quintus, that pope has raised 
the cardinals to an equal degree with kings ; and if kings be present at table or 
other solemnities with cardinals, if there be but one king, he is to sit after the first 
cardinal bishop; and if there be more kings, they sit mixtly with the cardinals; 
first a cardinal and then a king. But though this holds amongst popish princes, 
yet the author of Let Memoires des Ambassadeurs does observes, That Leicester, 
Trotius, and the other ambassadors of protestant princes, never yielded precedency 
to cardinals, till our countryman Sir William Lockhart, Ambassador for Oliver 
Cromwell to the Court of France in the year 1657, yi3lded it to Cardinal Mazarine; 
where he likewise observes, that the Prince of Conde yielded the precedency to 
Cardinal Richlieu, yet the Count of Soissons refused it. 

I find by a letter in the year 1625, that before King James went to England, 
the marquisses of Scotland took place of the archbishops ; but now the archbishops 
take place of all dukes and marquisses, in imitation of England. And by a letter 
in the year 1626, renewed in the year 1664, the Archbishop of St Andrews is to 
take place of all subjects, which is to be so limited as not to exclude the king's chil- 
dren and brothers, as I conceive ; and de facto the Archbishop of St Andrews gives 
place to the Chancellor, ever since the letter. 


G II A P. XI. 



IN treating of these, I shall take occasion to mention all such dignified person* 
as I have met with, who adorn the shield of their arms with exterior ensigns 
and figures suitable to the offices and dignities they have been honoured with br 
the sovereign; with the manner of usage and situation of such badges of honour 
in and about the shield, as their symbola adainutratitnus. 

And, first, as to the armorial ensigns or civil offices of dignity, I shall begin witii 
the Lord High Chancellor, or Keeper of the Great Seal, who is looked upon (-.UN 
Mr Miege, in his State of South Britain) as the prime minister of state, and th 
highest person in the kingdom in civil affairs, after the king and princes of the 
blood, as the Archbishop of Canterbury is in England, and that of St Andrews in 
Scotland, in ecclesiastical affairs. His place is of great trust: He keeps- a court, 
called the Court of Chancery, wherein he is sole judge. It is he that now keeps 
tii.- Great Seal of Britain, without which and the mace he never appears abroad. 
All patents, commissions, and warrants, coming from the king, are perused by him. 
If they be lawful he signs them, and if not, he cancels them. By virtue of his 
office he is one of the King's Privy Council, and ought to have a tender regard for 
the rights of the crown. He also bestows all benefices in the king's gift under 
twenty pound yearly, in the king's books. His office is durante beneplacito. The 
Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper is the same in authority, power and precedency 
in England. All the difference is, that the Lord Chancellor is created by patent, 
which the Lord Keeper is not; and that the title of chancellor is a particular mark 
of the king's favour. 

The Lord Chancellor, with us, (says Sir George Mackenzie, in his Precedency, 
page 39.) is in effect the first officer in the nation, and is by his office, and by a 
particular statute, president in all courts, Act. i. Pad. i. Charles II.; which act 
was made to declare that he was president of the exchequer, as well as of other 
.courts, this having been pretended to by the treasurer. He hath his title not 
from the power of cancelling, as the old Gloss says, that " Cancellarius est qui 
" habet officium scripta responsaque principis inspicere, St male scriptacancellare;" 
for it is not imaginable that he would take his title from what he destroys, and 
not from what he does; but from the cancelli et batres, within which the judges 
did sit inclosed, as is clear from Cassiodor. lib. n.epist.i. These cancellarii of 
old were in effect the clerks; and the chancellor is so called now because he signs 
all the public papers, and appends his seal. " Ideo quod ad eum universae publicae. 
" ivferentur conscriptiones, ipseque eos annulo regis sive sigillo firmaret." Simaq. 
lib. t. calls him, " CKiestor legum, conditor regalis, consilii particeps, justitiae ar- 
" biter:" Which names I conceive are given to him, because Novel, 114. " Di- 
" vmae jussiones debent habere subscriptionem glorissimi questoris;" and many of 
the Novels are signed questor legum. The Lord Chancellor of Scotland doth not 
receive his authority as the Chancellor of England doth, who hath no other com- 
mission but merely by the delivery of the Great Seal of England, a& the learned 
Coke observes: But with us the chancellor's place is always conferred by com- 
mission under the Great Seal, and very often during life ; as also the Chancellor 
and Lord Keeper in England have the like jurisdiction. But we had a Lord 
Chancellor and a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, who were distinct persons, as I 
could prove by a number of instances too prolix here to insert. 

By the laws of King Malcolm II. I find ten pounds is ordained to be paid to the 
King's Chancellor, for his fee of the seal appended to the charter of every hundred 
pound land. Where, observe, that every hundred pound land is set down for the least 
proportion and measure of a barony, or holding of the king. Now we know that 
an hundred pound land, at least, will be thirty or forty, anJ some 50,000 merks in 
good rent ; so that the barons of old were powerful, and had under them milites, 
and these had subvasores. Also in the laws of King Malcolm Canmore, the chan- 
cellor is placed before all the officers, and sometimes many of the considerable earl 


arc placed betwixt him and the rest of the officers. Thus King Alexander grants 
a charter, testibus IViHiclmo de Bosco Canccllario meo, Malcolmo Comite de Fife, 
Alaiw Scncscallff Scotia, &c. But it is observable, that the officers of state of old 
were in ancient writs oftimes ranked according to the quality of the bearers, and 
not according to the precedency of the offices. 

The LOU.D CHANCELLOR of ENGLAND (says Sylvanus Morgan, in his Sphere of 
Gentry, lib. 4. cap. 6.) carries, as the badge of his office, in pale, behind the shield 
of his arms, a mace, being no other than a staff', ensigned with a crown. But his 
chief symbol (says he) is the purse which he places below his shield, and is open, 
with the strings pendent, fretted, nuved, buttoned, and tasselled gules, in a field 
argent, embroidered all over with the sovereign ensigns of his majesty, denoting 
the high magistracy of his office, being to confirm the gifts and grants of dignities, 
offices, franchises, privileges, and immunities: " Et in Francia duo sunt officia, 
" omnibus aliis excellentiora &- principaliora, quorum unum est primum &. prius 
" in justitia, aliud autem jure militari," &-c. The Lord Chancellor taking place 
first for justice sake. 

This high officer, with us, has been in use to place behind his escutcheon of 
arms, as the badge of his office, two maces disposed in saltier, ensigned with imperial 
crowns, and, below his achievement, the said open purse, embroidered with the 
royal arms of the kingdom. 

The CHANCELLORS in FRANCE; besides the two maces placed in saltier behind their 
shield of arms, carry also, as a particular badge of their office, a proper cap of 
gold, (rt mortitr d'or') turned up ermine, which is placed on their helmet, out of 
which issues the crest of their office, being the figure of a queen representing 
France, holding in her right hand a sceptre, and in her left the Great Seal of the 
kingdom; and their achievements are ordinarily placed on a mantle of scarlet, 
adorned with rays of gold towards the top, and doubled with ermine, as Monsieur 
Baron tells us in his Art of Heraldry. But the chancellors there have not the 
usage of the purse, as with us in Britain. And Daniel Fewel says, That Chan- 
cellor Segnies was the first who had his arms so trimmed by the persuasion of the 
i learned herald, Mark de Voulosen de la Columbier. 

ThePRESiDF.Nrsof the PARLIAMENTS in FRANCE place their proper Y?/>, being of black 
velvet, edged with gold galoun, above their coronets and helmets, when of temporal 
dignity, and of spiritual below their hats and mitres. And their achievements lie 
upon a scarlet mantle doubled with petit gris, i. e. a grey furr made of squirrels' 
tails, as set down by the fore-cited Monsieur Baron. 

The GREAT CHAMBERLAIN in FRANCE is called Grand Chambner, and was con- 
stantly possessed by the family of Bourbon. 

The LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN of ENGLAND, (according to Mr Miege, in his 
State of South Britain) is an officer of great antiquity, and of special service at the 
coronation of our kings. Upon which day, before the king rises, he is to bring 
his shirt, coif, and wearing clothes; he dresses the king, puts on his royal robes, 
and serves his majesty that day before and after dinner with water to wash his 
hands. In the procession he marches with his coronet and a white stall in his 
hand. He disposes of the sword of state to what lord he pleases, to be carried be- 
fore the king when he comes to the Parliament ; at which time he goes himself on 
the right hand of the sword, next to the king's person, and the Earl Marshal on 
the left. The whole palace of Westminster being under his government, he issues 
out his warrants for the fitting and furnishing of Westminster-Hall against corona- 
tions, and trials of peers in Parliament time. He provides all things in the House 
of Lords in the time of Parliament, and to that end he has an apartment near that 
house, with the Gentleman-Usher of the Black Rod, the Yeoman-Usher, and door- 
keepers under his command. Upon all solemn occasions the keys of Westminster- 
Hall, of the Courts of Wards, and Requests, are delivered to him. At the coro- 
nation he has forty ells of crimson velvet allowed him for his own robes. After 
the king is dressed by him, and gone forth, his majesty's night apparel, his bed, 
and the furniture of his chamber, are his fees. The very bason the king washed his 
hands in, and the towels he has wiped them with, fall likewise to his share. There 
are also certain fees due to him from all peers of the realm at their creation, or 
when they do their homage ; and from all bishops, when they do their homage to 



the king. This office is hereditary in the family of the Marquis of Lindsay in 

'Flie GREAT CHAMBERLAIN of SCOTLAND, (says Sir George Mackenzie, in his Pre- 
cedency, page 40.) or Camerarius Domini Rrifi.f, is the third great officer named in 
the statutes of King Malcolm Canmore. And 1 rind him in old writs placed as 
witness, before all the other officers, next to the chancellor. There was Magnus 
(', .,ncrurius, who was chief judge over all the burgtis: And there were others un- 
der-chamberlains, who arc oftentimes designed Caintrani, without the adjectionof 
M't^nus: And I find in a charter granted by King David, in the year 1495, the 
witnesses are Alexandra domino Huynu nmgno camerario nostro, Juhutwe domin'j 
Drumond justiciario n'jstn,, Ricfinfa Murebead secrettirio nostro, et Waltero Dninund 
nostru/um rotuiorum et registri ac a consilus. Tiiis oihce is the same with Praepotitus 
JY.YT/ ciilnciili, mentioned by Justinian. By the fourth chapter of Reg i am Maj\ 
tern, we sec- the chamberiaui's office hatii been very great: I''or we find that his 
fees have amounted to no le->s than two hundred pounds per mnium, which he had 
paid out of the profits of the escheats, fines, tolls, and customs accruing to the king 
out or the burghs over whom the Great Chamberlain exercised a particular juris- 
diction. The process and matters of inquiry that came before him is distinctly 
treated of by Sir John Skene, to whom 1 refer my reader. 

The LORD HIGH CHAMBERLAIN in ENGLAND, as the symbol of his office, carr. 
two keys in ^altier at the back of the escutcheon of his arms, as says Sylvanus 
Morgan, in his Sphere of Gentry, lib. 4. page 82. who also tells us, ibid. ' That 
" the Lord Chamberlain of the King's Household, as a badge of that office, car- 
" ries one key in pale behind the middle of the shield of his arms, the same ap- 
" peanng above his shield and coronet, and the bowl is seen below the same." 

The LORD HIGH CHAMBERLAIN, with us, is now hereditary in the family of the 
.Duke of LENNOX, wiiose achievement I have seen adorned with two keys of gold 
disposed in saltier behind the shield of his arms, having the bowls of the keys 
do\vnwards, and ensigned with imperial crowns as the badge of his office, after the 
same form as those dignified with that high office in France; the figure and blazon 
whereof is to be seen in Monsieur Baron's Art of Heraldry. As. also in an old paint- 
ing of the arms of the family of Lennox, I have observed their crests to have a 
golden key hanging thereat. 

The LORD CHIEF JUSTICE of ENGLAND (says Mr Miege in his State of Britain) is 
so named, because his jurisdiction extends over all England, and a warrant from 
him may fetch one from any part of it. He is also called Lord Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench, because anciently the king sat there sometimes in person on a high 
bench, and the judges on a low bench at his feet. This is the highest court in 
England at common law, next to the House of Lords in Parliament. Here the 
pleas are between the king and the subject; all treasons, felonies, breach of peace, 
oppression, and misgovernment, being commonly brought before this court; as are 
also all errors of the judges and justices of England in their judgments and pro- 
ceedings, not only in pleas of the crown, but in all other pleas, the Exchequer ex- 
cepted. In this court, all young lawyers that have been . called to the bar are 
allowed to plead and practise. There are four judges belonging to this court, who 
hold their office by writ, not by patent. But none may be judge in this court ex- 
cept a sergeant at law, who (upon taking his degree) is obliged to wear always a 
lawn coif under his cap at the bar. And the first of these judges is called Lord 
Chief Justice. 

The LORD JUSTICE GENERAL, or GREAT JUSTICIAR with us, (according to Sir 
George Mackenzie, in his Precedency, page 39.) is in the laws of King Malcolm 
Canmore placed next the chancellor, though afterwards Scotland was divided into 
two justiciaries one upon the south side of Forth who was called Justiciarius Lo- 
th-iniee, and in old charters Judex Laudonice; and the other on the north side of 
Forth. This place has been generally possessed by noblemen, and is now the same 
with us that the Chief Justice of the King's Bench is in England. His jurisdiction 
extends over all Scotland, and a warrant from him may fetch one from any part 
thereof. He keeps his court commonly at Edinburgh, called the Justiciary Court. 
There are five commissioners, called Lords of Justiciary, besides the Lord Justice 
General, and Lord Justice Clerk, that are judges in this court, where are tried all 

VOL. II. X x 


crimes that reach to life and limb (as we express it) of the criminals, be tney peers 
or commoners; and the matter is submitted to the cugnuance of a jury, which is 
not allowed in civil courts in cases of maun and tuiim, excepting the High Court of 
L'xchequei, of which afterwards. The jury consists of fifteen persons, and the 
foreman is failed the chancellor of the assize, or jury. In case of the trial of a 
peer, the gieaiest part of the jury were to be peers; but they are now, since the 
U : iion, to be tried as peers of Great Britain. The votes are collected by the chan- 
cellor, or foreman, and the major part determines the matter. This court sits 
every Friday in the afternoon, during the time of the Session, or term. All cri- 
minals, tho^e accused of treason not excepted, are allowed the benefit of advocates 
or counsel to plead for them in this court. 

I have met with no author that mentions any figures or symbols made use of by 
the Lord Chief Justice of England, in his armorial bearing, as a badge of his office. 
But our Justice General in Scotland, once hereditary in the family of Argyle, who 
is also heritably Great Master-Household to his Majesty in Scotland, carries for the 
badges of these high offices, (as matriculate in the Lord Lyon's Register of Arms 
in Scotland) saltier-ways, a batton and a sword suppressed of the shield, the first 
powdered with thistles, proper, and ensigned on the top with the imperial crown 
and crest of his majesty set thereon; which symbol he bears as his particular, 
badge of Master-Household. The sword is proper, hilted and pommelled or, with 
the point appearing above, and the pommel below the shield; which figure he car- 
ries as being Heritable Justice General of the sherirTdom of Argyle, the isles and 
others. But when our Justice General had no other high office beside the same, 
he carried as the ensigns of this office two naked swords disposed in saltier behind 
the escutcheon of arms, the points appearing above, and the pommels below the 
same. And this jurisdiction was amongst others possessed at Rome by the Prafec- 
tus Prtftori, who was their chief magistrate. 

The LORD HIGH TREASURER (according to the fore-cited Mr Miege, in his State 
of Britain) has under his charge and government all the king's revenue, which is 
kept in the Exchequer, and consequently the check of all officers anyways employ- 
ed in collecting the same, whose offices are also for the most part in his gift. This 
office was formerly conferred by the delivery of the golden keys of the treasury^ 
and now by the delivery of a white staff, during the king's pleasure. 

This officer of state, with us, (says Sir George Mackenzie in his Precedency, 
page 42.) is not mentioned amongst these officers of the crown under King Mal- 
colm Canmore, and of old it has been thought but an- office of. the king's house : 
For in a confirmation granted to the abbacy of Aberbrothock, in the year 1529, 
by King James V. after reverendissimis episcopis, and dilectis consanguineis, are enu- 
merate as witnesses dilectis familiaribus tustris Roberta Barton nostro tbesaurario et 
computorum uostrorum rotulatore. Nor do I find a treasurer designed as witness in 
any of the king's charters till then, though some foolishly think that Panctanus was 
treasurer. And though the word familiar counsellor be now given to all officers of 
>tate, who are not earls, because they cannot be called cousins; yet, of old, it was 
only given to those of the king's own family, and was derived a jamiiia, though 
\\Q\vftimiHfir is thought to be the same with intimate. But herein Sir George is in 
u mistake; for King James I. established the office of High Treasurer in Scotland 
after his return from captivity in England. And I humbly think, that before this, 
the Lord Chamberlain was in effect treasurer; for after this the jurisdiction of the 
chamberlain was restricted to what more particularly related to the government of 
the burghs, the charge and management of the king's property, and the other 
casualties of the crown being committed to the care of the treasurer as a distinct 
officer of state, whom henceforth we find almost constantly mentioned as a witness 
in all the royal charters, grants, and commissions, that past the Great Seal, under 
the designation of Thesaurarius noster. 

The COURT of EXCHEQUER in SCOTLAND (says Mr Miege in his State of North 
Britain) is established by an act of Parliament of Great Britain, anno sexto' Anna 
Rcgin<z, entituled, " An Act for settling and establishing a Court of Exchequer in 
' the north part of Great Britain called Scotland," pursuant to a clause or proviso 
for that purpose in the ipth article of an act for an Union of the two kingdoms 
of Scotland and England. This court has the same power, authority privilege 


.ml jurisdiction over the revenue of Scotland, as the Court of Exchequer in Eng- 
lund has over the revenues there ; and all matters and things competent to thtf 
Court of Exchequer in England relating thereto, is likewise competent to the Ex- 
chequer of Scotland. The judge 1 ; are likewise invested with the power of passing 
uitures, gifts, and tutones and to revise and compound them in the same man- 
ner as was done by the Lo:d High Treasurer, Commissioners of the Treasury, and 
Court of Exchequer in Scotland hefoie the Union, and to receive resignations in 
his majesty':; name in the I .xdiequer at the time of the Union, and to appoint of- 
ficers, as u as in use to be d^ne before. All sergeants at law, barristers at law, of 
five years standing-, in a:iy of the tour Inns of Court of England, or such persons 
us shall be advocates in tlie Cullege ol justice in Scotland for h'ye years, are quali- 
to be inude barons of this court. Their commissions are, quaindiu se bcne 


The LORD HIGH TREASURER, of ENGLAND, according to Sylvanus Morgan in his 
Sphere of Gentry, fib. 4. page 82. carried a start ensigned on the top with an im- 
perial crown, which he places in pale at the back of the middle part o his shield of 
his arn; ., as the peculiar badge or ensign of the said office. And Sir George Mac- 
kenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, page 85, tells us, that the Lord High Treasurer 
of Scotland carried a white staff ensigned also on the top with an imperial crown, 
and placed in pale behind the escutcheon of his arms as the symbol of his office. 
And the Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain now makes use of the same figure 
as his badge HI adorning his armorial bearing. 

The MASTER of the HOUSEHOLD, or magister hospitii, is an officer that surveys the 
accounts, and what related chiefly to the offices of the. king's household or court, 
and seems to have come in the place of the Senescallus, since we are pretty sure 
\ve had no master of the household, till after the most serene family of the Stewarts 
came to the crown, and not just then either ; for we have no vestige of such an 
officer, so far as I have been able to trace them, before the Restoration of King 
James 1. anno 1425. But whether this officer in England is in use to carry any 
distinguishing badge thereof in his armorial bearing, is what I have not as yet dis- 
covered. But 1 find that the family of the Earl of Winton, as Master-Household 
to our kings- of old, carried two battons gules, powdered with thistles of gold, and 
ensigned on the top with an imperial crown, whereon is placed and set the royal 
crest of the kingdom, and disposed in saltier behind the shield of their arms. And 
the family of Dalmahoy of that Ilk, 35 being Under Master-Household to King 
James, VI. and King Charles the I. which office he got by patent from the first, 
and Gonfirmed by the second, (which I have seen) wherein he has the allowance 
to place one such batton erect in pale behind the middle of the escutcheon of his 
arms. This office of Great Master-Household is now hereditary in the family of 
the Duke of Argyle, who being both Great Master-Household to the king, and 
Justice-General of the kingdom, adorns his armorial ensigns with one of these bat- 
tons for the office of Master- Household,, as is above narrated. 

The office of CUP-BEAKER to our kings being of old hereditary in the predeces- 
sors of the family of the Earls of Southesk, they carried a golden cup in their arms 
as the badge of their office. But this figure being no exterior adornment of the 
shield, 1 pass it over, now treating on the Exterior Ornaments only. 

We had also of old in Scotland the office of Panetarius, who commanded over 
all the bakers, and Buttelarius, who had the like command over all the keepers of 
taverns, &c. and were inferior offices of the king's household under the High 
Stewart of Scotland. And I find in the letter directed from the nobility of Scotland 
to Pope John, in the reign of King Robert the Bruce, dated at the Monastery of 
Aberbrothock, the 6th of April 1320, that the Lord Soulis was Buttelarius Scotia. 
And I have seen a charter wherein John and Thorhas Murrays, sons to Sir An- 
drew Murray, Governor of Scotland, were designed Panetarii Scotia;, upon the 
forfeiture of John Cuming Earl of Monteith. in the year 1348. And which Earl 
of Monteith was formerly designed Panetarius. 

Monsieur Baron, in his Art of Heraldry, gives us the arms of the COMTE DE 
COSSE, GRAND PANETER of FRANCE, who, as th badge of that office, carries (says 
he) below his shield, on the dexter side thereof, a cup, and on the sinister a stan- 
dish with pen and ink. But whether these of that office with us ever carried such 


svmbols as the distinguishing marks thereof, to adorn their shield of arms, I have 
nor discovered, ttiough it is very probable they have borne the same, seeing in all 
our method of heraldry we commonly follow the usage of Fiance. 

The KING'S FORESTER in SCOTLAND, (says Sir George Mackenzie, Science of 
Heraldry, page 3.) carried hunting-horns as the badge of that office. Thus (con- 
tinue, he) Burnet tarries a huntingvhorn in his shield, and a Highlander in a 11 ant- 
ing garb, and greyhounds for his supporters, to show he was his Majesty's i o- 
rester in the Northern Foiest, as Forrester of that Ilk is in the south : For which 
he .,lso carries three hunting-horns. And the GRAND HUNTSMAN, or VENEUR, in 
iice, carries (says Monsieur Baron) as the badge of his office, two hunting-horns 
aff'ronte, garnished and placed below the shield of his arms. 

1 have seen the arms of Sir Alexander Erskine of Cambo, knight and baronet. 
Lord LYON KING at ARMS, cut on copper, and trimmed thus; above the shield 
(whereon is his own paternal coat-armorial impaled with that of his office) is set an 
imperial crown, and behind the same two battons seme of thistles, and St Andrew's 
crosses disposed in saltier appearing at the foot, and at the top on each side of the 
crown, and round the shield the collar of the thistle. 

The GRAND AUMONIER, or GREAT ALMONER in P'RANCE, is thought to be an 
officer of the crown, and places under his arms a book marked with the armorial 
shield of France for the badge of that office. And I have seen on the root of 
a hall in the house of Seaton the arms of John Hamilton, Archbishop of St An- 
drews, where is placed behind the shield of nis arms, a cross staff erect in pale, and 
nv his escutcheon a book expanded. No doubt on the same account as being 
Great Almoner in Scotland. The Almoner with us (says Sir George Mackenzie in 
Precedency, page 44.) hath no precedency for ought we know, yet is very oft 
itness in all charters granted by our kings, and some think that clericus noster 
was almoner. 

I come now. 2,7/y, To treat of the ensigns and badges of such military offices 
(as I have met with) used by those officers as symbols in adorning their escut- 
cheons. And shall begin with the LORD HIGH CONSTABLE, of whom Mr Miege, 
: n his State of South Britain, says, " That this officer in England, whose power 
' and jurisdiction was anciently so exorbitant, that -it was thought too great for. 
' any subject. In short (continues he) this office has been discontinued ever since 
' the reign of King Henry the Vil. Edward Bagot (or Stafford), then Duke of 

Buckingham, anno 1521, having been the last High Constable in England." 
However, upon a coronation, a Lord High Constable is created pro ilia -vice, who. 
at that ceremony, marches in his robes with his staff and coronet in his hand. In 
the Marshal Court he sat as judge, and took place of the Earl Marshal.. 

This high office with us is the same office (says Sir George Mackenzie in his 
Precedency, page 41.) that the Comes Stabuli was under the Roman empire, which 
may be confirmed by two clear testimonies of great antiquity, one is of Aimon, 
lib. 3. cap. 7. " Landegesilis regalium praepositus equorum, quem vulgo Comes 

Stabuli vocant :" The other is from Rhegino, lib. 2. " Annalium Burchardum 

Gomitem Stabuli sui (quem corrupte constabulum appellabis) cum classe misit in 

' Corsicarn :" Though the learned Cujacius does believe that this title comes from 

one that commands a company of men of war, ad tunic, de comit. et tribun. scolar. 

.\ndtherearesomewho derive it from the word honing, which signifies a king; 

and staple, which signifies a hold, because some constables were commanders of 

the king's houses : Though I find that the High Constable did command the king's 

.inmes, but was expressly debarred from commanding either his houses or garrisons: 

But now, with us, the Constable and Marshal take not place as officers of the 

crown, but according to their creation a s earls, the reason whereof I conceive to 

because, of old, offices did not prefer those who possessed them, but they took 

place according to their creation : For the Constable and Marshal, being now the 

only two officers of the crown that are heritable in Scotland, continue to possess 

S j * J L 1 tormerl y- But in France > England, and all other places, the Constable 

take place as officers of the crown ; and it seems strange that these 

ho ride upon the king's right and left hand, when he returns from his Paiiia- 

,vho guard the Parliament itself and the honours, should have no pre- 

icy by their oinces j. and yet I cannot deny, but that, of old, other earls were 



placed before them in ancient charters, wherein Malcolm Earl of Fife is named 
before them. The Constable with us was, by the laws of King Malcolm, cap. 6, 
judge of all crimes committed within twelve miles of the king's house or habita- 
tion ; though Sir John Skene observes, that the best manuscripts bear only two 
leagues : But now his jurisdiction is only exercised either as to crimes or breach ot 
the peace during the time of the Parliament, which some extend likewise to all 
general conventions. 

Upon a commission and warrant granted by King Charles I. in the year 1631, 
to several commissioners therein named, to search and make trial anent the 
honours and privileges belonging to the High Constable of Scotland, they, after u 
diligent scrutiny, returned their report to his Majesty hereanent. The tenor 
whereof follows : 

The Double of a Report of a Commission anent the Privileges of the High ConsiabU 
of Scotland, which was resist rate in Sir JAMES DALRYMPLE'S Chamber the i^th 
March 1707, the principal of which is still kept in the custody of the Earl o/"EiiRor., 
hereditary High Constable of the Kingdom. 


" ACCORDING to the warrant and direction of the commission granted by your 
" Majesty unto us for trial-taking of the honours and privileges due to the office 
" of High Constable v.'ithin this kingdom, we have kept sundry diets and meet- 
" ings (wherein the now Earl of Errol was present) and having heard and consi- 
" dered his claims, and the instructions and warrants produced by him for venty- 
" of the same, and having likewise informed ourselves what the customs of other 
" countries allow in the like case, we have hereby thought good to set down our 
" articles, our opinion and judgment concerning the said privileges, and there- 
" withal to satisfy your Majesty of what we conceive to be due and belonging to 
" the said Constable in the right of his office. In all royal armies and expeditions, 
" the Constable, in right of his office, is lieutenant-general, and supreme officer 
" next unto the King. He has the command, direction, and government in the 
" army, and is proper and sole judge in all military affairs, and in all actions con- 
" cerning the captains, lieutenants, their officers and companies, enduring their 
" employment or pay in the King's service, and that according to the custom uni- 
" versally observed in other countries. 2^0, It appears that in former times, here, 
" the Constable had precedency and place next to the Chancellor with relation to 
" whatsomever officers ; and, so far as we can learn, they have been in possession 
" of the same till of late years that your Majesty's dearest father, of ever blessed 
" memory, was pleased to prefer the late Earl of Dumbar to be High Treasurer 
" of this kingdom, and that your Majesty's self sinsyne advanced the late Earl of 
" Montrose to be President of your Council, and the Earl of Haddingtoun to be 
" Lord Privy Seal, ordering them, in the right and warrant of their offices, to take 
" place successively in their order, next unto the Chancellor, like as their suc- 
" cessors in the said offices presently enjoy the same, yio. The Constable is su- 
" preme judge in all matters of riot, disorder, blood, and slaughter, committed 
" within four miles of the King's person, or of the Parliament or Council repre- 
" senting the same, and the trial or punishment of such crimes and offences is 
" proper and due to the Constable and his deputies, and the provost and bailhes 
" of that city or burgh ; and all other judges within the bounds where the said 
" facts are committed, are obliged to rise, concur, fortifie, and assist the Constable 
" and his deputies in taking the saids malefactors, to make their tolbooth patent 
" for receiving them therein ; as was clearly verified by production of warrants 
" granted by your Majesty's predecessors to that effect, and which likewise ap- 
" peared by exhibition of certain bonds made by the town of Edinburgh to the 
" Constable for the time concerning that purpose. 4*0, The Constable has the 
" charge of guarding the King's person in time of Parliament or Conventions, as 
" also the keeping of the Parliament House is committed to him, and the keys 
" thereof delivered to him for that effect ; he has likewise the chief command of 
" all guards and men at arms attending on the King's person at such times. ;/0. 

VOL. IL Y. y 


" In time of Parliament the Constable rides on the King's right hand, and: 
" carries a white batton in token of command, and accordingly sitteth apart from 
" the rest of the nobility in the Parliament House on the King's right hand, 
" having the honours lying before him. 6to, Before the thirteenth Parliament of 
" King James II. the Constable was in possession of taking distress of all manner 
" of goods bought or sold in markets in time of Session, General Councils, Parlia- 
" ment or Conventions, which being at that time discharged till the Constable 
" should clear hi-* right to the same in the next following Parliament ; we find 
" that in the table of the imprinted acts of the fourteenth Parliament of the said 
" King, there is mention made of an act touching the taking of strysses by the 
" Constable, but can find no record thereof extant in the register. j?tio, In the 
" original charter granted by King Robert I. of glorious memory, to Gilbert Lord 
" Hay, first Constable of that name, and ancestor to Eurl of Errol, we find the 
" office of Constabulary to be given unto him cum hostilagiis, as a main and prin- 
" cipal privilege belonging to the said office ;. which being a word obsolete and 
" out of use, and we not knowing perfectly the genuine sense and meaning there- 
" of, and whether then the same did import the liberty and right of a lodging duly 
" furnished and appointed within the king's house, (as many do suppose) or some 
" house in every town where the king did remain, or if there be any privilege or 
" casualty imported, we have, in that regard, forborne to deliver our opinion 
* concerning the same. As also in putting tlie crown on the king's head at the 
M time of his coronation. Which, with sundry other privileges, are only made by 
" the Constable to be due to him in the right of his office, and whereof, as he al- 
" leges his predecessors has been prejudged, and the same brought into discoun- 
* tenance by reason of the many eclipses which that noble house from time to 
" time has suffered on occasion of the loyalty of the most part of his predecessors, 
" who, out of zeal to the king's service, and honour of their country, did in their 
" days die worthily in battle before they could gain the opportunity of time, or 
" ripeness of years, to settle their estates, to vindicate the liberties due to their 
" place and office. And this for an account of our proceeding in the execution 
" of the commission directed by your Majesty unto us, which we humbly lay to 
" your Majesty's royal consideration, praying God to bless your Majesty with 
" many long and happy years. From Holyroodhouse, the 2yth day of July 1631. 
" BRUCE." Extracted by- 
And, de facto, I find in the orders for the riding the Parliaments of Scotland at 
Edinburgh, in the year 1661, 1681, and 1703, the Lord High Constable and 
Marischal, are (in the morning of that day the Parliament is to be ndden) to wait 
on his Majesty's High Commissioner at the palace of Holyroodhouse, and to re- 
ceive his orders, and from thence, returning privately, the Constable is to come 
out of his lodging on foot, and having viewed the rooms under and above the 
Parliament House, put on his robes, and, having his batton in his hand, set him- 
self in a chair at the entry of the Parliament Close at the Lady's Steps, by the 
outmost of his guards, from which he is to rise and salute the members, as' they 
alight from their horses, and to. recommend them to the gentlemen of his guards 
to be conducted to the Marischal's guards. And at the Riding of the Parliament, 
anno 1661, Gilbert Earl of Errol Lord High Constable of Scotland, received the 
members of that Parliament (says the author of Merairhis Caledonhis, page 3.) 
at their arrival at the Parliament Yard, attended with his guard of one hundred 
gentlemen of his name, armed with swords, pistols^ and gilded pole-axes. And, 
at the return of the members of Parliament back to the palace, the Constable rides 
on the High Commissioner's right hand with a cap of permission on his head. 
How soon his Majesty's High Commissioner alights from his horse, in his coming 
.to the Parliament, the Lord Constable receives him, and attends him to the Marischal 
guards, and then both Constable and Marischal convey him bare-headed to the throne, 
and are. in the same manner to attend him in his returning to horse. And always 
during the sitting of our Parliaments, the High Constable kept his guards without 


the Parliament House, and the Marischal his guards within the same; the one to 
keep the peace within, and the other without doors. 

The badge of this high office in England, according to Sylvanus Morgan in 
his Sphere of Gentry, lib, 4. page 82. is a staff or batton, ensigned with an 
imperial crown, and, on a shield, below the same, on the batton is the King's 
royal arms ; which batton, he carries erect, in pale, at the back of the middle of 
the escutcheon of his own armorial bearing, as the peculiar ensign of that high 

But commonly the badge of. this office was, and is, a naked sword, which, in 
the Roman Empire, was the badge of the oilice, prafecti pratori'j ; and the Em- 
peror Trajan giving the naked sword to Suro Licernius, who was his prafectus 
prtetorio, gives it with these words, pro me si mereor in me ; which words were 
thereafter put, by Buchanan, with a naked sword, on the money coined during the 
minority of King James VI. 

The first Lord Constable of Scotland that I have discovered, was RichardMor- 
ville, whom I find, in Sir James Balfour of Denmiln's Collections, to have^lourish- 
ed in the reign of King William the Lion; and next David CumingEarl of Athol 
and Lord Strathbogie, of whom I read also in the said Sir James Balfour's Genea- 
alogical Account of the Nobility of Scotland, who gave three mcrks of money 
yearly to the monks of InchafFray in Perthshire by a donation under his seal, 
which beginneth thus, " David de Cumine Comes de Atholue Dominus de Strath- 
" bolgie & Constabularius Scotia;," &.c. Which donation is confirmed by King 
Alexander II. in the year 1239. Afterwards this high oilice became heretable in 
the noble family of the Earl of Errol. For GILBERT DE LA HAY Lord HAY of Er- 
rol, (as says Sir George Mackenzie in his MS. Collections of the Scottish Families, 
and Lewis Moreri in his large Historical Dictionary) closely adhering to King 
Robert I. in all his troubles, when almost the whole nation had submitted to the Bali- 
ol; in consideration of his loyalty, was, by the favour of this warlike prince, creat- 
ed Lord High Constable of Scotland, in the sixth year of his reign, which was 
A. Dom, 1312, and which office was granted to him and his heirs, and is till en- 
joyed by them. JOHN, late Earl of ERROL, having, matriculated his armorial bear- 
ing in the Lord Lyon's New Register, carries as the symbol of his high office of 
Constable at the foot of his shield on each side thereof, an arm gauntlated fesse- 
ways issuing out of a cloud, and grasping a naked sword erected in pale at 
the dexter and sinister sides of his escutcheon of arms, all proper, hiked and 
pommelled or. The figure whereof, as cut on copper, the curious may see in Sir 
George Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry. 

The French High Constable makes use of the like badge as the ensign of his of- 
fice. And, as to the antiquity of this practice with them, Menestrier, in his Sci- 
ence of Heraldry, gives us an instance of the arms of Matthew Lord Montmo- 
rency, Constable of France, who died in the year 1239, on wnose sepulchral mo- 
nument between two swords is placed his shield of arms ; and though, as he tells 
us, the monument appears not to be so old, yet (says he) I have seen other in- 
stances of the same as old. 

The same author, speaking of the King's Master of Horses in France, as an of- 
fice subaltern, and dependent of the High Constable, was in use to place at the 
sides of his shield of arms, two swords in their scabbards, azure, seme of flower- 
de-luces or, with their belts rolled round them, to difference them from these of 
the Constables. And Monsieur Baron, in his Art of Heraldry, gives us the shield 
of arms of Lewis de Loraine, Count de Armugnac, Grand Ecuyer de France to 
Lewis XIV. King of France, who, as the badge of his said otlice, carries below 
his shield two swords in their scabbards placed bend-ways, with their belts wrapt 
round them, seme of flower-de-luces, hiked and pommelled or. The Master of 
Horses is called there Ecuyer, from ecu, a shield, because, by his office, he carried 
one before the king. 

The High Marischal is a name which we have borrowed from the French, who, 
write it marechal, and they have several of them, being the generals of their 
armies. The Earl Marshal of England is a post of great Honour, and takes cog- 
nizance, as the High Constable did, of all matters of war and arms (says Miege) 
wherein he is commonly guided by the civil law. This post is now hereditary in 
the family of the Duke of Norfolk. For Thomas Mowbray Earl of Nottingham, 


was the first that was invested with the title and office of Earl Marshal, by King. 
Richard II. in the year 1385; which dignified office continues now in the said Duke 
of Norfolk's family, who enjoys it at this day heritably, as being descended by 
the mother's side from the said Thomas Mowbray. 

Sir William Segar, Garter Principal King of Arms, tells us, " That the Earl 
" Marshal of England is an Earl by office, and so is no other earl in England but 
" he." The Earls Marshal have sometimes been the king's lieutenant-generals in 
martial affairs, and, by their office of marshalship, have had power aud authority to 
hear and determine judicially of questions, doubts, and differences between parties 
concerning honour and arms. And, to that end, the Earl Marshal held a court of 
judicature, called the Earl Marshal's Court ; as when arms are usurped and un- 
justly borne, the Earl has power to disclaim the same, and to punish the parties that 
shall falsely assume and take upon them the armories of another, by the name and 
title of a Gentleman, when they are not so to be approved. The Earl Marshal ha;: 
power also, by special commission under the Great Seal of England, over the College 
of Her^ds, prohibiting the provincial kings of arms to give and grant any new 
coats of arms without his Lordship's consent. His Lordship establishes orders 
among the heralds, for their better rule and government ; and any doubt or 
question which they cannot decide among themselves, they refer that to the arbi- 
triment and judgment of the Earl Marshal. His Lordship gives them their solemn 
creations according to their degrees, viz. Kings of Arms, Heralds, and Pursuivants. 
The Earl keeps his court either at Westminster, in the painted chamber adjoining 
to the Parliament House, or in his own house ; where, in the great hall, is a large 
square table, with rails about it, and benches within, and an half-pace raised above 
the same. There the Earl sits in the midst, with divers noblemen, and sometimes 
judges on either side, according to the cause in hand, to the end that, with their 
advice and counsel, he may the more legally proceed. And here the College of. 
Heralds sit as his council or assistants in their rich coats of arms. His Lordship 
has belonging to the said court a pursuivant-messenger that serves his precepts and 
summons. He has also a crier that stands on a corner of the stage ; a doctor of 
the civil law, who sits within the rails over against the Earl, to resolve doubts. 
The register or clerk of the court sits before his Lordship's foot, on either side 
of whom the officers of arms are placed to give their opinions, being required. 
Without the rails stand the lawyers that plead, as sergeants and counsellors of the 
Liw, and sometimes doctors and proctors of the civil law, as the cause does re- 
quire. The messengers having returned the process and summons into the court, 
the crier calls the parties whom the cause concerns ; they present their petition 
or bill of complaint ; the register reads the same; the lawyers plead pro et contra 
thereunto. And before the decision the court takes bond of the parties to stand 
to the award and order of the Court Marshal. When the court is to be dismissed 
und prorogued for that time, the register pronounces the prorogation, and the 
crier proclaims it aloud, appointing a day, as his Lordship shall please, for the pro- 
ducing of witnesses, for further hearing, or a final determination and judgment. But if 
the cause concerns the claim of dignities, as for baronies, or earldoms, or honour- 
able offices, which differences happen sometimes between heirs-male and heirs- 
general, then the party plaintiff exhibits his or her petition to the King's Majesty, 
and the king refers that to be judicially heard in the Court Marshal. There, as 
that is found, the Earl Marshal advertises the king how he finds the right of the 
claim to be, and leaves the decision thereof to the king. In this case the warrants 
lire set forth in the king's name, for the appearance of the parties in the 
Court Marshal, and are served or summoned by an officer of arms, with the other 
formalities of the return ; and, if the cause be doubtful or ambiguous, it is some- 
times referred to be heard and determined by the House of Peers. The Earl 
Marshal bears a staff of metal, gilt with gold, at either end tipped with black 
enamelled : Which staff King Richard U. in the twenty-first of his reign' 
granted to Thomas Holland Duke of Surrey, Earl Marshal of England. In time 
of war, with this golden staff he marshals and orders battles in the field, and has 
the leading of the van-guard ; and in time of peace, he bears it usually at' his plea- 
sure, but especially on festival days at the court, and in solemn and royal proceed- 
the king, and takes his place with the Lord Great Chamberlain, or 



the Constable, next before the sword. The Earl Marshal is placed, by act of Par- 
liament, 31. Henry VIII. next after the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Con- 
stable, and before the Lord High Admiral, and the Lord Steward, and the Lord 
Chamberlain of the King's House. At the coronation of the king the Earl Mar- 
shal appear in his robes, with his coronet in his hand and his statF, and has the 
ordering of the abbey of Westminster, and sees the regalities and robes of King Ed- 
ward the Confessor to be in a readiness. He appoints the building of the scaii'old 
whereon the king is to be crowned, and gives orders to the gentlemen-ushers for 
the covering and furnishing thereof with hangings, chairs, traverse":, carpets, 
cushions, &-c. especially the siege royal whereon the king is to be crowned. At 
which time the Earl Marshal is one of those that does all the nearest offices to the 
king's person, as to help to lead him, and to support his majesty in his chair, put : 
ting his hand, with others of the nobility, to set the crown on his majesty's head, 
doing his homage first, and then presenting till others of the nobility. The Earl 
Marshal appoints- what number of Knights of the Bath are to be made at the 
coronation of the king, and makes election of them. The day being come, the Earl 
Marshal with the Lord Chamberlain, gives them their oath, after they are all 
bathed ; he also presents them to the king the same day to receive the Order of 
Knighthood. Of every Knight of the Bath the Earl Marshal receives a fee 
in money viz. five pounds for the horse the knight rides upon, and a merk 
for the horse's furniture, or composition for the same. And at the creation of a 
duke, marquis, or earl, the Earl Marshal ought to have his furniture, or composition 
for the same; and by ancient custom he has hud the same of archbishops, bishops, 
and abbots, at their consecrations. At the funeral obsequies of kings, queens, 
and princes, the Earl Marshal is a chief commissioner appointed with the Lord 
Treasurer, the Lord Chamberlain, &-c. to give orders to the wardrobe for the dis- 
tribution of black for the mourners, velvet for the hearse, palls of cloth of gold, 
escutcheons, banners, and hachements, giving charge to the officers of arms to give 
their attendance, and to see all things royally and princely performed. At com- 
bats, barriers, tournaments, and jousts royal, the Earl Mur.shal is the chiefest 
officer to see them duly performed, to appoint judges, and to ride round the lists 
and order all things ; at which time the Knight Marshal is but his attendant. 
Touching duels and private quarrels between 'gentlemen; growing upon disgraceful 
words, blows, or challenges, the Earl Marshal has power and authority to stay and 
commit the persons, confining them, and taking sufficient bonds for their good 
bearing and forthcoming, compelling the offenders to make satisfaction to the 
parties injured, according to the form and advice of a book published in print for 
that effect, by the appointment of King James I. 

Mr Miege, in his State of South Britain, also tells us, " It is the Earl Marshal 

' who, with the assistance of the Kings at Arms and Heralds, marshals and orders 

1 the proclamation and coronation of our kings, their marriages, funerals, caval- 
41 cades, royal interviews, and feasts-, *c. or when either peace or war with a 
" foreign power is proclaimed r And is also judge of the coats of arms, and of the 
" pedigrees of the nobility and gentry : and therefore keeps a court of chivalry in 
" the common hall of the college of heralds in London. And whoever desires a 
" coat of arms, must first apply himself to the Earl Marshal' by petition,, with a 
" certificate annexed as to his being qualified for it ;. which being approved of by 
" his Lordship, an order is directed by him to Garter King at Arms, and another 

' of the Kings at Arms, being of that province where the petitioner resides, to 
" devise arms for him, and prepare him a grant, with- the coat blazoned' in colours 

' in the margin thereof: in- which grant it is expressly said; that none at his peril 
" do presume to bear the same coat." 

Sir George Mackenzie, in his Precedency, page 42. tells us, "That the word 
" Mariscbal is a German word and office originally, as the learned Tillet proves 
" fully, a marker (jf camps. And the axe which he- bears as the badge of his office, 
" is delegated to the Marecbal du Camp. The Marshal commanded the horse, as 
" Tillet proves ; whereas the Constable commanded both : but yet our learned 
" Craig calls the Constable only Prafectus Equitum ; and yet, as Tillet observes,. 
rt the Marshal was not under the Constable, else he could not be an officer of the 
Vox. II. 7, z 


" crown, and officers of state do depend upon none but the king. Of old I find' 
" the orders in military cases run to our Constable and Marshal." 

It is presumable that our Earl Marischal m Scotland is honoured with the like 
privileges as the Earl Marshal of England : For the office of Marischal has never 
\, on out of the family of Keith: But the Earls of Athol and several others have 
been Constables of Scotland ; and therefore it is that the Earl Marischal with us 
hath no other title, whereas the High Constable designs himself Earl of ERROL. 
Our High Marischal has been, like those of England, Lieutenant-General in martial 
.uTuirs, And Sir Robert Keith, our great Marischal, accompanied Edward Bruce 
when he went to take possession of the crown of Ireland, and did him notable 
service at taking in of Dublin Castle, and kept close to the interest of King Robert 
the Bruce in all his troubles: He was the chief instrument in gaining the battle of 
Inverury, which was the first that ever that great prince won ; And at the battle 
of Bannockburn he commanded 500 horse, being the person that gave the first 
onset, and defeat a party of the English horse sent to reinforce Philip Mowbray, 
Governor of Stirling, which made way for that glorious victory the 'Scots there 
obtained. And at last died fighting most valiantly at the battle of Duplin, " Cum 
" magno propinquorum &- clientium numero," says Buchanan. Sir Robert Keith 
was a man of great courage, and the main instrument of driving Edward Baliol 
out of the country, and restoring King David Bruce. And Sir William, Lord 
Keith, whose lather, Sir Edward first Lord Keith, being indisposed when the battle 
of Otterburji was about to be foughten, supplied his father's place as High Maris- 
rhal. And being a man of great valour, went to the said battle, where, after James 
the second Earl of Douglas, then General of the Scots army, was killed, and the 
English like to prove victors, he, as High Marischal, took on him the chief com- 
mand of the army : and being a nobleman of intrepid courage, recovered the 
battle, beat the English, and took Ralph Percy (brother to, and conjunct com- 
mander with, Henry Hotspur son to the Earl of Northumberland) prisoner with his 
own hand. But fearing I should prove too prolix in enumerating the valiant actions 
of the heroes of this noble and ancient family, 1 proceed to acquaint my reader 
that our Earl Marischal kept also a court called the Marischal Court. 

In this court his Lordship hath power and authority to hear and determine ju- 
dicially of questions, doubts, and differences, between parties, concerning hon- 
our and arms ; as also touching duels and private quarrels between gentle- 
men, arising from disgraceful words, blows, or challenges. He also, as the Earl 
Marshal of England, has power and authority to stay and commit the persons, 
confining them, and taking sufficient bonds for their good a-bearing and forthcom- 
ing, compelling the offenders to make satisfaction to the parties injured. To 
prove this, I shall here insert an order of this court, taken from the principal copy r 
signed by the clerk of the said court, whereof the tenor follows. 

" The Marischal Court of the kingdom of Scotland, holden at Leith the 2ist 
' June 1633, by a noble Earl William, Earl Marischal, Lord Keith and Altree, 
' &c. Great Marischal of the kingdom, members of court chosen, suits called, the 
" court lawfully fenced and affirmed. 

The which day anent the riot committed between Francis Stewart, son lawful 

' to John Stewart of Coldingham, and Malcom Crawfurd of Newtoun, in their 

' injuring of others, and appeilling others to combat contrary to the laws of this 

' realm, to the disturbance of his majesty's peace, and offence of his majesty, baith 

the said parties being present, and confessing the same, the said Earl decerned 

' them to keep his majesty's peace in time coming; and for that effect to act them- 

' selves as follows, and to agree together, and chope hands, which they particular- 

" ly did. 

' The which day the said parties actit themselves, aither of them to others for 
' their indemnities, and for keeping his majesty's peace, aither of them to others, 
' under the penalty of one thousand pounds, toties quoties. Sic subscribititr, 


R. KEITH,, clerk of the said court. 


At the Riding of our Parliament I find the Constable and Marischal guards of 
partizans are to make a lane from that entry to the Parliament Close, called the 
Lady's Steps, to the Parliament House, those of the Constable's without, and those of 
the Marischal within the house, allowing the Constable six of his guard within 
doors, conform to ancient practice. And here I take occasion to insert what I 
should have mentioned before, viz.! find by the Privy Council Registers, anno 1633, 
that' the foresaid report of a commission, concerning the privileges of the High 
Constable, was approved of by his majesty. But as to that part of it, alleging the 
Constable to be superior judge in all matters of riot, disorder, blood, and slaughter, 
committed within four miles of his majesty's person, or of the parliament, or coun- 
cil representing the royal authority in his absence ; and that the trying and 
punishing of such crimes and olFences is only proper and due to him. The royal 
burghs of this kingdom pretended some prejudice to be done them in that report, 
particularly the city of Edinburgh, who produced charters from King James 111. 
and other of our kings, ratified in parliament, by which the magistrates of that 
city are made and constitute heritable sheriffs within themselves, and afterwards 
justices of peace within Edinburgh and Leith ; whereupon his majesty was pleased 
by his letter to the Lords of his said Council, dated at Greenwich, May 14, 1633, 
to will them to call the commissioners of the burghs before them to hear their ob- 
jections concerning this ailair, and to report. The council finding the Lords of 
Session judges competent thereto, remits the same to their solution. But 
as to their determination on the head, I refer to their decision about thut 

The Constable and Marischal, in the morning of that day the Parliament is to be 
ridden, do wait on his majesty, or, in his absence.on his High Commissioner at the 
paUce, to receive his orders : and from thence the Marischal returns privately, 
and goes and puts on his robes ; and being set in a chair at the head of his guards, 
near the entry to the Parliament House, he there attends in his rol>es with his bat- 
ton in his hand, and from his chair arises and receives the members as they enter 
the door. And when the king or his commissioner enters the house, then both the 
Constable and Marischal convoy him bareheaded to the throne, and are in the like 
manner to attend him in his return to horse : Afterwards the Marischal takes horse, 
and rides with him on his left hand to the palace, having on a cap of permission, 
and clothed in his robes. 

We had no Knight Marischal in Scotland, as they have in England, till Kinp 
Charles I. his coronation in the year 1633, at which time it was erected by a letter 
to the Privy Council. And Sir George Mackenzie, in his Precedency, page 42,. 
tells us, " That this officer, by his office, is to take place immediately after the 
" younger sons of lords." And after the restoration of King Charles* II. January 
i, 1661, the Earl Marischal, accompanied with four hundred gentlemen of his own 
.relations, marched on foot from his own lodgings to his majesty's palace of Holyrood- 
house, (then the residence of the Earl of Middleton, his Majesty's High Commis- 
sioner) with the honours of the kingdom, viz. he himself carrying the crown, Co- 
lonel George Keith his second brother the sceptre, and the youngest, Sir John Keith, 
the sword: And when the two eldest of these brothers were prisoners in England 
for their loyalty, by the particular care and industry of the youngest, the same 
honours (so much hunted after by the English then our enemies) were miracul- 
ously preserved: For which his said Majesty King Charles II. deservedly conferred 
upon him the honour of Knight Marischal of Scotland. 

Our Earl Marischal was also heritable keeper of the regalia of the kingdom, vi/.. 
the crown, sceptre, and sword. And after the rising of the Parliament, wherein 
the union with England was concluded, William Wilson, one of the-under-clerks 
of Session, as Depute-Marischal of Scotland, upon his delivering, up <of the i said ho- 
nours, took the following protest, viz. 

Protest taken by William Wilson, one of the under-clerks of Session, as De- 
pute-Marischal of Scotland, upon his delivering up of the honours to David Earl 
of Glasgow, Treasurer-depute, after the rising, of the Union Parliament, anno 

4 At the Castle of Edinburgh, within the crown-room there, betwixt the hours 
M of one and two afternoon of the 26th day of March, in the one thousand seven . 


" hundred and seventh year of our Lord, and sixth year of the reign of her Ma- 
" jesty Anne, by the Grace of God Cuieen of Scotland, England, France, and Ire- 
" land, Defender of the Faith, Sec. 

" The which day, in presence of us notars-public, and witnesses undersubscribing, 
" compeared personally William Wilson, one of the Under-Clerks of Session, 
" Depute-Marischal, for himself, and as procurator for, and in name and behalf of 
" William Earl Marischal, Lord Keith and Altree, Great Manschal of the King-- 
" dom of Scotland, Heritable Keeper of the Regalia thereof, viz. crown, sceptre 
" and sword; and there, in presence of David Earl of Glasgow, Lord Boyle, &c. 
" Lord Treasarer-Bepute, who, for himself, and in name of the remanent Lords 
" Commissioners of the Treasury, was present to receive the above regalia; the 
" said William Wilson, afterwards producing and reading a procuratory granted 
" by the said noble earl to him, of the contents therein and after mentioned, dated 
" and registr.ited in the btsoks of Council and Session, on the 25th of March in- 
" stant, did also produce to the said Lord Treasurer-Depute a schedule signed by 
" him and the notars-public undersubscribing, containing an inventory and par- 
rk'ular description of the said regalia. 

' And thereafter, upon the delivery of the above regalia to the said Lord Trea- 
" surer-Depute, and upon lodging thereof, with the foresaid description of the 
1 same, in an orderly manner, in a chest within the said crown-room, the said 
William Wilson, as procurator foresaid, and in name and behalf of the said Earl 
" Marischal, and in the terms of the said procuratory, protested, that the delivery 
" up of the regalia foresaid shall not invalidate, or be prejudicial to the said Earl 
Marischal his heritable right of keeping thereof, both in time of Parliament and 
' intervals, either in the said earl his castle of Dunotter, as heretofore his ancestors 
" have done, or any other else within the kingdom of Scotland, that his lordship 
' and his successors shall think secure and convenient. Also in terms of the 
' act ratifying the Union between the kingdoms of Scotland and England, 
' whereby it is stipulated and agreed by both Parliaments, " That the crown, 
' sceptre, and sword of state, shall be continued to be kept as they are at present 
' within this kingdom of Scotland, and that they shall remain so in all time 
' coming, notwithstanding of the Union," protested, That they shall remain with- 
' in the^said crown-room of the castle of Edinburgh: and in case the government 
' shall find the transportation thereof from Edinburgh castle, to any other secure 
' place within this kingdom, at any time thereafter necessary, protested also, That 
' the same may not be done until intimation be made to the said Earl Marischal 
' and his successors, to the effect his lordship or they may attend and see the 
1 same safely transported, and securely lodged : And made due and lawful intima- 
tion of the premisses to Colonel James Stewart, Depute-Governor of the said 
Castle, then present, that he might pretend no- ignorance. And also as procura- 
1 tor foresaid, and likewise for himself, as continued keeper of the regalia, by de- 
' putation from the said Earl Marischal, and the deceased George Earl Marischal. his 
father, since the 3d day of August 1681 years, in the reigns of King Charles II. 
King James VII. King William and Queen Mary, and her present Majesty 
Queen Anne, declared, that the same were now delivered to the said David Earl 
ilasgow, Lord Treasurer-Depute, for himself, and in name foresaid, and in 
the same state, case and condition he then received the same; and offered to 
give his oath, that the said William Wilson, nor none to his knowledge, has ever 
directly or indirectly embezzled or taken away from the said regalia any of the 
levvels, pearls, or others appertaining thereto: And, therefore, seeing he had with 
;xact care, and continued fidelity and honesty, discharged the said trust reposed, 
n him did protest to be liberate and exonerate for his administration in the said 
=e, during the said bygone space, but prejudice to the said Earl Marischal of 
;eping the same in all time coming as formerly, by himself, and the said WiU 
i Wilson as hts depute, or any other whom his Lordship shall appoint; and 
upon all and sundry the premisses, the said William Wilson and. his procurator 
or, and m name and behalf of the said William Earl Marischal, asked, and took 
msti its ane or mae in the hands of us notars-public undersubscribing. 
things were done time and place above-mentioned, before and in presence 
David Leslie, son to the Earl of Leven, Governor of the Castle of Ediri- 



" burgh, Sir James Mackenzie, Knight and Baronet, Clerk of the Treasury, George 
" Allardicc of that Ilk, Captain John Cockburn, son to the deceased Mr John 
a Cockburn, advocate, Francis Dunlop of that Ilk, William Morison of Preston- 
" grange, James Malcolm of Grange, and Captain Patrick Aiichmoutie, two of 
" the Earl Marischal's battoneers, John Barclay of Culernie, Patrick Durham of 
14 Omachie, Mr George Areskine, son to Sir John Areskine of Balgome, deceased, 
" William Murray, writer to the signet, Thomas Gibson, writer in Edinburgh, son 
" to the deceased Sir Alexander Gibson of Pentland, one of the Clerks of Session, 
" Mungo Smith, John Reid, Walter Murray, and Robert Bull, merchants in Edin- 
" burgh, Mr John Corsar, Alexander Keith, George Forbes, Alexander Farquhar- 
" son, and Alexander Johnston, writers in. Edinburgh, John Hog and David 
" Graham, Macers of Privy Council, Charles Maitland, John Adam, Andrew 
" Graham of Jordanston, and Patrick Grant of Bonhard, four Macers of Session, 
" John Letham, her Majesty's Smith; David Graham, eldest lawful- son to Cap- 
' tain David Graham, Macerof Privy Council, William Robertson, son to William 
" Robertson, one of the Under-Clerks of Session, Robert Douglas, eldest lawful son 
" to Robert Douglas of Milcraig, merchant in Edinburgh, with divers other wit- 
" nesses specially called and required to the premisses. Et ego vcro Willidmui 
" Robertson, Georgius Cockburn, Alexander Alison, IVillielmus Brown, AlrxaniL > 
" Baillie, Joannes Corss, and Robertas Bunnantync, all notars-public subscribing 
" and subjoining their notes hereto." 

Several exact copies of this protest Mr Wilson sent to the four universities of the 
kingdom, also to the Faculty of Advocates, and College of Physician*, as also to 
the Earls of Errol and Marischal, who received the same as a great favour done 
them, and returned him their several missives of thanks therefore. The Earl of 
Marischal's missive to him upon the foregoing account I subjoin as follows. 

" Affectionate Friend, 

" I received the instrument of the delivery of the regalia, which I acknowledge 
" a great service done by you to me and my family, and yet a greater to the na- 
" tion in general ; and, therefore, 1 will preserve it as carefully as any paper in my 
" charter-chest. I shall at present pass over in silence many other good offices you 
" have done me ; and conclude by assuring you, that as you think it an honour to 
" be descended of my family, so I think it happy to have such a friend as yoU : 
" You shall find on all occasions with how much reality I am your most affec- 
" tionate friend to serve you." Sic subscribitur MARISCHAL. 

Inverugie, July 8th, Directed thus, to Mr WILLIAM WILSON, 

1709. one of the Clerks of Session. 

It is commonly thought, that about the beginning of King Robert the Bruce's 
reign, when Gilbert Hay Earl of Errol was made High Constable of Scotland, that 
Robert de Keith was made Marischal of the kingdom by that gallant prince, who 
gave the same office heritably to himself and his successors: Yet I find by the 
chartulary of Kelso, that Simon Fraser gives the kirk of Keith, and some lands 
near Haddington, to the abbacy of Kelso, which- is confirmed by Hugh Lorens, 
and Eda his wife, heiress of the said Simon, and Herveus filius Pbilippi Marescalli 
also confirms the same. Hs is sometimes designed Herveus de Keitb, and some- 
times Harveus Marescallus. And John de Keith Marescallus Jilius Hervei Mares- 
calli, by an agreement with the Abbot of Kelso, confirms in his favours his said 
father's donation of the kirk of Keith; all which is confirmed by King Malcolm IV. 
who began his reign in the year 1 153, which is a clear evidence that this noble 
family has been possessed of the office of Great Marischal of Scotland long before 
the reign of King Robert the Bruce. 

The High Marischals, of old, carried for the badge of this office an axe ; Tillet 
says, on the account, that they were the markers out of camps, and broke the 
ground with that instrument, as I before mentioned. But others say, as La Lonet, 
in his Treatise of Nobility, lib. i. cap. 8. that the marischals carried axes as the 
token and badge of power and royal authority, which, of old, kings themselves did 
use instead of a sceptre, as a mark of their dignity, having got the investiture and 

VOL. II. 3 A 


possession of their kingdoms by the tradition of an axe. But the Great Marischak 
now, instead of the axe, carry battons as the badge of this high office. 

Those in France bear behind the shield of their arms, as symbols of this office, 
two battons azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, and disposed in saltier, as says Mon- 
sieur Baron in his Art of Heraldry. 

The Earl Marshal of England carries, as the badge of his high office, (as narrated 
by Sylvanus Morgan in his Sphere of Gentry, lib. 4. cap. 6.) a staff, or batton, 
erected in pale, behind the middle of his shield of arms. And the said author tells 
us, that most of the chief officers of state in England carry, as the badge of their 
office, a staff of their dignity, or rather symbolum admitiistrationis. For which he 
sites Cassaneus as follows: 

Datur igitur virga prattoribus, propter disciplinam. 

Datur principibus, propter surnmam regendi potestatem. 

Datur senioribus, in quibus sapientiae munus excellit. 

Datur prsesidibus, ad custodiam obeundam. 

Datur regibus, ad mansuetudinem. & clementiam exercendam. 

Datur iraperatoribus, ad hostilem impetum coercendum atque injuriam propulsandam. 

(CASSANEI Sexta Conciusio.') 

Such is the dignity of the staff, that at the coronation of the Prince of Wales it 
is required, and at the words virgae aureae traditignem, the king delivereth into his 
band a verge of gold, betokening government. 

With us, our Earl Marischal bears for the ensign of his high office, as matri- 
culated in our Lyon's Register of Arms, two battons of the Marisehal of Scotland, 
being gules, seme of thistles, ensigned on the top with imperial crowns or, and dis- 
posed in saltier behind the escutcheon of his arms. 

Mr Miege, in his State of South Britain, tells us, " That the last great officer 
" there is the Lord High Admiral, who has the management of all marine affairs, 
" and the government of the royal navy, with power of decision in maritime 
" cases, both civil and criminal. He judges of all things done upon or beyond 
' the sea in any part of the world, upon, the sea-coasts, in all ports and havens, 
" and upon all rivers below the first bridge from the sea. By him vice-radmirals, 
" rear-admirals, and all sea-captains are commissionated, all deputies for particular 
" coasts, and coroners to view dead bodies found on the sea-coasts, or at sea. He 
" also appoints the judges for his Court of Admiralty, and may imprison, re- 
lease, &c." 

" The sea being reckoned without the limits of the common law, and under 
" the jurisdiction of the Lord High Admiral, therefore the civil law is made use 
" of in the Court of Admiralty. The proceedings in all civil matters are accord- 
" ing to the civil law, that is by libel to the action, both parties giving surety 
'' that they shall stand to the judgment of the court, and he that shall fail in the 
' suit pay to the other what he shall be condemned to. But in criminal matters, 
" such as piracy chiefly, the case is altered. For whereas the proceeding in this 
' court was, of old, according to the civil law, there were two statutes made by 
' Henry VIIJ. that criminal affairs should bej:ried in this court by witnesses and 
' a jury, and this by special commission of the" king to the Lord High Admiral, 
' whereof some of the judges are to be commissioners. In which case the trial is 
" by the common law, as directed by these statutes. 

" The customs and former decrees of this court are there of force for deciding 
' of controversies. And there is a Court of Equity under it, for determining dif- 
ferences between merchants. Though the common law reaches as far as the 
low-water-mark, being counted inira corpus comitatus adjacentis, and causes 
thence arising are determinable by common law, yet when the sea flows over the 
low-water-mark, the admiral has also a jurisdiction there ove.r matters done 
' (while the sea flows) between the low- water-mark and the land. 

To tbe Lord High Admiral belong all penalties and amercements of all trans- 

' gressors a.t sea, on the sea-shore, in ports and havens, and all rivers below the 

first bridge from the sea, the goqda of pirates, and felons condemned, or out- 

' lawed, sea-wrecks, goods floating on the sea, or cast away on the shore, not 



" granted to the lords of manors adjoining to the sea, and a share of all lawful 
" prizes. Also all great fishes, commonly called royal fobes, except whales and 
" sturgeons. To which add a salary of L. 7000 a-year. In short, this is so great 
" an office, in point of trust, honour, and profit, that it has usually been given t<> 
" princes of the blood, or the most eminent persons among the nobility." 

The same author tells us, in his State of North Britain, " That the Scots never 
" abounded in naval force, nor seem to have affected it; otherwise a nation of so long 
" standing, having such materials for building of ships, and such harbours for lay- 
" ing them up safe, could scarcely have been without a competency of ships of 
" war. This must be in part ascribed to that same humour which made them ue- 
" gleet walled towns, according to that of our historian and poet. 

Ilia pharetratis est propria gloria Scotis, &c. 

And a little lower, 

Non fossa & muris patriara, sed Marte tueri. 

" Another reason may be, that their wars being for most part defensive, and by 
" land, against the several people who inhabited the south parts of the island, they 
" did not much apprehend the necessity of the naval force. But that they did 
" not altogether neglect it, is plain from their acts of Parliament, and particularly 
" the i4oth act of King James I. by which it is ordained, " That all barons and 
" lords having lands and lordships near the sea, on the west and north parts, and 
" especially against the isles, should have galleys, and maintain them according to 
" their ancient tenor; and all the lands which lie within six miles of the coast 
" should contribute to their maintenance." 

" With these galleys they defended their coasts, and sometimes invaded their 
" enemies. But that they had other ships of war, with which they were able for- 
" merly to look the English and others in the face, is evident from history : For 
" in the reign of King James III. a squadron of the English navy, which infested 
" our coasts, was defeated and taken by Andrew Wood of Largo, a noted sea-cap- 
" tain, in the Frith near Dunbar; and he afterwards defeated Sir Stephen Bull, 
" with another English squadron, near the mouth of the Tay, where he took him 
" and his ships. And in that same reign, Andrew Barton, a Scots merchant, having 
" obtained letters of marque from his own prince to make war with the Portu- 
" guese, who had killed his father, and taken his ship, and refused to make satis- 
" faction, though condemned by the Admiralty of Flanders, in whose dominions 
" this piracy happened, the said Barton did in a few months make sufficient re- 
" prisals upon them with his own ships; but was treacherously, in time of peace, 
" surprised at the instigation of the Portuguese, by an English squadron, under 
" the conduct of Admiral Howard, against whom, with a much less force, he main- 
" tained a gallant fight, but at last was killed, and his ships taken." 

" The main reason why the Scots neglected improving their naval force, while 
" their neighbours increased and augmented theirs, seems to have been, that their 
" princes, when neighbouring nations increased their naval force, were either 
" minors, or engaged in war with England, or intestine broils at home ; as hap- 
" pened in the reigns of King James III. IV. and V. Queen Mary, and King 
" James VI. during whose reign, before and after his succession to the crown of 
" England, the reasons not only for the neglect, but for the decay of the naval 
" force of Scotland, are so obvious, that it is needless to touch them." 

The chief court of admiralty in Scotland sits in Edinburgh, where they deter- 
mine such causes of piracy, prizes, &.c. as are proper to their cogniiance. The 
office of Lord High Admiral in Scotland has, for the most part, since the union of 
the crowns, been in such persons as had not their residence in the kingdom, par- 
ticularly in the family of Lennox, and in the late King James when Duke of 
York. There are particular jurisdictions of admiralty hereditary in some great 
families, as the Duke of Argyle, who is admiral of the Western Isles, &c. And 
the Earl of Sutherland, of the County of Sutherland, and some of the neighbour- 
ing provinces; and the Earl of Morton is Steward, Justiciary, and Admiral of 


Orkney, whose deputies are at his own nomination. In our Court of Admiralty 
we have a judge, two procurators, a procurator-fiscal, a clerk and his depute, and 
three macers. 

Anciently the Romans represented their offices by figures on their medals be- 
fore the use of armories. Pompey had on some of his medals the prow of a ship 
when admiral in the wars against pirates. And Lucius Hostilius, admiral in the 
Punic wars, used the same mark. Julius Caesar, upon the reverse of many of his 
medals, had the augurial staff, the axe, and the fasces. The Septemviri, whose 
offices were to regulate and oversee the public religious festivals, used for their 
marks a vessel for holding wine. And the Quindecemviri had a dolphin upon a 
trident. And it is the imitation of those marks of dignity on medals that hath oc- 
casioned the usage of particular badges and symbols in armories as distinguishing 
marks borne by persons in high offices. 

Admirals have been in use many generations past, almost everywhere, to place 
an anchor pale-ways behind their shields as the badge of their office. The General 
Admiral of the Galleys in France, according to Monsieur Baron in his Art of He- 
raldry, carries a double anchor erect in pale behind the middle of the escutcheon 
of his arms, and two battons seme of flower-de-luces disposed in saltier at the back 
of the sliield. As in the arms of Mr Le Due de Vivonne, General des Galrees. 

The Lord High Admiral of England, or Dominus supremus prajectus classis An- 
gUcanac, according to Sylvanus Morgan, in his Sphere of Gentry, lib. 4. cap. 6. 
page 85. bears an anchor erect in pale behind the middle of his armorial shield as 
the badge of his high office. And gives us an example thereof in the arms of 
James Duke of Albany and York. 

In Scotland our admirals carried the same symbol ; for though, as Sir George 
Mackenzie tells us in his Science of Heraldry, page 3. that Wood of Largo carries 
two ships, to show that his predecessors were Admirals of Scotland, as I mentioned' 
before, yet this was not the badge of that office, but he only added the figures of 
two ships under sail to his old paternal bearing, the oak tree, to demonstrate to 
posterity that he was once an admiral, whereas the ensigns of high offices can be 
borne by none but by those in office, neither are they ordinarily borne within but 
without the shield as exterior ornaments thereof. I have seen the arms of James 
Earl of Bothwell, (who was Lord High Admiral of Scotland in the reign of Queen- 
Mary) both on his seal and on other places, particularly on the roof of the Hall of 
Seaton, called Sampson's Hall, where he carries an anchor erected in pale, behind 
the middle of the shield of his arms, as the badge of his office ; and the family of 
Lennox used the same symbol when advanced to the office of High Admiral 

As for the ancient practice of placing one anchor behind armorial bearings, as' 
the badge of admiralty, Menestrier, in his Science of Heraldry, tells us, That he 
lias seen in a manuscript in the Bibliotbeque of the Cardinal Bouillon, the arms of 
Lewis, a bastard of Bourbon, Count of Rousillon Admiral of France, in the year 
1466, being azure, seme of flower-de-luces or, a batton sinister gules, and behind- 
the middle of the shield an anchor pale-ways argent, with the stock or. 

But now, both in France and Britain, the High Admirals carry, as the ensign of 
their high office, two anchors disposed in saltier at the back of the shield of their 
arms, and the vice or rear admirals carry but one in pale behind their shield. 
Monsieur Baron, in his Art of Heraldry, gives us the arms of Lewis Alexander de- 
Bourbon, a natural son of France, Count of Toulouse, Grand Admiral, &c. being^ 
azure, three flower-de-luces or, a batton sinister gules, timbred with a crown 
heightened with flower-de-luces, and great leaves alternately, within a manteau 
azure, doubled ermine, and behind the shield two anchors saltier-ways. 

Olivarus Uredus, amongst the seals of the Earls of Flanders, gives us the seal of 
Albert Archduke of Austria, who married Isabella Infanta Dutchess of Burgundy 
and Countess of Flanders, daughter of Philip II. King of Spain, where both their 
arms are marshalled in one shield, and behind the same are two anchors placed 
saltier-ways, which seal they used (says our author) in their high courts of ad- 

The Masters of the Cross-Bowers in France were in use to place cross-bows at 
the sides of their escutcheons, as Menestrier observes in his Science of Heraldry, 
\vho tells us, that he has seen an. instance of it in the year 1419. And the Grand, 



Masters of the Artillery, who are now come in place of the former, carry two 
cannons, or great guns, on their carriages, adosse, below the shield of arms, with 
bullets lying beneath them, as in the arms of Monsieur Le Due du Lude, Grand 
Maitre d'Artillerie, as narrated by Monsieur Baron in his Art of Heraldry. And 
the arms of Lewis de Crevunt de Humicrs, Marshal of France, Marquis of Humiers, 
&c. Grand Master of the Artillery, are adorned with two battons g vie s, seme of 
flower-de-luces or, disposed in saltier behind the shield as his badge for Marshal ; 
and below, as being also Master of the Artillery, two great guns mounted on three 
carriages adosse, as aforesaid. 

These figures have also been used in the armorial bearings of the Great Masters 
of Artillery in Germany, as the badge of that office, besides ensigns and banners 
which they have added to adorn their shields of arms, on another account ; of 
which Sylvester Petra Sancta has given several examples in his Tessera Gentilititr, 
as that of Torquatus de comitibus, whose shield of arms is surrounded with eight 
ensigns, and six standards of foot and horse, marked with the arms of those from 
whom he had taken them in battle ; and below the shield two brass guns or can- 
nons on their carriages addosse firing. Our author's words are, " Ad haec Torqua- 
44 tus de comitibus Dux Belli inclitus ac strenuus a Ferdinando II. cui diu milita- 
" vit, in nuperis simultatibus irrrperii, tesserae suae permeruit, prater signa equitum 
44 ac peditum, quae indeptus est fortissime dimicando, etiam aenea bellica tormenta, 
" functus videlicet praefectura rei tormentariEE &- donatus etiam a Caesare ideo tor- 
" mentis duobus : Quae ille jussit deportari in Italiam, gloriae monumentum." And 
in the same chapter he gives the arms of the family Boiiefaceorum in Spain, 
adorned with twelve ensigns, and below the shield four anchors, to perpetuate the 
memory of some notable victory by sea and land obtained by one of this family as 
High Admiral. 

It is to be observed, that badges of offices which adorn the outsides of the shield 
of arms, show only that the bearers are in possession of such offices ; and their 
issue outed of them cannot use them so, (except by a special warrant for that end) 
but may be allowed to use them within the shield as an armorial figure, to inti- 
mate to posterity that their progenitors have once been honoured by such offices, 
as 1 took notice of before, in an example hereof, in the arms of Wood of Largo. 
Yet the adorning crests and sides of armorial shields with ensigns, banners, and 
pennons, has been a practice continued hereditary in several families in France, 
Germany, and Italy, -from the first assumer of them, and that upon several ac- 
counts, as trophies of valour and victory over their enemies, whose ensigns they 
place round their shields ; and being so adorned, they are transmitted to their 
issue, representers of their fa;nilies, of which the said Sylvester Petra Sancta gives 
us several examples, in his 77th chapter, de explicatis circa tesseras gentilitias vex- 
ill is, amongst which is the shield of arms of the family of Colonni in Rome, 
adorned with eight ensigns of the Turks, marked with crescents, since Marcus 
Antonius of that family defeat the Turkish fleet, who designed to invade Europe, 
and below the shield are placed two Turks in chains, to perpetuate this notable 
victory. This family, besides these eight Turkish ensigns, have above them two 
great banners, marked with the arms of the pope and ot the empire, as constables 
of the church and empire. And Menestrier, in his Science of Heraldry, tells us, 
That banners adorning arms are in some countries badges of constables, as with 
the same family of Colonni in Italy, and with the chief house of Clermont in 
Dauphine, who outwardly adorn their shields with banners seme of dolphins as 
heritable Constables of Dauphine. 

Those whose office it was to carry the banner of their countries, have been in 
use to place such at the sides of their shields of arms, as the Caesarini in Rome 
carry four banners or ensigns purple displayed, issuing from each side of the shield, 
marked with the letters S. P. ^ R. on account, says Sylvester Petra Sancta, they 
were tl'\iUi feri, Senatus Populi >ue Romani. And the Counts de Vexin, who 
carried the oriflam of France, have two banners carried by the supporters of their 
arms, being lions, as Menestrier has observed ; as likewise the royal supporters of 
France, being two angels, holding in each of their hands a banner erect in pale. 
And Sir George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heraldry, page 95, has given us the 
iigure of the seal of JAMES Lord HAMILTON. And it is presumeable, by the posi- 

VOL. II. 3 B 


tion of the shield thereon, that he was the first lord of that name, and married King 
James Il.'s daughter. The blazon or description of whicli seal that learned author 
having omitted, 1 here insert as follows. This noble Lord bears on a shield couchc 
three cinquefoils, above the same is placed a helmet, at the back whereof issues 
a running leaf or, two by way of mantling, and on the top thereof is set his torce or 
wreath, whereout issues his crest, being an antelope's head and neck, supported by two 
antelopes, with one foot standing on a terrace, with their tails betwixt their hinder 
feet ; one of which feet stands also on a terrace, and with the other feet they support 
the shield; with one of their fore feet they lay hold of the helmet, and with the 
other each of them embraces and bears up a banner erect in pale, and round the 
heal is this legend, Sigillum Jacabi Domin. de Hamylton. Again the said judicious 
author, page last, in his blazon of the achievement of his Majesty of Great Britain, 
tells us, that his supporter of the unicorn on the dexter embraces and bears up a 
banner azure, charged with a St Andrew's cross argent, and the lion on the sinister, 
and another banner argent, charged with a plain cross, (called of St George) g tiles. 
And before the succession of King James VI. to the crown of England, I rind by 
old books of blazons and paintings, that the supporters of Scotland, being two uni- 
corns, that one on the dexter did embrace and bear up a banner charged with the 
royal arms of Scotland, and that on the sinister with the said St Andrew's cross. 
By which examples it is evident, that this practice of supporters bearing up ban- 
ners is pretty ancient with us. But it is to be observed by these last instances r 
that the starts of these banners are not placed saltier-ways behind the shield, as the 
usage is with the Italians, Spaniards, and Germans. Which method of trimming 
and adorning their armorial shields, though proper to them, yet is not so usual 
with the French and us, who commonly carry no more than two banners when 
they adorn their arms with these badges or symbols, and besides are always- 
erected in pale at the sides of the shield, and the ensigns are displayed on the flags 

Some also, on account of military employments, have placed ensigns round the 
shield of their armorial bearings, as Ferdinand de Alerson, General of the Spanish 
army under King Charles V. of Spain, was the first (says Menestrier, in his 
Science of Heraldry) that placed such symbols about the arms of his family. And 
the family of Andredas there has eighteen banners round the shield of their arms, 
disposed in saltier. And the Dukes de Alva carry ten with us upon the same ac- 
count. JOHN SCOTT of Thirlestane, who came to King James Vs. army at Soutra- 
edge, with three score ten spearmen on horseback, of his friends and followers, be- 
ing likewise willing to go with the said king into England, when his nobles and 
others refused already to stake all for his service ; the king, as a reward for his 
loyalty, allowed him adorning his armorial shield, to take, for crest, a mural crown 
with six spears, which I should have observed before when treating on crowns ; as 
also to use, for supporters, two men in coats of mail with steel caps, holding each 
in their hands a spear with pennons, having small flags or banners thereat. And 
ALEXANDER LESLIE, who came to great honour in the wars abroad under Gustavus 
Adolphus King of Sweden, whom he served in the quality of a field marshal, af- 
ter his return home, was advanced to be general and chief commander of the Par- 
liament's army, and created Earl of LEVEN by King Charles I. who, in considera- 
tion of his military bravery, allowed him to take, for supporters, two warriors in 
armour, holding in each of their hands a banner. 

Yet the Germans, I observe, have more commonly these banners and ensigns 
issuing from the tops of their shields, and very often from their helmets and crests. 
As the princes of Anhalt have twelve banners, so displayed, issuing from their 
crests, the Counts of Mansfelt six banners, and the Counts of Solms two, having, 
the arms of their noble feus displayed upon them. 

Menestrier says, in his said Science of Heraldry, that the practiceof adorning shields 
of arms after this method in Flanders is very ancient. And in France several old 
families have used banners at the sides of their arms in place of supporters, on ac- 
count that they had right to carry a banner in the field. And the Ricosombres in 
Spain are dignified by the formality of the delivery of a banner and kettle, being al- 
mos; the same with knight bannerets, who were also made by the display of banners. 
As our lord barons and other higher degrees of nobility, who have all right to rear 



up a banner in the field. And, in my opinion, may likewise adorn their arms 
with ensigns and banners. But this practice, as it was not so frequent in France 
as in other kingdoms, yet it was less in use with the English and us, who both had 
from France the science and practice of heraldry. And yet some old families here 
in Scotland, who had right to use supporters, have made them to carry both en- 
signs and banners, as in the example of the Lord Hamilton foresaid. 

Having treated thus far of the ensigns, badges, and symbols of civil and military 
offices, according to the method and usage 1 have met with them in armories, and 
of their different situations and positions in adorning outwardly escutcheons of aims ; 
there are others which some call politic marks of dignity and chivalry. The first 
are these used by the electors of the empire, who use the several figures of the im- 
perial regalia, which they place in quarters of their armorial achievements, to 
show their dignified offices in the empire. As for example, the House of Bavaria 
carry the imperial globe, that of Saxony the sword of honour, Brandenburg the 
sceptre, the House of Palatine the imperial crown, and the family of Hanover the 
crown of Charlemagne, being the proper badge made use of by that serene house 
in their shield of arms, as hereditary treasurer of the sacred Roman Empire ; and, 
being all figures of the regalia, they are in use to carry them before the emperor 
by virtue of their high offices, as Beckmanus says, Dissert. 8. cap. 5. " Insignibus 
" suis seculares clinoditim istud inserunt cui ratione officii portando destinati sunt." 
And in other kingdoms, in imitation hereof, the King of Bohemia, as principal 
cup-bearer to the emperor, charged the breast of the lion in his arms with a cup ; 
and the badge of the carpenters* axes make up the arms of the family of Amberville 
in France, from their predecessors being anciently honoured with the office of the 
king's carpenter. The badge of cups have been made use of by an ancient family 
of the name of BUTLER, in England, and by the ancient house of SHAW of Sauchie 
in Scotland, the predecessors of both which families being of old the king's butlers 
in both kingdoms, and, as the particular symbol of that office, carried the said fi- 
gures, though now they are become the only figures that make up the arms pecu- 
liar to both these surnames in Britian. As also, I find by old manuscripts of bla- 
zons, that the family of CARNEGIE of old, now Earls of SOUTHESK., have been in 
use to charge the breast of the blue eagle they bear in their arms with a cup of 
gold, as being anciently cup-bearers to our kings. And Sir George Mackenzie, 
in his Science of Heraldry, p. 3. tells us, that King Robert the Bruce having car- 
ried, as a private badge, three laurel leaves > with this word, Sub sole, sub umbra 
virens, he gave to IRVINE of Drum's predecessor, who had been constantly his 
armour-bearer, the three holly leaves, which is a kind of laurel, and is at present 
the armorial bearing of that ancient family. But these badges of dignified offices, 
being figures that make up their several arms within the shield, and no exterior 
ornament thereof, which is the subject I am now treating on, I shall not insist to 
make farther observations upon them. 

I proceed next to treat on the politic marks of chivalry, being the collars and 
badges belonging to knights of sovereign and high orders. It was a constant max- 
im in all well regulated governments to give a just encouragement to merit, and 
that by proportioning rewards to the service done. For merit must be supposed to 
consist in the performance of some virtuous or heroic actions directed for the pub- 
lic good : And as virtue is either military or civil, so the distribution of the rewards 
is different, either by bestowing degrees and titles of honour, or by donations of 
wealth, so that, in either construction, virtue may have its proper and suitable re- 
ward. But the proper reward of military virtue, is honour, (to which distinct head 
I am now confined) which Aristotle calls the greatest of exterior goods : And being 
an object of a nobler ambition than the accumulation of wealth, is principally the 
aim of that virtue we understand by valour, which springs from more generous 
spirits, and hath been the constant foundation of raising men to the highest emi- 
nence of glory, and superior dignity. 

But that fame might not lose itself in an unbounded notion, it was at length 
thought fit to reduce honour into form and order, by investing the person meriting 
with some particular title or appellation of excellence, (the original of all nobihry) 
of which knighthood, as it hath been accounted the most suitable reward to the great- 
est virtue, so it hath been esteemed the chief and primary honour among many 


nations. The Romans held honour and virtue in that esteem, that they deified and 
dedicated temples to them : They made them so contiguous in their situation, chat 
there was no other passage to that of Honour, but through the Temple of Virtue, 
mystically admonishing, that honour was not to be attained by any other way. 
In several Roman coins we see honour and virtue represented together in one re- 
verse ; and in one medal the face of honour so shadows that of virtue, that but a 
little of it appears, honour being the more illustrious of the two ; and where we 
behold any person outwardly adorned with it, we are to judge him inwardly endu- 
ed with virtue. 

In tracing the original of knighthood, we are not so vain as to say with the 
French, that St Michael was the premier chevalier ; yet this much we may assert, 
that it is as ancient as valour and heroic virtue, notwithstanding the ceremonies 
and circumstances of it have varied, according to several ages and nations : And, 
therefore, with much probability, we may derive the original of military honour 
from the Trojans and Greeks ; among whom, as knights of great renown, were 
Hector, Troilus, .(Eneas, Agamemnon, &c. But, upon a more substantial basis s 
we shall descend to the Romans ; among whom, in the very infancy of their mili- 
tar glory, a society of knights was instituted, immediately after their union with 
the Sabines. Romulus inrolled three centuries of knights out of the chiefest fa- 
milies, whom he appointed to be his life-guard, and called them celeres, from their 
activity and dispatch in martial affairs. 

Tarquinius Priscus made an addition to these centuries ; the like did Servius 
Tullius, who ordained, that those who should succeed in that body should be 
elected ex censu, viz. from a considerable and certain valuation of their estates, 
who had the greatest cense, and were of the most noble families, says Dionys. 
Halicarn. And soon after the equestrian class began to be formed and constituted 
one of the three orders of the commonwealth, which were ranked, according to 
Livy, Senates, Or do Equejtris, et Plebs ; and, forasmuch as this degree is placed be- 
tween the patricians or senators, and the plebeians, it answers exactly to the state 
of our knights between the nobility and commonalty : And from this order to 
the height of nobility, which resided in the senators, was the way prepared ; Ju- 
nius Brutus being the first who was raised to a senator from the equestrian order. 

It was a constitution as old as Tiberius's reign, that none should be admitted in. 
to that order unless free-born, or a gentleman for three generations; and indeed 
for a long time none were elected knights but the best sort of gentlemen, and 
persons of extraction, as was the illustrious Maecenas. 

Atavis regibus ortus eques. MART. 

Yet, at length, through corruption of times, plebeians and freed men being too 
frequently received into this degree, occasioned their esteem and authority to grow 
less and less, till it shrunk to nothing. And when Cicero was consul, anno ab urbe 
condita 690, the equestrian order stood in need of re-establishment, whereupon they 
were then incorporated into that commonwealth in the third degree, all acts pas- 
sing in the name of the senate, the people of Rome, and the equestrian order. Asa 
mark of eminence, they had the titles of splendidi and illustres bestowed upon them, 
and sometimes they have been called most sacred knights. And besides other pri- 
vileges they had seats with the senators in the Circus Maximus ; and, by the 
Roscian law, sat next them in the theatres ; they had likewise a college called 
Collegium Equitum ; and temples were dedicated to the goddess Fortune, under the 
title of Equesti i Fortune. They were allowed to wear rings to distinguish them. 
The which honour continued hereditary in their families, which does not with our 

The ancientest real knights, it is most likely, were made by .the first Christian 
kings, who appointed many religious ceremonies to be observed at the creation of 
such, and none were admitted to that honour, but those who had merited it by 
some extraordinary commendable exploits. We shall now touch upon the degrees 
of knighthood, which have been personal, and may be comprehended under the 
modern title of Equites Aurati, or Milites Simp/ices, (as distinguished from the se- 
veral orders of chivalry, instituted in Christendom.) In the circumstance of whose 


creation, we confess nothing in the Roman ordo equestris hath place, though that 
might be the giouncl and original of the dignity, and one common end in both, 
namely, the pursuit of military exploits and service in the wars. 

Knights in Latin are called milites or equites, because the design was, that none, 
but soldiers should enjcy that dignity. The French distinguish a knight by the 
name of chevalier, the Spaniards by that of cavalero, and the Italians by that of 
cavtiglierv, the Germans call a knight ritt.-r ; all of them importing no more than 
one that serves on horseback. The English title Knight is derived from the Saxon 
cnikt, which, in that language, is no more than a servant, and, in all probability, 
proceeded in serving the king in his wars. 

Of the degrees of knighthood. First, That of the morwzons, i. e. knight begirt 
with the military girdle, a custom devolved to the Germans and Gauls from an- 
cient times : nor do we find, among the various ceremonies of knighthood, any 
that hath continued so constant in practice, as the endowing with girdle and sword, 
marks of honour and virtue, with which the statues and portraitures of knights 
on their grave-stones have been adorned. For, as at this day, knights are stiled 
equites aurati, from the golden spurs heretofore put on at their creation ; so 
were they more anciently cingulo militari donati, in respect, that when one was 
knighted, he was not only struck with the sword, but invested with sword and 

idly, The Baccalaurei or Knights-batchelors are to be considered, who are in- 
differently stiled chevaliers, milites, equites aurati, and knights. This degree is truly 
accounted the first of all military dignity, and the foundation of all honours in our 
nation, and is derived from, if not the same with, that immediately preceding. 
For as the ceremony of a gentle touch on the shoulder with the flat side of the 
sword hath been since used instead of girding with the sword and belt, (especially 
in times of war, or in haste) as an initiation into the military order, so, on the 
contrary, it is not unusual, now-a-days, for the prince, at least, gladio, if not cingulo 
donare ; for he oftentimes bestows the sword upon the person he knighteth. 

The third sort were Knights-bannerets, whoso well deserved in the wars, that they 
were afterwards permitted to use vexillum quadratum, a square banner, whence 
they were called equites vexillarii, or chevaliers a banniere, from the Dutch baner- 
heere, lord or master of the banner. Camden conceives this title first devised by 
King Edward III. in recompense of martial prowess ; a recital of which dignity 
is mentioned in a patent, 2oth Edward III. to JOHN COPLAND, for his service in 
taking David King of Scots, prisoner. But it was much more ancient in Britain, 
as well as in France; and they had particular robes and other ornaments given them 
trom the crown. And there is an evidence of a writ in the said King Edward III. 
his time for furnishing Thomas Bardolf with the robes of a banneret. This digni- 
ty is placed in the middle between the barons and other knights, in which respect, 
the banneret may be called vexillarius jninor,asif he were the lesser banner-bearer ; 
to the end he may be so differenced from the greater, namely, the baron ; to whom 
the right of bearing a square banner doth also belong. 

Other authors tell us, this order of knighthood was instituted in England in the 
time of King Edward I. And it is most likely that the Normans were acquainted 
with this order long before : But I find, by our historians, this order to have been 
of older standing with us ; for Sir ALEXANDER. CARRON, Banneret, is said by them 
to have carried the banner of Scotland before King Alexander I. (who began his 
reign in the year 1107) in his expedition against the rebels in Mearns and Mur- 
ray ; where, by the said Sir Alexander's conduct and valour, who, in the king's 
presence, with a crooked sword, fought valiantly, and killed many of the rebels, 
that king obtained a notable victory over them ; for which heroic actions he got 
many lands, and his name was changed from Carron to SCRYMGEOUR, which signi- 
fies a hardy-fighter ; and his posterity being long afterwards standard-bearers to our 
kings and constables of Dundee, got, for arms, a rampant lion holding a crooked 
sword. And BANNERMAN of Elsick, an older family than that of Scrymgeour, be- 
ing also bannerets, carried anciently for an armorial figure, a banner displayed, as 
relative to the name, which was from their office as hereditary banner-bearers to 
our kings, before the reigns of King Malcolm III. And Sir George Mackenzie, 
in his Manuscript Genealogy of the Families of Scotland, (agreeing also with our 

VOL. II. 3 C 


historians) tells us, that the said King Malcolm III. who began his reign in the 
year 1057, hearing of a new rebellion begun in the north parts of the kingdom, 
went with his army to the Water of Spey to fight against them, where, perceiving 
his standard-bearer, Bannerman, to shrink, and not to show a chearful countenance, 
he pulled the banner from him, and at the same time having observed the manly 
courage of Sir ALEXANDER CARRON, , (father of the above Sir Alexander) who ac- 
companied him in this expedition, he gave the royal banner to him, and, after the 
battle, striking him with his sword, created him a knight-banneret ; he there be- 
having himself to the great satisfaction of that king ; for which good service he 
also created him and his posterity heritable standard-bearers to the kings of Scot- 
land ; and with this new office many fair lands were bestowed on him. 

This order is certainly most honourable, because never conferred but upon some 
heroic action performed in the field, whereas all other orders are bestowed from 
favour or meaner motives; for the banneret is never created, unless at a time when 
the king's standard is erected. In France they are said to have transmitted the 
degree to posterity, but in England and Scotland it dies with the person that ob- 
tained it. Bertrand de Guesclin, Constable of France, after the defeat he gave the 
English at Cockerel, where he took their General, Sir John Chandos, made knights 
bannerets, MeJJlre Jacques le Merrier, Lord of St ^uintindes Isles, and the son-in-law 
of the same Mercier, called Bertauld de Gastel, Lord of Vitray le GasteL And Sir 
John Smith was made one alter Edgehill fight, for rescuing the standard of 
King Charles I. from the rebels. The Scots (says an English author) are supposed 
to call such a knight a banner ent, from the rending of his banner. But now these 
honours of the field have been of long time laid aside. As for the ceremony of 
their creation, I refer to Mr Segar. 

The badges and ensigns of knighthood among the Romans were a ring ; and in 
Genesis we read of Pharaoh's taking off his ring, and putting it upon Joseph's, 
hand. Among the Germans the shield and lance were accounted the grand 
badges of military honour or knighthood. Much like the ancient Germans was 
the custom of making knights among the Irish. And Favin observes, that the 
shield and lance were the proper arms appertaining to French knights, which 
esquires, armigers, carried always after their masters. Another ensign of knightly 
honour is the cingulum militare, or balteus, which Varro says, is Tuscan, signifying 
a military girdle, which was garnished with great buckles, studs, and rings of 
pure gold, to show their dignity and power in military commands. Our knights 
were no less anciently known by these belts than by their gilt swords, spurs, &c. 
Howbeit, the use now only appears in knights of the bath. To the belt was also 
added a sword, not of ordinary use ; and therefore termed the sword of a knight. 
Another eminent badge is the golden spurs, wherewith, at the time of their crea- 
tion, knights were wont to be adorned ; and, to these, a little after the conquest, 
were added far more and greater ornaments. And several families, by the name 
of knight, bear for their arms the spurs on a canton. In the last place, is the col- 
lar, an ensign of knightly dignity among the Germans, Gauls, Britons, Danes, and 
Goths, among whom it was customary to wear them, denoting such as were re- 
markable for their valour. But, in later times, it was the peculiar fashion of knights 
among us to wear golden collars, composed of S. S. or other various devices; and 
such is the honour of knighthood, that several kings of France, England, &-c. received 
this dignity at the time they enjoyed their other titles. And though it is said the 
sons of the French king are knights as soon as they receive baptism, yet are they 
not judged worthy of the kingdom, unless first solemnly created ; and we else- 
where find that the royal heirs of Arragon were suspended from that crown until 
they had received the honour of knighthood. And, after the Norman conquest, 
the young princes of England were sent over to the neighbouring kings to receive 
this honour. Thus King Henry II. of England was sent to our King David and 
knighted by him in Carlisle; and Edward I. of England, at the age of fifteen 
years, was sent to Alphonsus XI. King of Castile, for the same dignity. In like 
manner, Malcolm King of Scotland and Alexander, son of William, King thereof, 
were knighted by John King of England, anno 1212. And our King Alexander 111. 
lenry III. of England, anno 1252. And Magnus, King of the Isle of 



Man, by the same king. All which sufficiently demonstrate the honour and esteem 
which was ever had for that order. 

As to the collars and badges belonging to knights of sovereign and high orders, 
being also figures used in adorning armorial shields, my reader is not here to ex- 
pect a, particular enumeration and description of these many and different orders 
in Europe, their first rise, what are secular, and what religious, which would be a. 
subject too long here to narrate ; but 1 refer my readers to the respective author-: 
on that subject in the several kingdoms, and, particularly, to William Scgar Nor- 
roy King at Arms, his book, intitled, Honour, Military and Civil, and to that ela- 
borate book of Mr Ashmole's Institutions of the Order of the Garter, to Andre\v 
Favin's Theatre of Honour and Knighthood, &.c. Only that I may omit no ex- 
terior figures now used in adorning escutcheons, I shall here mention a few of the 
most eminent of these high secular orders, their institutions, collars, and badges :. 
mid how they are placed about the shield. 

And first, I shall begin with France, their order of St Michael, which was insti- 
tuted by Lewis XI. King of France, in the year 1469. And that which moved 
the king to call it St Michael (says Mr Segar) was the memory of the apparition 
of that saint upon the bridge of Orleans, before the delivery of the city besieged 
then by the English. But because I will not trouble my reader with fabulous 
accounts about its rise, I shall insert here that king's own letters patent instituting 
the same, which are as follows. 

" Lewis XI. King of France, to all that are, or shall be, greeting. Be it known, 
" that in regard of the perfect and sincere love we bear to the Noble Order of 
" Knighthood, the honour and increase whereof we most ardently desire, that as' 
" we heartily wish the Holy Catholic Faith, our Holy Mother Church, and the- 
" public prosperity may be maintained, we, to the glory of God our Almighty 
" Creator, and in reverence of the Blessed Virgin Mary, as also in honour of St 
" Michael, the prince and chief of knights, who fought in God's cause against 
' the ancient enemy of mankind, and cast him down from heaven, and who has 
'' always secured his place, preserved his oratory, called Mount St Michael, with- 
" out suffering it at any time to be taken, subdued, or delivered into the hands 
" of the ancient enemies of this kingdom. And to the end that all generous and 
" noble spirits may be excited, and stirred up to virtuous actions. 

" The first day of August, in the year of Grace 1469, and the ninth year of 
" our reign, at the castle of Amboise, we constitute, erect, and ordain an order of 
" brotherhood, or loving society, of a certain number of knights, which it is our 
" will shall be called, The Order of St Michael the Archangel, in and under the 
" form, conditions, statutes, ordinances, and articles hereafter set down." 

Then follow the statutes, which, being in number sixty-one, are too- long to be 
here inserted. This St Michael is the titular angel and protector of France ; in 
reverence of whom their ancient kings were wont to solemnize this festival-day 
with great magnificence, and keep an open court. Their number at first were to 
be thirty -six, whereof the king and his successors were chief and sovereign of this- 
order ; but it afterwards proceeded to the number of three hundred. Their habit 
is doublet, hose, shoes, scabbard, cope, band, and feather, all white ; the surcoat 
with sleeves is cloth of silver, over all was a mantle of white damask hanging down 
to the ground, furred with ermine, tied upon the right shoulder, and turned up over 
the left, having its cap embroidered with gold, and the border of the robe inter- 
woven with escalops and knots of gold ; the chaperon, or hood, with its long tip- 
pet, was made of crimson velvet. But afterwards King Henry II. of France or- 
dered for the future this cloak or mantle to be cloth of silver embroidered with 
this device on them, viz. three crescents of silver interwoven with trophies, qui- 
vers, and Turkish bows, seme, and cantoned with tongues of fire ; the chaperon or 
hood of crimson velvet adorned with the same embroidery. The same King Hen- 
ry ordered the Chancellor of the Order should wear a cloak of white velvet, and 
the hood of crimson velvet. The Provost and Master of the Ceremonies, the Trea- 
surer, Register, and King of Arms, white satin cloaks, and hoods of crimson satin, 
with a chain of gold at the end, whereof an escalop of gold hangs upon the 
breast ; there is also an herald of arms to attend this order, called Monsieur St 


The knights of this order, over all their said habit, wear the collar of St Mi- 
chael, which is very rich. The great collar is of gold, as it were tortille, and 
adorned with cockles of the same metal: or, as others say, it consists of double 
escalop-shells of gold, fastened with round points of black silk, and long tags of 
gold interwoven after the manner of true lovers knots. At the end of which 
(hanging on the breast) is annexed an oval of gold, and there is a little rising hill 
curiously enamelled, on which stands the figure of St Michael combating and 
trampling down the dragon under his feet. The motto, Inunensi tremor oceani. 
Their annual and grand festival was to be celebrated on Michaelmas-day, at the 
church of Mount Michael in Normandy ; but afterwards transferred to Bois de 
Vincennes near Paris. The great seal of this order has the figure of St Michael 
engraved on it, in the same manner as that which hangs at the collar. The lesser 
seal is three flower-de-luces, entoured with the order. 

I find several of our nobility to have been of this order in the reign of King 
James V. and Queen Mary. But after the number of the knights hereof were so 
much increased, this order lost of its reputation ; yet it is said that the collar and 
robe are bestowed only upon the thirty-six. And the pendant of St Michael given 
to none but the supernumerary knights. This order is not quite extinct, as some 
writers would persuade us, but is incorporated into that of the Holy Ghost; upon 
the institution whereof not only care was taken to preserve this of St Michael and 
to rectify it, but the knights had the privilege allowed them, that if they thought 
fit they were capable of receiving that of the Holy Ghost, and no stranger or na- 
tive could be inrolled therein who had taken upon him any other order. And there- 
fore all the knights of the Holy Ghost first receive the Order of St Michael the 
evening before they are admitted into the other ; and for that reason they now 
frequently use the collars of both orders above their habit and mantle when they 
appear in their robes, and also round their armorial shields. 

And here it is to be observed, that when the royal arms of France are either painted, 
cut, or embroidered, with all their exterior ornaments, the collars of these two 
orders are constantly placed round the royal shield ; a figure whereof Monsieur 
Baron has given us in his Art of Heraldry ; where that of St Michael, as being 
the ancientest order, takes place, and hath its situation next the royal escutcheon ; 
whereas that of the Holy Ghost, though esteemed the most honourable, does but 
surround the collar of the said saint. Also the knights of both these orders are in 
use to wear both the collars, after the same manner, round the shield of their arms, 
and the figure of St Michael on their dexter side, when they only wear that of the 
dove as the badge of the Order of the Holy Ghost on their sinister. And here I 
give it as my opinion, though with due respect to my brethren of South Britain, 
that I think it most comformable to the rules of heraldry, that when the royal 
arms of Great Britain are set forth to public view, either by painting, sculpture, 
or otherwise, with exterior trimmings, his Majesty, as sovereign of the orders in 
both kingdoms, viz. that of the Thistle in North, and that of the Garter in South 
Britain, ought to have his royal armorial shield adorned with the collars of both 
these high and most honourable orders of knighthood. And though that of South 
Britain be termed the most noble, yet that of ours being the more ancient, it 
seems reasonable to me that the same ought to be preferred, and have its situation 
next the royal shield, and that of the Garter to surround the other, according to 
the figure Sir George Mackenzie has given us in his Science of Heraldry, page 99. 
in a sculpture of the achievement of his then Majesty of Great Britain, agreeable to 
the foresaid method used in France; where, in justice, we cannot but allow those 
of the profession of heraldry to be well known in the said science. And all that 
are competent judges will also allow them to be of all nations the most regular in 
their marshalling of arms, and trimming of armorial shields. And here I commend 
the justice South Britain has done us at the union of the two kingdoms, by mar- 
hailing the royal banner so as to place our St Andrew's cross immediately on the 
royal flag on its azure field, when that of St George does only surmount the same, 
our white saltier serving as a field thereto. 

The Order of the Knights of St Esprit, or Holy Ghost, in France, has of late 
years taken place of all others, and been accounted the most honourable Order in 
that kingdom. It was instituted by King Henry III. of France, in the year 


to unite his nobles more firmly in their obedience, to encourage them to persevere- 
in the Romish religion, and to illustrate the state of his nobility. It \vas so called 
by reason lie was born on Whitsunday 1550, elected, that day, anno 1573, King of 
Poland, and on that day, tinti'j 1574, succeeded to the crown of France. And at 
the same time to rectify the abuses that were crept into the Order of St Mic!, 
that had been given to unworthy persons, upon which account the two or. 
were incorporated, as is observed before. The king's letters patent being too long- 
here to insert, I refer to Sir William Segar's book, called Honour Military and 
Civil. The most material of the statutes are, that there shall be a sovereign of the 
order, who is to have absolute authority over the brethren thereof, and all tiling; 
relating to it, and that the same be no other but the King of France, and no 
king to exercise that authority till crowned, and on the coronation-day to take the 
oath of the order as follows: " We A, by the grace of God, &-c. do solemnly 
" swear and vow on this book in our hands to God the Creator, to live and die in 
" the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Faith and Religion, as to every good and most 
" Christian king it belongeth; and rather to die than fail at any time therein. 
" We swear also to maintain for ever the Order of the Holy Ghost, without suffer- 
" ing it to shrink, fall, or diminish, so long as it remains in our power to help it. 
" to observe the statutes of the said order truly and entirely, and never to alter or 
" change the irrevocable statutes thereof," &-c. 

The number of persons contained in this order is said to be one hundred 
knights, besides the Sovereign, or Great Mastery which office is inseparable from the 
crown of France; and in which said number are comprehended four cardinals, five 
prelates, the chancellor, provost, master of the ceremonies, great treasurer, and 
scribe, who are called Commanders. Their anniversary grand feast is held on the 
first day of the new year, or first of January, but the first part of the ceremony 
begins always on the last day of the old year x when it was instituted ; and the 
place for celebrating thereof is the church of Augustine Friars in Paris; but if 
the king cannot be there present,' then it is to be celebrated where he shall per- 
sonally be, and in the greatest church, there being divers ceremonies to be observed 
by them in the celebration thereof, which are set down by Sir William Segar, 
page 88. 

The habit appointed for the knights of this order is a long robe or mantle of 
black velvet, turned up on the left side, and opened on the right, being at first em- 
broidered round with gold and silver, consisting of flower-de-luces, and knots of 
gold between three sundry cyphers of silver; and above the flower-de-luces and 
knots were thickly powdered flames of fire. This great mantle was garnished with 
a mantle of cloth of silver, covered with embroidery made after the same fashion, 
excepting only that instead of cyphers there were wrought doves of silver, and 
both these robes double -lined with a satin of orange tawny. The great collar 
worn over the mantle was at first composed of flower-de-luces cantoned, or counter- 
ed, with flames of fire, interwoven with three cyphers and divers monograms of 
silver; one was the letter H, and a Greek lambda, both double, being the initial 
letters of the king's name, and his queen's, Louisa de Lorrain ; the other two were 
vcd in the king's own mind. But these cyphers were taken oil the collar, and 
the embroidery of the robes, by King Henry IV. and, for a mark of his victories, 
trophies of arms were interlaced instead thereof with the letter H. crowned, (the 
initial'of his name) whcreout arose flames and sparks of fire; and, for the like 
reason, the H has been changed into L, both by Lewis XIII. and XIV. At this 
collar hung a cross, richly enamelled in the midst, whereon was figured a dove i;\ 
a flying posture, as descending from Heaven, with full spread wings: And that an 
epigraph might not be wanting, some have attributed to it this, Duce iS Auspice. 
Besides these ornaments, the knights of this order wear a black velvet cap, with u 
white plume; their breeches and doublets are of cloth of silver, and their hose and 
shoes white, tied with roses or knots of black velvet. The badges ordained to 
be ordinarily worn, are a cross of yellow, or orange colour velvet, like a Malta 
cross of eight points, fixed on the left side of their breast, except in military expe- 
ditions, and then they are permitted to wear them of cloth of silver or white velvet, 
having on the middle of the cross a silver dove, and at the angles, or corners, rays 
and ilower-de-luces of silver. They have a cross of the order made of gold, o*' 

VOL. II. 3 D 


eight points, (like the Malta cross) with a flower-de-luce in each angle, to be worn 
about their necks in a blue ribbon, and to be enamelled white about the sides, bui 
not in the middle. 

The Great Seal of this order is as large as the Great Seal of France. In it is 
represented King Henry III. on a chair of state, with the Chancellor of the order 
on his right hand, holding the Holy Gospels, and on his left the register of the 
order,, reading those oaths which knights are to take. Before the king kneels the 
knight, holding his hand on the Holy Evangelists, all of them in their robes and 
collars of the order. On the top of the seal, in a great light, appears the Holy 
Ghost in the form of a dove, descending over the king, and about it beams of light 
and fiery tongues. Round the seal are these words, Henry III. of the name, by the 
Grace of God, King of France and Poland, Founder and Sovereign of the Knights of 
the Order of the Holy Ghost. On the reverse is an escutcheon, charged with three 
flower-de-luces cantoned with four flames in the same manner as on the great 
collar of the order, and in the upper part, instead of a crown, is a dove descend- 
ing, encompassed, as the rest of the escutcheon, with sun-beams of gold and flames 
of fire. 

The Order of Knighthood of the Toison d'Or, or of the Golden Fleece, in Spain,, 
was instituted by Philip II. Duke of Burgundy and Earl of Flanders, surnamed the 
Good, at his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Portugal, in the city of Bruges 
in Flanders, the loth of January 1429, to perpetuate the memory of his great re- 
venues raised by wools with the low countries ; some say in commemoration of 
Gideon's fleece, or of Jacob's fleece, viz. the party-coloured and streaked fleece," 
after the example of Jason and his Argonauts, whose expedition to Colchos he in- 
tended to make his pattern by a voyage into Syria against the Turks, for the con- 
quest of the Holy Land, albeit it took no effect. The letters patent for the insti- 
tution are dated the said loth of January 1429. He founded it to the glory 
of the Almighty Creator and Redeemer, in reverence of the Virgin Mary, and 
St Andrew the Apostle, whom he elected for patron hereof, and whose festival 
was celebrated on that day, but afterwards translated to the first of May, by rea- 
son of the shortness of the days, and the fatigue aged knights would find to con- 
tinue in an intemperate season, and that but once in three years, unless the sove- 
reign otherwise pleaseth. The number of these knights at the first election were 
twenty-four, all gentlemen unblemished, himself and his successors to be chiefs 
and sovereigns of the order, which was always to be to him to whom the dukedom 
of Burgundy did lawfully descend, who hath in himself authority to give and be- 
stow this honour to whom he pleaseth ; the said Duke Philip reserved the nomi- 
nation of six more knights at the next chapter. But Charles V. increased them, 
anno 1516, to fifty. Duke Charles and Maximilian, sons to the founder, annexed 
many privileges to them, which were confirmed anno 1556. And those who were 
to be admitted into this order were obliged to renounce all other orders of knight- 
hood ; nevertheless all emperors, kings, and dukes, are excepted, unto whom 
it is dispensed that they may wear the ensigns of this order, if they were sove- 
reigns of an order of their own. To this order doth belong four principal offi- 
cers, viz. the Chancellor, Treasurer, Advocate, and a Kins; at Arms, called Toison 

For their habit three different mantles were ordained them at the grand solem- 
nity : The first day one of scarlet cloth, richly embroidered about the Wer end 
with flints struck into sparks of fire, and fleeces with chaperons of the same ; and the 
same day, after dinner, to proceed to vespers in mantles of black, and of the co- 
lour of chaperons ; the day following they were to hear mass, habited as themselves 
thought fit; but Duke Charles afterwards prescribed them mantles of white da- 
mask for that day's ceremony, and changed their cloth mantles into velvet. Lo- 
gan, in his Anilogia Honorum, says, for habit they have a cassock of crimson 
velvet, and over it a mantle of the same, lined with white, which openeth on the 
ght side, and is turned upon the left over the shoulder, embroidered round about 
with a border of flames, fusils, and fleeces, and a hood of crimson velvet on their 

The great collar of this order is of gold, composed of double fusils or steels, 
placed back to back, two and two together, as if they were double B, representing 


it both ways, to signify Burgundy.. And these fusils are interwoven with flint 
,MII.-> (in reverence to the arms of. the ancient kings of Burgundy of the French 
r.irc) seeming to strike fire, and sparkles of fire between them, the device of the 
founder. At the end whereof hung a pendant, being the resemblance of a golden 
fleece, enamelled proper, which Jason won at Colchos, or as some suppose CicJ 
fleece, which signifies fidelity or justice uncorrupted. And this collar or toison 
they are obliged, upon a penalty, always to wear, and nut to make any altera- 
tions ; and to sell or exchange it is deemed most unlawful. To the flint Paradine 
ascribes the motto. Ante fir it qutun Jlamma micet, it strikes before the fire appears ; 
and to the fleece, 1 J ret him iioti vile labtris. The jewel is commonly worn in a double 
chamet or mails of -gold, linked together at convenient distance, between which 
runs a small red ribbon, or otherwise it is worn in a rc-d ribbon alone. Charles 
Duke of Burgundy gave a device to the fusil in the collar, being an instrument to 
strike fire, called an ansil, which, with these words foresaid, Anteferit quamflamma 
micet, became his device ; meaning he had power to kindle great trouble before 
it was perceived, which he did to King Lewis XI. of France. But afterwards was 
unlucky in his war against Benato Duke of Lorrain, who defeated his army, and 
killed himself before Nantz., who seeing Duke Charles' standard brought to him 
with the fusil and motto upon it, said he was an unfortunate prince, who, when he 
had most need to warm himself, wanted leisure to strike fire, die earth being then 
covered with snow. 

The emperors of Germany descended from Philip Archduke of Austria, Duke 
of Burgundy, and Count of Flanders, were the sovereigns of this order, till Charles 
V. gave the guardianship of it to the kings of Spain, which he performed on the 
25th of October 1556, conferring it on his son King Philip at Brussels, who 
ascended the throne of Spain in right of his wife. When he took the collar from 
his neck, and with his own hands put it over his son's shoulders, in the presence of 
divers of the knights, with this form, " Accipe, fili mi, quern e collo meodetraho, tibi 
" praecipuum, aurei velleris torquem, quetn Philippus Dux Burgundife, cognomine 
" Bonus, atavus noster, monumentum fidei sacra; Romanse ecclesia>, esse voluit, 
" & hujusce institutionis ac legum ejus fac semper memineris : " Since which 
the honour of being chief of this order remains at this day in the crown of 

Duke Charles, son of Philip, (the first institutor of the order) as he was the 
second sovereign of this order, so he was the first that on his seal surrounded the 
escutcheon of his arms with the collar thereof, as is to be seen on his seal append- 
ed to several diplomas in the year 1470. As Olivarus Uredus, in his Treatise de 
Sigillis Comitum Yldndrice, hath given us a figure thereof; so that, as I observe, this 
is the oldest practice of surrounding armorial shields with the collars worn by 
knights of high and sovereign orders of knighthood. But how soon the like was 
practised in France, I have not as yet discovered. As for our usage of this me- 
thod in trimming the achievements of the several knights of our high orders of 
knighthood in North and South Britain, sure I am the former example of Duke 
Charles in adorning his shield of arms this way, is long prior to the practice there- 
of with us. 

His son-in-law Maximilian Duke of Austria, (son to the Emperor Frederick 
III.) by marrying his daughter and heiress Mary Dutchess of Burgundy and Coun- 
tess of Flanders, besides their other seals of arms, used also one called sigillum se- 
cretum, which is appended to several evidents, upon which was a lion seiant, hold- 
ing by his right paw the shield of Maximilian, and in his left that of Mary 
Dutchess of Burgundy : and about the neck of the lion supporter of both these 
shields hung the collar of the golden fleece, with his head in a helmet grill 6 in 
profile, adorned with volets, and crowned with a crown of one arch ; and the le- 
gond round the seal, Sigillum secret um Maximiliani 5" Mtir'ne Ducum Austria, 
Burgttndier, Brabantia, Comitum Flandria:, Tirolis, &c. And it is to be observed, 
their successors, when represented on their seals, enthroniy.ed, and in their robes 
had the said collar about their necks. And when emperors and kings of Spain 
they used it round their shields of arms, as sovereigns of the order. So much then 
concerning the sovereign orders of knighthood abroad, and their manner of placing 
of collars and badges of royal knighthood round arms. Forbearing to proceed 


further to give a description of many others in Europe, as out of my road, I shall 
next proceed to give a description of the orders of knighthood in Britain, beginning 
first with those in South Britain. 

Where the Knights of the Round Table may, for antiquity, challenge the first 
place, being an order accounted absolutely military, and founded by the valiant 
Arthur King of Britain, who reigned about the year of Christ 516, and who lived 
in such great renown that worthy knights came from all parts to his court as a 
seminary of discipline, to demonstrate their valour in point of arms. This gave 
him occasion to select out of these, and his own subjects, some say twenty-four, 
others a greater number, amongst whom himself was chief of the most valiant, 
which he united in a fellowship ; and, to avoid all controversy about precedency, 
caused a round table to be made, whence the order had its appellation. He ad- 
mitted not only Britons, but strangers ; and their qualifications were to be per- 
sons of nobility, dignity, and renowned for virtue and valour. The place where 
they were instituted was Windsor, and their time of convening was Whitsuntide. 
In Winchester Castle was a large round table, called (and affirmed to be) King- 
Arthur's, or at least set up in the room of one more ancient, which was destroyed 
in the late civil wars, with other reliques there. The articles which these 
knights vowed to keep, were to be always well armed, both for horse and 
foot service, either by land or sea, and to be always ready to assail tyrants or 
oppressors, to protect and defend widows, maidens, and children, to maintain the 
Christian faith, &-c. I forbear to relate more concerning this order, as not answer- 
ing my design relative to exterior ornaments, of the armorial shields, in regard I 
find no authentic proof what badge they bore, notwithstanding the report that 
King Arthur had a shield named Pridwin, wherein the Virgin Mary was de- 
picted. His sword and lance had also their names, one being called Calibume, 
the other Irone or Rone. Neither is it remembered that this order survived the 
founder, but rather that it expired with him, most of these knights perishing with 
him at the battle of Kamclan, now Camelford in Cornwall, where he was killed, 
anno 542. 

The next order of knighthood in South Britain, is the Most Noble Order of the 
Garter, or St George, which being a royal order, generally so well known, and 
has been treated of by so many learned writers, particularly so copiously by Elias 
Ashmole, who has obliged the world with a large folio on the history thereof, a 
little said will suffice, referring the curious to him, Peter Heylyn and others, who 
have wrote of it at large. It owes its original, as is confessed on all hands, to Ed- 
ward III. King of England and France, in the year 1350. The vulgar and more 
general account thereof is, that the garter of Joan, Countess of Salisbury, drop- 
ping casually off as she danced in a solemn ball, King Edward stooping, took it 
up from the ground, whereupon some of his nobles smiling, as at an amorous ac- 
tion, and he observing their sportive humour, turned it off with a reply in French, 
Honi sail qui mal y pense ; but withall added, in disdain of their laughter, " That 
" shortly they should see that garter advanced to so high an honour and renown, 
" as to account -themselves happy to wear it." Segar says, that King Edward 
dancing with the queen and other ladies of his court, happened to take up a blue 
garter which fell from one of them, which the king wore after about his right 
leg for a favour ; whereat the queen taking offence, it was signified to the king 
that she was displeased ; upon which he said, Honi soil qui mal y peme, i. e. Shame 
be to him that evil thinks. I will make of it (continues he) e're it be long, 
the most honourable garter that ever was worn, and thereupon instituted this or- 
der. Yet, in the original statutes of this order, there is not the least ground to 
countenance the conceit of such a feminine institution, no not so much (says 
Mr Ashmole) as laying an obligation on the knights companions to defend the 
quarrel of ladies, as some orders then in being enjoined. But that this may ap- 
pear, what indeed it is, a mere fable, we shall insert the judgment of Dr Heylyn, 
who took great pains in this particular. " This, says he, I take to be a vain and 
idle romance, derogatory both to the founder and the order first published by 
> Pol. Virgil, a stranger to the affairs of England, and by him taken upon no bet- 
ter ground than//CTza vufri, the tradition of the common people, too trifling a 
' foundation to so great a building." 


The true motive was therefore neither the lady's garter, or King Richard'^ 
leathern thong, to which it owes its original : But King Edward being a person 
of consummate virtue, gave himself up to military affairs; and being engaged in 
war for recovering his right to ranee, made iu>e of the best martialists of the age ; 
and did thereupon first design (induced by its ancient fame) the restoration of king 
Arthur's round table foresaid, the better to invite hither the gallant spirits from 
abroad, and endear them to himself; and adjudging noplace more proper than 
Windsor, upon new year's day, anno 1344, he issued out letters of protection for 
tin' sale going and returning of foreign knights, to try their valour at the solemn 
jousts, tilts, and tournaments, to be held there on Monday, after the feast of St 
Hilary following ; and royally entertained them with magnificent feasts and other 
princely favours, to engage them unto him; and ordained this festival to be annu- 
ally at Whitsuntide, and immediately after caused erect a building in Windsor 
!(.-, and therein placed a- table of two hundred feet diameter, where the knights 
should have their entertainment of diet at his expence of ioo-lib. per week, which 
he called, The Round Table. 

But Philip de Valois, King of France, in emulation of this seminary at Wind- 
sor, set up a round table at his court, and invited knights and valiant mei 
arms out of Italy and Allemagne thither, lest they should repair to King Edward 
111. which, meeting with success, proved a counter-mine to his main design. He at 
length resolved upon a projection, more particular and select, and such as might 
oblige those whom he thought fit to make his associates in a lasting bond of friend- 
ship and honour: And having issued forth his own garter for the signal of battle, that 
was crowned with success, (which is conceived to be the battle of Cressy, fought 
three hours after his erecting the Round Table ;) upon so remarkable a victory, he 
thence took occasion to institute this order, and the garter had the pre-eminence 
among the ensigns of it ; whence that select number, whom he incorporated into 
a fraternity, are stiled Equites aurea periscelidis, and vulgarly, Knights of the Garter. 
By this symbol he designed to bind the knights and fellows of it mutually unto 
one another, and all of them jointly to himself, as sovereign of the order ; nor was 
his expectation frustrated, for it served not only as a spur to honour and martial 
virtue, but also a golden bond of unity ; and therefore Mr Camden aptly calls it a 
badge of unity and concord. The garter was the only part of the whole habit of 
the order worn at first. And that none might believe (says Mr Miege in his State 
of South Britain} that the sovereign had any other design but what was just and 
honourable, the above motto was ordered to be wrought on the garter, Honi salt 
qui mal y pense. The same being put in French, because being then possessed of 
a great part of France, that tongue was very familiar in England. And Mr Ash- 
mole tells us, that when the said King Edward III. had laid claim by his title to 
the kingdom of France, in right of his mother, and assuming its arms, he, from 
the colour of them, caused the garter to be made blue, and the circumscription 
gold ; and, without straining the said motto, it may be inferred therefrom, that he 
retorted shame and defiance upon him that should dare to think amiss of so just 
an enterprise, us he had undertaken for recovering of his lawful right to that 

The value of this order is much enhanced by the small number it contains, 
having at the first institution been appointed for only twenty-six, including the 
sovereign, and that number never after increased ; w r hereas all other orders (ex- 
cept our own) have been so freely bestowed, that they have lost much of their 
esteem by it. 

The patrons of this order were several, under whose protection (according to the 
custom of the age) King Edward III. put himself and all the knights companions, 
that the affairs of the order might be defended, preserved, and governed. The 
first and chiefest which he elected was the Holy Trinity, 'idly, The Virgin 
Mary, accounted then the general mediatrix and protectress of all men. ?,dly, St 
George of Cappadocia, a choice martyr, soldier, and champion of Christ, in .re- 
spect of whom the knights had the title of Equites Georgiani, St George's Knights: 
and the order itself came to be called the Ordo divi Sancti Georgii, the Order of 
St George. And, if we may believe Harding, it is recorded that King Arthur 
paid St George particular honours, for he advanced his picture in one of his ban- 

VOL. II. 3 E 


ners. And, lastly, The founder added a fourth patron, viz. St Edward the Con- 
fessor, King of England ; and we find he was invocated by this founder, as well 
as St George, in any great difficulty and straits. Walsingham gives an instance 
at the skirmish of Calais, anno 1349, when King Edward in great anger and 
gvief drew out his sword, and most passionately cried out, Ha St Edward, Ha St 


This order has been honoured with the companionship of eight Emperors of Ger- 
many, three Kings of Spain, five Kings of France, two Kings of Scotland, five 
Kings of Denmark, five Kings of Portugal, two Kings of Sweden, one King of Po- 
land, one King of Arragon, two Kings of Naples, besides divers foreign dukes 
and other free princes, by which the knights and noblemen of this order are raised 
to this pitch of greatness, as to be companions and associates with emperors and 
kings, a prerogative of an high nature, and a sufficient recompense for the great- 
est merit. And the learned Selden bestowed an high eulogy on it, in saying, that 
it exceeds in majesty,' honour, and fame, all chivalrous orders of the world. 

The habit and ensigns of this most noble order are most eminently distinguish- 
able, and magnificent, and consists of these particulars, viz. the garter, mantle, 
surcoat, and hood, which were assigned the knights companions by the founder, 
and the George and collar by King Henry VIII. all which are called, the whole 
habit or ensigns of the order. The royal garter challengeth the pre-eminence, for 
from it this famous order received its denomination ; it is the first part of the habit 
presented to foreign princes and absent knights, and that wherewith they and all 
other elect knights are first adorned, and of so great honour and grandeur, that by 
the bare investiture with this noble ensign, the knights are esteemed companions 
of this order. The materials whereof is an arcanum ; as to the ornamental part 
of it, it was adorned with gold and precious stones, and had a buckle of gold at 
the end, to fasten it about the leg. This, according to Polydore Virgil. But the 
garter sent to Emanuel Duke of Savoy, anno ist and 2d Philip and Mary, was set 
with letters of goldsmith's work, the buckle and pendant of the same, and on the 
pendant a ruby, and a pearl hanging at the end. But that garter sent to Gusta- 
vus Adolphus King of Sweden outvied all others conferred by former sovereigns, 
each letter of the motto being composed of small diamonds ; and for every stop a 
diamond within a range of diamonds above and below on the sides of the garter, 
and besides other diamonds on the buckle, and about the same, to the number in 
all of 41 1. The garter which King Charles I. wore upon his leg at the time of 
his martyrdom had the letters of the motto composed likewise of diamonds, which 
amounted to the number of 412. It came to the hands of Captain Preston (one of 
the usurper's captains) from whom the trustees for sale of the king's goods receiv- 
ed it, and sold it to Ireton, Mayou of London, for 205 lib. The motto of King. 
Charles II. was set with diamonds upon blue velvet, and the border wrought with 
fine gold wire, the hinge of the buckle was pure gold, and on it the sovereign's 
picture to the breast curiously cut, crowned with laurel, and on the back side was 
engraven St George on horseback encountering the dragon. At the first erection 
the garter was appointed to be wore on the left leg a little beneath the knee; which 
usage still presides. And the placing it thus on the sepulchral portraitures of 
knights companions was an early custom : For, on the alabaster monument of Sir 
William Fitzwarin, who was interred in the north side of the chancel at Wantage in 
Com. Berks, 35th Edward III. he lies there with his surcoat of arms upon his breast, 
and the representation of a garter (but without a motto) carved upon his left leg, 
and the like on several other' monuments. Thenceforward the practice became 
more frequent, and then the motto began to be cut thereon ; in so much that it is 
now the constant and just practice to do it whensoever the knights companions are 
exhibited in effigies. 

The second ensign is the mantle, which is the chief of these vestments which 
the sovereign and knights companions make use of upon all solemn occasions re- 
lating to the order. That this pattern was derived to us from the ancient Greeks 
and Romans, is not at all to be disputed, since it so little varies in fashion from 
their pallium or toga. This upper robe, called the mantle, which was prepared for 
the founder against the first feast of this order, appears to be fine woollen cloth. 
And the first time we discover the mantle to be of velvet, is about the beginning 


of the reign of King Henry VI. which sort of silk hath thence remained unto this 
day. The colour of these mantles is appointed by the statutes to be blue, and of 
this colour was the founder's, by which, as by the ground-work of the garter, it 
is not improbable he alluded to the colour of the field in the French arms, which 
a few years before he began to quarter with those of England, and of the same CO T 
lour were the velvet mantles in the time of Henry VI. who, though he altered the 
stuff, did not vary the dye. It is apparent that the blue colour was retained to 
King Edward IV's. reign ; for when this sovereign transmitted the habit and en- 
signs of the order to Julian de Medicis, the mantle was of blue velvet. And in 
the reign of King Henry VIII. the mantle sent by that king to our King James 
V. was of blue velvet, and in the ancient form of admonition and signification ap- 
pointed to be spoken at the uiVL-stiture of foreign princes, it is called the mantle of 
celestial colour. In Queen LUi/.abeth's reign, upon what ground history is silent r 
the colour of foreign princes' mantles was changed from blue to purple ; for of that 
colour was the mantle she sent to the French King, Charles the IX. and to the 
Emperor and King of Denmark. Thus the purple colour came in request, and 
continued till about the izth of King Charles I. restored the colour of the mantle 
to the primitive institution ; and the sovereign and knights to honour the installati- 
on of the prince, afterwards King Charles II. made the first essay of these mantles, 
being of rich blue velvet got from Genoa. But on the i4th of January anno 12. 
Car. II. the mantles and surcoats of the knights companions were to be of sky- 
colour and crimson velvet ; the only difference of the mantles betwixt the sove- 
reign, foreign princes, and knights subjects is, that the two first have theirs more 
full and extensive with a long train, and the last have theirs moffe scanty. The 
left shoulder of each of these mantles have, from the institution, been adorned with 
a large fair garter containing the said motto, Horn soit qui mal y pense. And with- 
in this garter was the arms of St George, viz. argent a cross gules, first wrought in- 
satin, with gold, silver, and silk, but afterwards it was more richly done on velvet. 
The garter fixed on the mantle of King Charles II. was done with large Oriental 
pearl. The lining of this robe was white damask, afterwards white satin, but now 
it is lined with tatfeta: For exemplary ornament he mantle had fixed to its collar 
a pair of long strings anciently woven of blue silk only (called cordons, robe strings 
or laces) but of later days twisted round, and made of Venice gold, and silk of 
the colour of the robe, at each end of which hang a great knob or button, wrought 
over, and raised with a rich caul of gold, and tassels thereunto of like silk and 
gold : And at the collar was usually fixed an hook and eye of gold for its firmer af- 
fixing of it to the shoulders. 

The third ensign of the order is the surcoat, or kirtle; it owes its original to the 
tunica of the Greeks and Romans, which was worn next under the toga; it was 
called at first rob a and tunica. And as the first mantles, so the first surcoats were 
composed of woollen cloth, and continued so till the reign of King Edward IV. 
but afterwards became velvet, as they are at this day, though sometimes they were 
blue, white, and other colours, till the reign of King Henry VIII. that they were 
ordained to be of crimson velvet, and do so continue. At the institution of this 
order, and a long time after, the surcoat was powdered all over with little garters, 
embroidered with silk and gold plate, in each of which was wrought the motto, 
Honi soit, &.C.; besides, the buckles and pendant to these small garters were silver 
gilt; of these garters there were no less than 160 upon the first surcoat and hood 
made for the founder. But this drapery of their robes became at length quite ob- 
solete, perhaps when cloth was altered to velvet, and the plain surcoat hath to this 
day continued in use; when they were of cloth they were lined with bellies of 
pure minever fur, only the sovereign's was purfled with ermine. Afterwards the 
prince, a duke, a marquis, an earl, had each of them five timbre of pure minever 
allowed to a surcoat; but the viscount, baron, baronet, and bachelor knights, but 
three timbre a piece. In time these furs were disused, and the surcoat came to be 
lined with white sarsenet till temp. Eliz. white taffeta succeeded, and that still 

'1 he hood and cap comes in the next place to be spoken of, which, in the black 
book of the order, is called capucium, and in the time of King Richard II. it is 
called after the French chaperon ; they were anciently wore for defence of the head 


against inclemencies of weather, but of later times caps and hats have supplied their 
place, yet is not the hood quite thrown by, since it is still kept reclining upon the 
back, almost like a pilgrim's hat. It was heretofore, and now is generally made of 
the same materials as the surcoat, and was anciently trimmed, and set off with 
a small proportion of garters, lined with cloth of a different colour, and such as 
would best strike the sight. But now with taffeta, as is the lining of the surcoat. 
As to the cap, which was instituted to succeed the hood, it hath been, and yet is, 
fashioned of black velvet, lined with taffeta; but the figure hath several times 
varied ; for in King Henry VIII. his time, it was flat, in Queen Elizabeth's reign 
it was a little raised in the head, but in King James's time they were much more 
high crowned. This cap hath been usually adorned with plumes of white feathers, 
and sprigs, and bound about with a band set thick with diamonds; so was the cap 
for the installation of King Charles II. and sometimes the brims have been tacked 
up with a large and costly jewel. 

To these may be added the cross of the order, encompassed with a garter, which 
by the sovereign was ordained the 2yth of April, ido Car. I, to be worn upon the- 
left side of the cloaks, coats, and riding cassocks, of the sovereigns and knights 
companions, of the prelate, and chancellor, at all times, when not adorned with 
their robes. And it was not long after ere the glory, or star, as it was usually called, 
having certain beams of silver, that shot out in form of a cross, was introduced, 
and annexed to it, in imitation of the French, who after the same manner wore the 
chief ensign of the Order of the Holy Ghost, being the representation of a dove 
irradiated with such like beams. 

There remains now the collar and George, brought in by King Henry VIII. 
This collar was ordained to be of gold thirty ounces Troy weight, but not to ex- 
ceed it ; howbeit that collar sent to Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden weighed 
thirty-four ounces and a quarter, and that of King Charles I. thirty-five ounces 
and an half, which, after his sufferings, fell into the hands of Thomas Harrison, 
one of Oliver's major-generals, and was by him delivered to the trustees for sale of 
the king's goods, and they in 1649 sent it to the mint, with divers of the regalia, 
to set the stamp on work for the first gold that the upstart commonwealth coined. 
It was appointed by King Henry VIII. that this collar should be composed of 
pieces of gold, in fashion of garters, the ground enamelled blue, and the letters of 
the motto of gold ; in the midst of each garter two roses placed, the innermost 
enamelled red, and the outermost white; contrarily in the next garter, the inner- 
most white and the outermost red, and so alternately: But of later times these 
roses are wholly red. And since our King James succeeded to the crown of 
England, there hath been an intermixture of thistles. The number of these gar- 
ters were twenty-six, being fastened together with as many knots of gold; nor 
ought the collar to be adorned or enriched with precious stones, (as the George 
may be) such being prohibited by the law of the order., 

At the middle of the collar, before pendent, at the table of one of the garters in 
the collar is to be fixed the image of St George armed, sitting on horseback, who,, 
having thrown the dragon on his back, encounters him with a tilting spear. This 
jewel is not encompassed with a garter or row of diamonds as in the lesser George, 
but in a round relief. It is allowed to be beautified and set off with- diamonds and 
other enrichments at the pleasure of the knight companion who possessed it, and 
upon that score it hath been frequently adorned with variety of costly work, 
whereon the diamonds and other precious stones were set, to that advantage as 
might, upon its motion and agitation, dart forth a resplendent lustre. We come 
now to the lesser George of the order, and we do not find that the effigies of St 
George was at any time worn by the sovereign or. knights companions, before the 
breast, or under the arm, as now used, till the i3th of Henry VIII. But then that 
king decreed that every knight should wear loosely before his breast the image of 
St George in a gold chain, or otherwise in a ribbon,. the same to be fastened with- 
in the ennobled garter, as a manifest distinction between the knights companions 
and others of the nobility and knights, who, according to the mode of these times, 
wore large gold chains, or collars, the ordinary signs of knighthood, of which after- 
And thus the wearing the medal or jewel, usually called the letter George, 
to distinguish it from the other work at the collar of the order, first received the 



injunction, and liuth since been frequently used. This George was, for the most 
part, of pure gold, curiously wrought, but divers of them were exquisitely graved 
in onyxes and agates, and with such a happy collection of precious stones, that 
heightened and received their beauty by the skill of the artificer. In contrr 
the figures and history, the natural tincture of the stones have fitted them with 
colours for flesh, hair, and every thing else, even to surprise and admiration. In 
this jewel is St George represented in a riding posture encountering the dragon 
with his drawn sword. By the last article of King Henry Vlll.'s statutes it 
allowed to be enriched at the pleasure of the possessor, (as in the great George) 
which for the most part hath been curiously enamelled, and the garter about i; 
with diamonds: The weight and bigness of these lesser Georges being an ouiut 
and an half, and half quarter weight. This jewel was hung at a gold chain; after- 
wards they were worn in silk ribbons as well as gold chains, which were promiscu- 
ously used, and ad libitum: And so were the symbols of foreign orders, as dr. 
coins and medals declare. The colour of these ribbons when they came first to 
be wore, was black. And it is reported that Robert Earl of Essex, observing in 
France the jewels of the Order of St Michael and St Esprit to be worn in blue 
ribbons, ordered, upon his return, those ribbons whereat the George hung, to be 
exchanged into that colour. And in a picture of Queen Elizabeth, drawn towards 
the declension of her reign, her lesser George is represented hanging before her 
breast on a blue ribbon. And King James I. decreed, that for the future the said 
ribbon should be always of blue, and no other colour, nor in time of mourning it- 
self should it be changed. The manner of wearing this ribbon in time of peace 
was pendent about the neck down to the middle of the breast whereat the lesser 
George hung ; but since, for the more conveniency of riding and action, the same 
is spread over the left shoulder, and brought under the right arm where the jewel 
hangs; but where the picture of the sovereign and knights companions are drawn 
in armour, there, even to this day, the George is represented as fixed to a gold 
chain instead of a blue ribbon, and not brought under the right arm, as exhibited" 
on the three pound pieces of gold stamped at Oxford by King Charles I. 1643, and 
on a medal of Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine, dated 1645. The George of 
King Charles II. was set with fair diamonds, and, after the defeat given to the 
Scots forces at Worcester, was strangely preserved by Colonel Blague, one of that 
king's attendants, who resigned it for safety to the wife of Mr Barlow of Blarepipe- 
house in Staffordshire, where he took sanctuary; from whom Robert Milward, Esq. 
received, and gave it into the hands of Mr Isaac Walton, (all loyalists) and came 
again to Blague's possession, then prisoner in the Tower; whence making his 
escape, he restored it to King Charles II. Cuieen Elizabeth, in the pth year of her 
reign, ordained that the knights companions should be bound by oath to take care 
by their wills, that after their decease all the ornaments which they had received 
should be restored the robes to the college, and the jewels to the sovereign that 
gave them. Thus much as to the original, ensigns, and badges of this noble or- 
der. And those that are desirous to have a fuller account thereof may have it at 
full length in Mr Ashmole's Institution of the Garter. 

I proceed next to speak of the arms and seals peculiar to this order, and when 
the foresaid symbols and badges came in use and practice in armories as an addi- 
tional ornament in adorning outwardly the armorial shield of the knights com- 
panions of this order. The arms of St George is argent, a cross gules. But though 
it be the constant practice of the French, and other nations abroad, as also with 
is in North Britain, that the knights of royal orders encompass the shield of their 
arms with the collar of their orders, yet the Knights of the Garter in South 
Britain do not make use of the collar of that order in adorning the escutcheon of 
their arms, but only the garter, that being by them esteemed its principal ensign, 
and sometimes having no shield of arms, the void space within the garter exhibits 
their arms. And very observable is the seal of Charles Count Palatine of the 
Rhine, wherein is a shield, quarterly, of the Palatinate and Bavaria, obscuring the 
lion gardant its supporter, his four S S's only appearing quadrangularly, and his 
head a-top, ensigned with an electoral crown. The shield is encircled both with- 
in the garter and collar of that order, and is the first and only example I have 
met with wherein both these ensigns are jointly together, though it is very fre- 

VOL. II. 3 F 


quent to express the collars of different orders together. Thus I have seen the 
arms of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester entoured within the garter, and a collar 
of the Order of St Michael, the Gaiter, being the ancientest order, taking place 
next the shield, he having been knight of both these orders. And the abridger of 
Mr Ashmole's History of the Garter, tells us, That the funeral achievement of the 
late James Duke of Hamilton had the garter, and collar of the thistle about it ; 
but of the irregularity hereof I shall take notice afterwards when I come to the 
Order of the Thistle. 

Although this ensign of the garter was first designed in ornament to the left 
leg, yet it was not confined so solely thereto, but was anciently used to encircle the 
escutcheon of St George's arms foresaid, worn by the sovereign and knights com- 
panions on their mantles; who within a small space afterwards (says Mr Ashmole) 
used it to surround their own proper coats of arms, which their successors have re- 
tained as their peculiar privilege, permitting it to none but to their principal 
officer, the prelate of the order. The first example (says the said author) that 
occurs is that of Sir Francis Burley, who was beheaded Anno Dorn. 1388, where, 
on his monument reared in the north wall near the choir of St Paul's, London, on 
the front towards the head, was depicted his own arms impaled with his first wife's, 
set within a garter, but another having the same impalement (placed below the 
feet) is surrounded with a collar of S S. of the same form with that about his neck. 
Also on the monument of Joan, wife of Ralph Neville Earl of Westmoreland, on the 
south side of the choir in the Cathedral of Lincoln, bare the arms of Neville, im- 
paled with these of Joan his wife, (who died Anno Dom. 1410) encircled within a 
garter, and fixed on this lady's monument, daughter of John of Gaunt Duke ot 
Lancaster. There is a collar of S S. placed about the square, but the paint being 
faded, was rendered unintelligible. But though these and other antique instan- 
ces be advanced by this ingenious author to prove the ancient usage of the 
garter's surrounding armorial shields, yet are they not so convincing documents as 
TO establish me in the belief, that at the times foresaid the garter really was used 
as an exterior ornament of the shield ; for, being but old pieces of paintings, it is 
more probable the same has been done on these monuments long after, at least not 
till after the practice hereof was introduced by King Henry VIII. And besides, 
the said examples are not good heraldry : For Mr Sandford tells us, that no wife's 
arms impaled with those of her husband can regularly be surrounded with the gar- 
ter; as 1 shall take notice of afterwards. 

King Henry VIII. (according to Mr Sandford, in his Genealogical History of 
the Kings of England, and other learned authors of that kingdom) was the first 
king of England that introduced into his Great Seal the escutcheon of his arms 
encircled within the garter, and ensigned with a crown, as may be seen placed on 
either side his portraiture sitting on his royal throne. Since him all succeeding 
sovereigns of this kingdom have borne their arms after that manner, not only in 
their Great and Privy Seals, but those appertaining to their courts of justice, and 
generally in all matters where their arms were visible, except coins. In imitation 
of whom the knights companions have done the like. For Mr Sandford, in his 
said History, tells us, that, towards the latter end of that king's reign, the knights 
of that order caused their escutcheons on their stalls at Windsor to be encompassed 
with the garter, and these that were dukes, marquisses, and earls, had their coro- 
nets placed on their shields, and hath been so practised ever since. 

But there were in anno 21. Car. I. certain half-crowns stamped in the west ot 
England, containing the sovereign's arms, so encompassed, regally crowned and 
supported, and this was the first money whereon the royal garter appeared. After 
him King Charles II. having an eye to the advancement of the honour of this 
order, caused the irradiated cross of St George, encompassed about with the royal 
garter, to be publicly stamped in the centre of his silver coin, struck upon the 
recoinage of it. Anno 14. Car. II. there were other medals heretofore stamped 
upon several occasions, wherein the garter was designedly expressed, and inclos- 
ing shields of their arms; as that in the year 1619, when Frederick Prince Pala- 
tine of the Rhine was crowned King of Bohemia, and Robert Cecil Earl of Salis- 
bury created Lord Treasurer, both knights companions of this noble order. More- 
over gold rings have been cast in form of garters ; the ground on the outside ena- 



melled with a deep blue, through which the golden letters of the motto appear- 
ing, set them oil" uith an admirable beauty. And it seems such rings were in 
vogue, since the preface to the Black Book of the Order makes mention of wear- 
ing the garter on the leg and shoulder, and sometimes likewise subjoins the thumb, 
Interdum [toll ice gesture. 

It is remarkable, that besides the Sovereign of the Most Noble Order of the Gar- 
ter, other princes of Christendom have assumed the bearing of St George encoun- 
tering the dragon in like posture foresaid, though not so anciently, nor upon the 
same grounds and foundation as do the knights of this order, probably having 
elected him patron and guardian of their countries and families ; such as the em- 
perors of Russia, the dukes of Mantua, and the counts Mansfeld in Germany, 
their seals and coins plainly demonstrate. On the Great Seal of Boris Federo- 
\vit/., Emperor of Russia, to his letters sent to Queen Kli'/.abeth, dated ar Mos< 
June 12, 1602, was a double-headed eagle displayed, having each head crowned, 
and bearing an escutcheon with the representation of St George upon his breast. 
There is another of this emperor's seals fixed to his letter, dated May 3jst 1594, 
which he also sent to Queen Eli/.abeth ; on the one side is the above-said eagle, 
having on his breast a shield, charged with a horse coitrant ; the reverse the fi; 
of St George encountering the dragon with his spear. The Great Seal of A! 
Michaelowit/, Emperor of Russia, allixed to his letters sent to King Charles II. 
1660, hath a like eagle with a third crown situate between the two head\ and bear- 
ing in a cartouch-compartment upon his breast the figure of St George: which 
representation of St George and the dragon we find assigned for arms to Anna d? 
Russie, daughter to Jarislaus King of Russia and Muscovia, given in espousal to 
Henry I. King of France, and thus blazoned, D'un St Marthe de gueules, a itn 
bomme a cbeval d' argent, tenant une lance en la main, qu'il en la gueule d'un dragon 
renverse. The counts of Mansfeld have frequently stamped it on their coin ; on 
one side is St George encountering the dragon with his sword, with this circum- 
scription, Sanct. Geo. Co. Do. de Man. ; on the reverse his arms circumscribed. Mon. 
de Arc. Co. Do. de Man. Of these of the Dukes of Mantua we may see one of Vin- 
centius Duke of Mantua and Montferrat, a Knight of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece, wherein is his effigies to the breast, and round the same, Vine. D. C. Du\ 
MANT. III. MONTSERU, on the reverse St George and the dragon ; motto, Pro- 
tector nostra aspic. 1591. and Casal at the bottom. 

As to the seal belonging to this noble order, I find by the statutes of King Ed- 
ward III. they were to have a common seal. And this is confirmed by the statutes 
of King Henry V. and since named the Great Seal of the Order. The use of 
this is not only to seal the original statutes appointed to remain perpetually within 
the treasury of Windsor College, as also those copies of which each knight com- 
panion is obliged to conserve one, but likewise all letters of licence to any of the 
knights companions desirous of winning honour abroad, and all mandates and cer- 
tificates relating to the order. 

After what order the first seal was composed we have no exact relation. Poly- 
dore Virgil tells us, that when the founder of the order had fixed choice of St 
George for his patron, he represented him armed, and mounted on a horse, bear- 
ing a silver shield, and thereon a red cross ; but whether St George thus designed 
was on the real seal, or only a scutcheon of his arms, as in latter timeo, is uncer- 
tain. But this author observes, that the founder habited his soldiers in white 
jackets or coats, and on their breasts and backs sewed red crosses, parallel to the 
arms assigned to St George, as well as to the kingdom of England, put under his 
patronage; which arms the sovereigns of the order have ever since exhibited in 
their standards. But besides this common seal, King Henry V. in the ninth year 
of his reign, instituted a privy signet in case the sovereign should be called out of 
the kingdom upon weighty affairs. The intent thereof was to affix it to all 
passed by the sovereign beyond sea, to distinguish them from those of his deputies 
to England. King Henry VIIl's statutes ordain the making both of a common 
seal and signet, and direct that the arms of the order shall be engraven on each 
of them. The common seal used in his reign was a garter, within it a shield 
having the cross of St George impaling the national arms; the said shield encompas- 
sed with two branches hanging from the regal crown, which debruises part of the 


carter the signet being designed after the same manner, but less. In the time 
of Kin'" lames 1 it- suffered no alteration, but only in the national arms, by ad- 
mitting the quarterings of the arms of Scotland and Ireland, and new fashioning 
the -crown omitting the suspension of the shield. There was a seal made at the 
beeinning'of the reign of King Charles I. which being esteemed too little tor the 
erandeur and honour of the sovereign's commissions, it was afterwards decreed m a 
chapter held i8th April, isth Charles 1. that a new one should be made of a larger 
size with the accustomed arms and motto, and the care thereof committed to Sir 
Thomas Kowe, Chancellor of the Order: Which command he executed with all due 
care and regard, as is manifestly evident, by the nobleness of the design ; one re- 
presentation being St George in armour, adorned with a waving mantle, his beaver 
open, his helmet plumed, holding a shield of his arms in his left hand, and striking 
with 'a sword in his right; his body mounted on a bold horse trampling a dra- 
gon which assails the champion ; the whole figure is well contracted and the 
sun a rock, the bones of devoured men, and a mountain in lointain. On it is cir- 
cumscribed, Magnum Sigillum nobilis ordinis garterii, having the enrichments of 
festoons between every word placed pentagonally. The other representation is the 
royal garter imperially crowned, enclosing a shield of the arms of St George, im- 
paling the sovereign's arms, the same bordered with fret-work and other orna- 
ments in cartouch. In the same degree directions was given also for a new signet, 
the former being thought too big for letters. And this was an oval shaped, as ap- 
pears from its impression, which was the garter crowned, wherein was St George and 
the sovereign's arms impaled. And these seals were appointed to be thenceforth 
borne before the sovereign in all public assemblies during the celebration of St 
George's feast, or in other of its solemnities, by the Chancellor of the Order, in a 
purse of blue velvet; and command was given to the said Sir Thomas Rowe to pro- 
vide one accordingly. On the foreside of which purse was richly embroidered (by 
a goldsmith) with Venice gold and silver, gold and silver purls and plates, and va- 
riety of Naples silks, the arms of St George impaling the sovereign's, surrounded 
with a garter crowned, having a very fair running work or compartment round 

about it. 

I proceed next to the officers of this noble order. The founder constituted a 
Prelate, Register, and Usher, and some of his successors added the Chancellor and 
Garter, and all of them sworn to be of the council of the order : Among these, 
the Prelate and Chancellor are usually nominate the principals, the other three 
the inferior officers of the order. The Prelate i the first and premier officer, call- 
ed Prelatus ordinis. And William de Edington Bishop of Winchester was the 
first prelate; and his successors, bishops of Winchester, continue prelates of the 
order to this day. The privilege of this officer is, that, in all proceedings and cere- 
monies of the order, he is on the right hand of the chancellor, and has the privi- 
lege of marshalling his arms within the ennobled garter ; and accordingly it hath 
been customary to surround them, impaling his see, and has allotted him conveni- 
ent apartments in the castle of Windsor. The Chancellor was, by King Edward 
IV. the i6th year of his reign, named to be Richard Beauchamp, then Bishop of 
Salisbury ; which office continues yet with his successors bishops of Salisbury, in 
consideration that the chapel of St George was within their diocese ; though this 
office was for many years after the Reformation by King Edward VI. discontinued, 
restored again anno 1669. By the said King Edward Vl.'s statutes it was or- 
dained, that the chancellor should wear about his neck a cross of the order, with a 
red rose in a white, of gold, all compassed within a garland of red and white roses ; 
and afterwards, by Queen Mary, they were allowed a golden rose inclosed within 
a garter, which he and his successors, chancellors of the order, have ever since worn 
daily about their necks. At first it was pendent in a gold chain, but since in a 
purple ribbon ; and by a warrant of King Charles I. dated at Oxford, i6th De- 
cember 1645, it was ordained, " That the Chancellor, Sir James Palmer, Knight 
" and Baronet, and his successors chancellors of the order, should wear about 
" their necks, at all times, in honour of the said place, a medal or jewel of gold 
" enamelled, with a red rose (or such an one as we, or the rest of the knights of 
" the order, do, or shall hereafter wear in our collars of the .said order) within a 
" garter of blue enamelled, with this sentence inscribed, Honi soit qui mal y pense. 


" And in the reverse thereof he shall bear the escutcheon of St George, enamelled 
" within a garter also, in reverence to the order itself, \vhich he only shall wear 
" hanging by a light purple ribbon, or in a gold chain, as hath been accustomed." 
The chancellor of the order is seated beneath the prelate, and in all proceedings and 
sessions goeth and sitteth on his left hand. He hath also an habitation within the 
cattle ot Windsor, and the custody of the seals of the order belong to him. 

Next follows the Register of this order ; and who was the first \ve cannot dis- 
cover : but it may be presumed they were canons of Windsor, because this olliee 
was at first assigned to one of that college. Besides, the registers from the reign 
of King Henry V. to the beginning of King Henry Vlll.'s reign, were all canons 
of this college, among whom was John Cunningham, (and the first found 
called so) as the fragments of a glass inscription in Clare Church near Windsor, 
where he was rector, attests. The first dean of Windsor constituted register of 
the order, was John Vcsey, anno 8th Henry VIII. ; many of whose successors in 
this dcanry have since been admitted the rather as they were canons than deans 
of Windsor. 

The fourth officer of the order is Garter : He was ordained by King Henry V. 
with the consent of all the knights companions, who, for the honour of the order, 
was pleased he should be the principal officer within the College of Arms, and 
chief of the heralds : The services enjoined him, relating to the order, were, in 
preceding time, performed by the Windsor Herald of Arms, an officer created 
with that title by King Edward III. much about the time of his erecting this or- 
der. Sir William Bruges was the first created Garter, and called in the institu- 
tion of his office, Jartiire Roy d'armes des Anglois. John Smert, his successor, had 
this office conferred on him by letters patent, under this title, Rex Armorum dc 
Garteria ; and John Wryth was stiled Principalis Heraldus & Officiaris inclyti or- 
dinis Garterii armorumq. Rex Anglicorum. But Sir Gilbert Dethick leaving out 
Heraldus, joined Principalis Rex, which still continues. And King Henry V. and, 
V11I. declared, that he shall be a gentleman of blood and arms, and a native of 
England, and that he shall be chief of all the officers of arms dependent upon the 
crown of England. This officer is appointed to bear a white rod or sceptre at every 
feast of St George, the sovereign being present, gilded at both ends, and at the 
top the arms of the order impaling the sovereign's arms pourtrayed on an oblong 
cube crowned ; but no directions are given in the constitutions either for this 
crown or for that ducal one on his head wherewith his effigies has been represented, 
and yet at all great solemnities is never used that we can discover. There was assign- 
ed him, by Queen Elizabeth, a badge of gold, to be worn daily by him and his 
successors before the breast in a gold chain or ribbon, and thereon enamelled the 
sovereign's arms, crowned with an imperial crown, and both surrounded with the 
garter. B,ut Sir Edward Walker, when made Garter, obtained the sovereign's 
leave to impale therein St George's arms with those of the sovereign's ; which 
badge is alike on both sides. He has a house appointed him within Windsor 
Castle, called Garter's Tower, and has of salary 100 lib. per annum. His duty, 
in general, is to perform, or cause to be effected, all transactions whatsoever the 
sovereign, prelate, or chancellor, shall enjoin him, in relation to this most noble 

The fifth and last officer is the Black Rod, who was instituted by the founder 
King Edward III. For the said king, in the 35th year of his reign, conferred on 
Willam Whitehorse, Esq. for life, Officium hostiarii capella Regis infra castrum de 
IVuidesore, with a fee of I2d. a day out of his exchequer. Anno jd Henry IV. 
this office is called Officium virgarii Comitivte de la Gaiter infra castrum Regis de 
Windesore : and in anno ist Henry V. it is stiled Officium virgarii rive ostiarii, 
&c. Afterwards it hath the title, Officium virga bajuli coram Rege ad festum 
Sancti Georgii infra castrum Regis de Windesore. And ever since it runs in the 
patents by the appellation of Virga Bajulus, Virgatius, Nigri-vergifer. But in 
the constitutions of his office he hath the title of Hoitiarius. He is also ordained 
to be a gentleman of blood and arms, and native within the sovereign's dominions, 
and if not a knight before, he ought at his admission to be knighted, and, for the 
honour of the order, the Black Rod is appointed chief Usher of the kingdom, and 
as he is so, he is called Gentleman-Usher of the Black Rod. In the reign of King 

VOL. II. 3 G 


Charles I. James Maxwell, Esq. enjoyed this office, aud the said king, at a chapter 
held at Whitehall 5th of November 1629, decreed that the littk park of Windsor 
should be conferred on the said James Maxwell in right of his oifa'ce, and so for 
ever after be annexed thereto. And in the reign of King Charles II. John Ayton 
was Gentleman-Usher of the Black Rod, being both our countrymen. The en- 
sign and badge of this office at first was ordained, that he or his deputy should 
carry a black rod (whence he hath his title) before the sovereign or his deputy, at 
the feast of St George, within the castle of Windsor, and at other solemnities and 
chapters of the order, on the top of which there ought to be set a lion of England. 
This rod serves instead of a mace, and has the same authority to apprehend delin- 
quents, and such as have offended against the statutes of this noble order ; and 
where he apprehends any one of the order as guilty of some crime, for which he 
is to be expelled the order, the manner of it is by touching them with this black 
rod. He has assigned him a golden badge, to be openly worn in a gold chain or 
ribbon before his breast, composed of one of the knots, in the collar of the order, 
which tie the roses together, and encompassed fith a garter, being alike on both 
sides ; which was conferred on him and his successors, by decree in chapter, held 
the 24th of April, 8th Eliz. He has also a house in Windsor Castle. All those 
officers have particular mantles and pensions belonging to them, which the curious 
will find at large in Mr Ashmole's Institution of the Garter. And though they 
are all strictly obliged to give personal attendance to their offices, yet in case 
of sickness, absence out of the kingdom, or other emergent reasons, the sove- 
reign is pleased to dispense with them, and constitute others to officiate in their 
stead, who, on such occasions, wear the robe and badge of that officer whom 
they represent, and such deputies are sworn durante deputations \3 beneplacito 

By the statutes of the order it is provided, that none shall be elected into the 
rder that have not been dignified with the title of Knight. Thus King Charles I. 
anno 6th regni sui, designing to invest James Marquis of Hamilton with this 
order, conferred the honour of knighthood upon him immediately before his no- 
mination : And his father James Marquis of Hamilton, when elected into this 
noble order by King James I. the 2ist year of his reign, the said king, as a dis- 
tinguishing mark of his favour, conferred the mantle of the order upon him, 
though a knight-subject, which the sovereign very rarely bestows on any but 
strangers. And when James Duke of York came to be elected on the 2oth 
April, anno i8th Charles I. the sovereign conferred knighthood upon him the day 
before, which he received upon his knees ; and in honour whereof four other 
nobleman received the honour of knighthood at that time; the Earl of Car- 
narvon, the Lords George d'Aubigny, John Stewart, and Bernard Stewart, each 
supported by two knights. And 'thus Prince Edward, Count Palatine of the 
Rhine, and George Duke of Buckingham, being designed by King Charles II. to 
be admitted into this noble order, were both first knighted at St Germains in 
France 1649, and afterwards had the ensigns of the order sent unto them by the 
hands of Sir Edward Walker, Knight-Garter, who, in right of his office, invested 
them therewith : But in foreign princes the want of knighthood becomes no 
impediment. It it is also to be observed, in regard that strangers elected into 
this order are for the most part sovereign princes, whose affairs oblige them to 
abide in their own dominions, and very rarely permit them to receive personal 
installation, therefore they are allowed timely notice of their elections, and conve- 
nient time of consideration for acceptance, affording investiture in their own coun- 
tries, and permitting their installations to be performed at Windsor by their 
proxies or deputies. In pursuance whereof it became customary for the sovereign, 
when he sent his letters, to send also, by way of solemn embassy, the habit and 
ensign of the order, with a book of the statutes ; and in case the election was ac- 
cepted, investiture might be received before the return of the persons by whom 
the habit was sent. So our King James V. who was elected 2oih January, anno 
Henry VlII. had notice of his election immediately sent him by the Lord 
ham Howard, who was .sent on that embassy. And the last thing to be done 
in the installation of a knight of this order, is the setting up the helmet, crest, 
sword, banner, and plate, of the new installed knight, over his stall in the Chapel 


of St George. To describe the manner of installing these knights, with the oath 
they take, and the rules prescribed them, being too long for this place, I therefore 
again refer those who desire it to the said Mr Ashmole's fore-cited book, where 
the same may be read at full length. 

And here I cannot omit to relate what the ingenious Mr Sandford, in his Genea- 
logical History of the Kings of England, tells us, and gives it for a rule, that no 
wife's arms, impaled with those of her husband's, can be surrounded with the gartei, 
and so neither with the collar of any other sovereign order ; for the following iv;; 
son, That though a husband may give his wife an equal share of his escutcheon and 
hereditary honours, by impaling her arms with his own, yet he cannot place them 
so impaled within the order of royal knighthood, which i but temporal, and which 
1 allow is very reasonable : But the garter or collar may appear on that side of the 
escutcheon where the husband's arms are ; and as for the instance given to the 
contrary, that the arms of Mary Queen of England, and those of her husband'^ 
Philip King of Spain, were impaled in one shield, and surrounded with the garuv, 
is of no force, for he was one of that order himself, and she hereditary sovereign 
and head of the same ; and all sovereign queens have their arms adorned as a 

Whereas I have spoke above of another kind of collar, called a collar of SS's, 
worn as badges of lower and inferior honour, it will not be amiss to speak a little 
concerning them. Wicelius informs us, from a book in the library of Fulda, 
where (in the life of the two brothers Simplicius and Faustinus, both senators, and 
who suffered martyrdom under Dioclesian) there is a description of the society of St 
Simplicius, consisting of noble personages in their own families, and describing the 
collar wore as the badge of it, says thus : " It was the custom of these persons to 
" wear about their necks silver collars composed of double SS's, which denotes the 
" name of St Simplicius ; between these double SS's the collar consisted of twelve 
" small plates of silver, in which were engraven the twelve articles of the Creed, 
" together with a single trefoil, the image of St Simplicius hung at the collar, and 
" from it seven plates, representing the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost. As to the 
" manner of their martyrdom, they were bound together by the neck to a stone, 
" and thrown over the bridge into the river Tyber." At what time the collar of 
SS's came into England is not fully determined ; but it will appear at least 300 
years since, and worn as an ornament for women, as well as men ; for on a monu- 
ment in the Collegiate Church of Warwick, the figure of Margaret, wife to Sir Wil- 
liam Peito, (said to be interred temp. Edward III.) hath a collar of SS's drawn 
about and set close to her neck ; and the like collar is about the neck of Sir Simon 
JBurley's statute in St. Paul's, London. 

In the ancient creation of an esquire in England part of the ceremony was the 
king's putting about his neck a collar of SS's. But that the golden one was the 
undoubted badge of a knight, as may be instanced by many undeniable examples j 
and by King Henry VIII. it was allowed that knights might publicly wear a gold 
collar of SS's, though since it is grown obsolete and useless. And Favin tells us, 
that King Henry the V. of England instituted an order surnamed Knights of the 
SS's, on the day of the martyrs St Crispin and Crispianus ; for though the English 
historians mention nothing hereof, yet from the Chronicle of Juvenal des Ursins, 
where he treats of the battle of Agencourt, the King of England exhorted his men 
to be at peace and reconciled with one another, to be civil in their march, and do 
their duty well ; and agreed, that those of their company who were not of gentle 
extraction he would make so from the fountain of honour, and give them warrants, 
that for the future they should enjoy the privileges the gentlemen of England had ; 
and to the end they might be distinguished from others, he granted them leave to 
wear a collar powdered with the letter S. And to establish this, and show that 
the said collar was in much esteem in England, the kings of England since have 
sometimes been pictured with a collar of SS's about their arms, in like manner as 
the garter doth now surround them, as appears from an impression of King Henry 
VIII. his privy signet ; whereon his royal arms crowned are encircled with a collar 
of SS's, to the lower end of which are affixed two portcullisses. And our King 
James III. is pictured with a gold chain about his neck, which I judge should be 


rather a collar of SS's, to the lower end of which hang pendent on his breast the 
image of St Andrew, embracing his cross with both his arms. 

Among the variety of collars of SS's now in vogue, there are these following- : 
The Lord Mayor of London's collar is composed of gold, having a knot (like one 
of those that tie the garters together in the great collar of the order) inserted be- 
tween two SS's, and they again situated between two roses, viz. a white rose with- 
in a red, and in the middle before the breast a large portcullis, whereat hangs a 
most rich jewel set with large diamonds. 

The collars of the Lords Chief Justices of both the Benches, and of the Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, are (in memory of the said St Simplicius, a senator, and 
consequently a gown-man) formed of the letter S, and a knot alternately, having 
a rose set in that part of it which falls out to be in the middle of their breasts, 
and another on their backs ; the five flowers of those roses are constituted of five 
large pearls. 

Those collars which appertain to the kings and heralds of arms, as well as to 
Serjeants of arms, having been bestowed by former kings, and renewed to them 
by King Charles II. to be worn upon days of solemn attendance, are composed 
of SS's linked together ; in the middle of the breast is a rose,' at each of which 
hangs three small drops of silver ; but the SS's in the collars worn by the Kings of 
Arms are made somewhat larger than the other, and in that part lying on either 
shoulder is a portcullis taken in between the SS's, which are wanting in the 

The general difference of the collars appropriate to the before-named degrees 
is this : knights have allowed them collars gilt, but esquires only silver; and there- 
fore in the creating of a herald, in part of that ceremony, he is made an esquire, 
by putting on him a collar of SS's of silver, and so is a serjeant at arms. 

I think, and humbly give it as my opinion, that those gentlemen, while in pos- 
session of these offices, may adorn exteriorly their armorial shields with the fore- 
said collars, as the symbols and badges of their said offices ; by which after gene- 
rations may know that they enjoyed such preferments, and that in imitation of 
the knights companions of royal orders ; who, soon after the sovereigns of these or- 
ders had introduced the practice of surrounding the escutcheons of their arms with 
the collars of their different orders, did the like as to their arms : And as collars 
worn about the neck distinguish to the present generation the high rank or station 
of the person wearing it, so the placing them round the armorial shield becomes a 
cognosce to future generations, to certify them, that their predecessors enjoyed 
such high honour, place or post. And it is certainly the main design of heraldry, 
by figures and symbols, to convey to after generations distinguishing marks of per- 
sons and families, and to demonstrate to posterity the several degrees of honour, 
posts, and places deserving persons have enjoyed, and were advanced to by sove- 
reign princes. 

The next degree of knighthood in South Britain is the Knights of the Bath, so 
called from the solemn manner of bathing, and other sacred ceremonies used at 
their creation. They are commonly made at the coronation of a king or queen, 
or at the creation of a Prince of Wales, or a duke of the blood royal ; some allege 
they are of no less antiquity than the times of the Saxons. And though mention 
be made by W. of Malmesbury of King Alfred making his grandson Athelstane a 
knight, he instances no more than the purple robe, with the sword and rich belt ; 
yet it is apparent that when Geoffrey of Anjou, in order to his marriage with 
Maude the Empress, only daughter to King Henry the First of England, was made 
a knight at Rome, by the same King Henry on Whitsunday anno 1227. It is said 
by John the monk of Marmonstier, that he with 25 esquires then attending him, 
were bathed according to the ancient custom. But Froissart says, this order was 
first erected, anno 1399, by King Henry IV. of England, who, to add to the lustre 
of his coronation, created 46 Knights of the Bath ; and Mr Selden thinks them 
more ancient. But that great antiquary Elias Ashmole is of opinion, that the said 
king did not constitute, but rather restore the ancient manner of making knights, 
and judges them to be really no other than knights-batchelors; that is, such as are 
created with tho^e ceremonies wherewith knights-batchelors were formerly created 
by ecclesiastics. At first view they look like a distinct order of knighthood, but 



cannot be so accounted, because they have no statutes assigned, nor ;ue in ease of 
vacancy supplied, (the essentials ot" distinct orders) nor do they wear their rnl)i-> 
beyond the time of that occasion upon which they were created, as chiefly the 
coronation of a king or queen, prince, Duke of York, or the like; and besides then- 
number is uncertain, and always at the pleasure of the king. Fa\in calls them 
knights of the crown, to distinguish them from esquires, because they wore upuii 
their left shoulder an escutcheon of black silk embroidered with three crow: 

1 ; but herein he mistakes, for they never used but only a white silk lace, and 
the jewel they wore was made of gold, containing three crowns, with this motto, 
Ti iajuncta in uno, hanging down under the left arm at a red or carnation ri!< 
worn cross the body. Benjamin Smithurst in his Britain's Glory, p. 33. calls them 
Knights of the Holy Trinity, from the medal which they wear, winch is three 
crowns, with an inscription about it which was formerly 'L'riu numina juncla in . 
But at our Kiuc; James VI. his coronation in England, the word numinn was left 
out, and so it alluded to the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
which were then joined in one. They are created with much noble ceremony, 
and have had princes and the prime of the nobility of their fellowship. The par- 
ticular manner of their creation is mentioned by many authors, but most exactly 
described and illustrate with figures of all the ceremonies by the learned William 
Dugdale, Esq. Norroy King at Arms, in his description of Warwickshire; to which 
laborious piece I refer the curious reader. 

These knights are in use to wear the foresaid badge for adorning of their armorial 
shields. And Sylvanus Morgan, in his Sphere of Gentry, lib. i. page 82. has given 
us a figure of the practice hereof in the arms of Sir Hugh Ducie, Knight of the 
Bath, at the coronation of King Charles II. who hath the escutcheon of his arm, 
there trimmed with the said ribbon at the back thereof, tied together with a run- 
ning knot at the top of the shield, and hanging down, extended so oval-ways, 
as the same appears to surround not the top, but only the sides and feet of the 
shield ; and to which ribbon, at the bottom is affixed pendent the said medal oval- 
ways, whereon is a branch slipped with three crowns, issuing therefrom, one 
at the top and two below, and round the same the foresaid words, Tria juncta in 

This leads me to the degree of Baronets in South Britain, who seem allied to 
knighthood, by having granted them the addition of Sir before their names : But 
this gives them not the dignity of knighthood ; nor can they properly be stiled 
knights, until they be actually knighted : It is a modern degree of honour, and 
next to barons, whence the name is also derived, being hereditary in the male line; 
it was instituted by King James I. on the 22d day of May 1611, and the pth year 
of his reign over Great Britain. The manner of creation is by a patent under the 
Great Seal, the form of them being all the same, viz. to a man and the heirs-male 
of his body lawfully begotten, for ever ; though sometimes the honour is other- 
ways entailed for want of issue-male. The proem, or argument of the said patent, 
being for the propagating a plantation in the province of Ulster in Ireland, for 
which purpose they were ordained ; that is, each of them to maintain thirty sol- 
diers in Ireland for three years, after the rate of eightpence Sterling per diem, to 
each soldier ; which whole sum was paid into the Exchequer at once, upon pas- 
sing the patents under the Great Seal of England. They have precedency before 
all knights, except those of the garter, bannerets, and privy counsellors, and next 
to, and immediately after, the younger sons of viscounts and barons. And us the 
addition of Sir is attributed to them, so the title of Lady is to their wives ; and they 
take place among themselves according to the priority of the dates of their patents'; 
no honour is to be created between barons and baronets. At the first institution 
icrn King James engaged that they should not exceed two hundred in number; 
an ! when the said number was completed, and any came to be extinct for want of 
h.-'rs-male, there should be never anymore created in their room : However, a 
nission was afterwards ordered to fill up the vacant places with instructions to 
treat with others that desired to be admitted to the same degree, which is now ob- 
served without any limitation ; with this provision, that they be of good reputa- 
tion, and descended of a grandfather, at least, by the father's side that bore arms, 
and have also a yearly revenue of L. 1000 per annum. The ground for erecting- 
VOL. II. 3 H 


* y 

this degree was partly martial ; for though themselves were not enjoined personal 
service' in the wars, jet, as foresaid, eacii baronet was to maintain thirty foot sol 
diers for three years in Ireland, after the rate of eightpence a-day, for the defence 
of that kingdom, and chiefly to secure the plantation of Ulster. And, anno 1612, 
King James addtd some new privileges and ornaments to them, viz. to knight 
those already made that were no knights, and the heirs hereafter of every baronet 
should, at the age of one and twenty- years, receive knighthood ; also in the king's 
army royal they are to have a place near the king's standard, and they are allowed 
some particular solemnities at their funeral; likewise, that all baronets might bear in 
a canton or in an escutcheon, which they please, the arms of Ulster, viz. in a held 
argent, a sinister hand coupcd at the wrist, gules. .Since the creation of baronets 
in England, there have been several made after the same manner in Ireland. 
There was an intention, anno 1627, to move his then majesty, that all baronets 
and knights-bachelors might wear ribbons of several colours, with some badge or 
jewel, in such sort as did the Knights of the Bath, to distinguish the one from the 
other : But that matter dropt. Yet though the same did not succeed in England 
and Ireland, it was allowed to the knights baronets in Scotland, as shall be proven 
afterwards. I come next to treat on the orders of knighthood in my own nation of 
North Britain. 

Our high and sovereign order of knighthood is the most ancient and most noble 
Order of the Thistle, commonly called the Order of St Andrew, and so called from 
the pendant of the order having on a blue roundle the image of St Andrew. It 
was the custom and policy of puissant princes in all ages to invite and secure to 
themselves persons of renown ; and such heroic spirits were encouraged with marks 
of honour to distinguish them from the vulgar, and amongst those persons, the 
more eminent, or excellent of merit were placed in a superior orb, that 
their glory might be the more splendid to the world ; such were King David's 
mighty men, the Satrapa? of Persia, the orders military among the Romans, 
and the many institutions of knighthood in Christendom ; but of all orders, purely 
military, now extant, I must prefer this of St Andrew ; not only because it is of 
our own nation, or that none are commonly admitted into this order but peers, 
but chiefly for the antiquity of it, which gives it a place and precedency to all 
other orders now in being. 

As to the original of this most ancient and noble order, John Lesly, Bishop of 
Ross, in his History of Scotland, tells us, 'it took its beginning from a bright cross 
in Heaven, in fashion of that, whereon St Andrew the Apostle suffered martyrdom, 
which appeared to Achaius King of Scots, and Hungus King of the Picts,. the 
night before the battle was fought betwixt them and Atheltsane King of England, 
as they were on their knees at prayer; when St Andrew, their tutelary saint or pa- 
tron, is said also to have appeared, and promised to these kings that they should 
always be victorious when that sign appeared, and the next day these kings pre- 
vailing over King Athclstan in battle, they went in solemn procession, barefooted, 
in a devout way to the kirk of St Andrew, to return thanks to God and his apos- 
tle tor their victory, promising and vowing that they and their posterity would 
ever bear the figure of that cross in their ensigns and banners ; the place where 
this battle was fought retains to this day the name of Athelstan's ford in East 
Lothian. But the Picts being afterwards extinguished by the valour of the 
Scots, they assumed the said badge. Now as to the order of the thistle, Andrew 
Favm, in his Theatre of Honour and Knighthood, tells us, it was erected by the 
said Achaius King of Scotland, who began to reign in the year of Christ 787, on 

,-unt of the famous league, offensive and defensive made between Achaius and 

Charlemagne King of France. But there are some, says the same author, that re- 

Institution of this Order of the Thistle to the reign of Charles VII. King 

(' ranee, when the amity was renewed between both kingdoms. And lastly, yet later place its foundation anno 1500, which too last assertions if true 
would mde <d give precedency to the Garter, the royal order of England, before that 
01 ours of tue Thistle, seeing all judicious heralds abroad, and tlie learned English 
emseh ,,t opinion, that the ancientest order of knighthood takes place next 

the escutcneon, even though other later institutions should after become more ho- 


nourable; and this method has always been practised by all civilized nations that 
esteem rrgular trimming of armorial shields; as witness the usage in France, from 
whom we of Britain hud the science of heraldry, and where constantly the order 
of St Michael, as being the eldest, takes place next the shield, when that of the 
Holy (Jhost, though more honourable, yet being of a later date, doth both sur- 
round the same, as I observed before. And this 1 judge lias been the only re. 
why our brethren of South Biilain hath hitherto denied our said royal order its due 
place next the shield in their trimmings of the sovereign's arms, or the arms of 
knights companions of: both the royal orders of Great Britain, as adjudging our or- 
der to be of no older standing than the reign of the said King Charles VII. King 
of France, or of our own King Jame-, V. of Scotland ; which, if true, would in- 
deed make the Most Noble Order of the Garter to be of a much older date than 
ours, and so regularly and justly to claim precedency. But that the same is en- 
tirely false, and our order long prior to that, 1 am hopeful to make evident by 
what follows. 

Albeit most of all our historians agree, that the St Andrew's cross, in form of 
a saltier argent, on a field azure, was equally used by Hungus King of the Picts, 
and Achaius King of the Scots, in remembrance of the above notable victory ob- 
tained by them against Athelstan King of the Saxons, as Menemus likewise ob- 
serves in his Delitiae ordinum eijuestrium, page 1646. Yet Modi us, in his Pandects, 
(to which Andrew Favin assents) ascribes the full foundation of this order of 
knighthood to Achaius. Menenius describes the collar thereof thus, " Cujus insigne 
" sen collare ex carduis confectum preferunt gentilitia regum arma cunque, hoc 
" addito elogio, Nemo me impune lacesset ;" and a little after, " Fuit autcm 
" huic militiae baltheus aureus ex floribus cardui orbicellis aureis, seu nodisrubes 
" centibus innexi compositus &. infra preferens imaginem Sancti Adrese Martyrii 
" crucem decussatam ante se gestantis." Camerarius, in his Symbols, is of the 
opinion that the motto belonging to the collar was the same, which he proves 
by his having seen some of the deeds of King Achaius amongst the records of 

Some think that devices are as ancient as Antisthenes, who gave Cepbisolode, for 
his device, incense burning, with the words xx. / n- u^am, that is to say, I please 
whilst I consume. But others think that devices were no older than Paulus Jovius; 
and yet Petra Sancta, lib. 9. Symbol. Heroic, asserts that the thistle taken by Achaius 
King of Scots, when he made his alliance with Charlemagne, with the words, 
Ntrno me impune lacesset, is the ancientest device now upon record, and all praise 
it as, very regular and pretty. But Sir, George Mackenzie, in his Science of Heral- 
dry, page 98. says, some think it ought to be lacessit, because the present time- 
shows best the nature of the thing, yet lacesset has more of daring and gallan- 
try. In a manuscript under the hand of Sir James Balfour, sometime Lyon King 
of Arms, it is there said, that the motto or elogium of this order in all seals, im- 
presses and inscriptions, and by all authors, holds to be, Nemo me impune lacessit, 
and that, albeit, Paulus Jovius wrote, that Franciscus Sforza, Duke of Milan, took for 
his device a greyhound, with this motto, >uietum nemo impune lacessit, yet Ru- 
celli the Italian, and Baghliour maintain, that Achaius king of Scotland wa the 
deviser of this motto. And Paradine says expressly, that Sforza borrowed this only 
from the ancient and noble kings of Scotland. And as this eminent Prince King 
Achaius was one of the number of many others who befriended the said Charles the 
Great of France, in his conquests, for which they and their successors carried in their 
ensigns the marks of that great monarch's favour, viz. the double tressure in 
the armorial ensigns of Scotland, to perpetuate that memorable league begun by 
Achaius with Charles the Great, and that order of knighthood called the Crown 
Royal, which continued for many ages with the Frieslanders, also allies with Charle- 
magne, who ordained for the state of Friesland that the governor thereof should 
make knights, by the solemnities of girding with the sword, and striking the per- 
sons so created on the ear, that they should wear on their breasts an imperial 
crown as a badge of that order, as Favin relates. And Selden, in his Titles of Ho- 
nour, says the like, and Hancouius De rebus Fris. gives the institution of the order, 
dated at Rome in the year 802. About which time, and in imitation thereof, our 
King Achaius is said to have instituted this Royal Order of the Thistle. 


Another instance of the antiquity of this noble order as prior to that of the 
garter, is, that the said Sir James Balfour had himself found among the rubbish 
of the ruined abbey of the monastery of Scoon (once the theatre ot our ancient 
kings' inaugurations) a record of the coronation of King Alexander III. written, 
as would appear, by the hand of Robert, then abbot of that place, bearing, that in 
anno 1249, the said king, a child about the age of nine years, being about to be 
crowned on Tuesday the yth of May in the aforesaid year, and coming to the great 
church, (the place appointed for the coronation) a great contest arose amongst 
the nobility and clergy there. The Bishop of Dumblane, Chancellor of Scotland, 
and John Cuming Great Constable, maintained, that the king could not be crowned 
that day, in respect that he was not then made knight of the thistle, and there- 
fore could not be head or principle of the said order. And, to avoid further 
trouble, willed them all that the king's coronation should be delayed till Friday 
thereafter. And, on the morrow after, (says the said record) they brought the king 
to the Great Hall of Scoon, where they put on him oblongam tog am ex viridi ho'.o 
serico carduis aureis oniatum, on the left shoulder of which (continues the record) 
in campo cenileo imago divi Andrea cum cruce sua argentea depingebatur, winch is 
all I can find anent the ancient usage of robes peculiar to the knights of this order, 
our records being either destroyed or carried off through the many disorders that 
happened in the kingdom. And our histories and annals have made no mention 
of them. At this time the Chancellor did knight the said king, the Great Con- 
stable girt the sword on his left side, the High Marischal put on his spurs, and 
William Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews, administered the oath of the order to him. 
And the usual oath administered to these knights, according to Licetus, a French- 
m; n, in his book De Ceremoniis, page 74. was, 

imo, I shall fortify and defend the Christian religion, and Christ's most holy 
evangel to the utmost of my power. 

2do, I shall be loyal and true to my Sovereign Lord the King, and the brethren 
of this order. 

$tio, I shall maintain the honour and dignity of the Noble Order of the Thistle 
to my last hour, if God let. 

4/0, I shall never bear treason about in my heart against my Lord the King, but 
shall discover the same to him. So defend me God and the holy church. 

And that the number of knights of this order was the same of old as now. is 
clear from Fordun's History, lib. 13. where he tells us, that this king, at his said 
coronation, did make twelve knights, amongst whom Walterus Cuming Comes Atbo- 
lice, (Great Constable) eques quoque creates est. And Modius, in his Pandects, 
page 107. says that " Antiqui Scotorum reges solebant ante coronationem duo- 
" decim equites ordine cardui creare." 

Another instance of the antiquity of this noble order, before that of the garter, 
I find in Mr Sandford's Genealogical History of the Kings of England, page 138^ 
when describing the seal of Edward I. King of England, says, that in a grant of he 
marriage of Duncan, son and heir of Duncan Earl of Fife, to Gilbert de Clare Earl 
of Gloucester and Hartford, dated at Berwick, the 25th June, in the 2Oth year of 
his reign, which was Anno Dom. 1291, he is stiled Edwardus Dei Gratia Rex Anglice 
y Dominus Hiberniae, 13 dux Aquitaniae i2 superior Domimis Regni Scotiae, &-c. in 
cujits rei testimonium has liter as patcntes sigillo regimini Scotiae deputato fecimus sigil- 
laii ; the circumscription of which seal is obliterated, but the figure of the cruci- 
fiction of St Andrew, the badge of this royal order on the one side, and the arms 
of Scotland, viz. a lion rampant within a double tressure, on the reverse, are ap- 

And it was the care of King Robert the Bruce, after he had restored the sovereignty 
of the kingdom, and the liberties of the subjects from the usurpations and tyrannies 
of the Kings Edwards I. and II. of England, to revive again this royal order, 
which had been in disuse for some time, through the wars and disorders happening 
in the kingdom after the death of the said King Alexander III. ; and this clearly 
appears by that King Robert's charters. And particularly about the 2ist year 
of his reign, which was Anno Dom. 1327, (which is still before the Institution of 
the Garter) when it is to be observed, that some years before that time, the old 
knights of this order, formerly made by the said King Alexander III. were verv 


presumably either dead or slain in battle fighting for the relief of the kingdom 
from slavery. Before this year of King Robert's reign, the most eminent of his 
subjects are only designed as other common knights, miles, or miles neuter, whereas 
about this time, and after to distinguish the same men, being of royal knighthood, 
from the common knights, they are designed milites patriae. Amongst many 
other charters, to prove this, I shall give one of this king's charters, taken out of 
Haddmgton's Collection of Charters, now in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh, 
which is dated at Berwick the ijth day of November, the 2ist year of his reign, 
confirming the charters of donations of King Edgar and King David, and of 
Patrick sun of VValdeve, Earl of March, to the church of Durham. " Testibus 
" venerabilibus in Christo patribus Willielmo & Johanne Sti. Andraj &t Glas- 
" guensis ecclesiarum Dei gratia episcopis, Thoma Ranulph Comite Moraviae, 
" Domino vullis Anmuidue & Manniae, Nepote nostro, Patricio de Dumbar Comite 
" Marchiaz, Walter Scnescallo Scotue, Jacobo Domino de Douglas &. Alexander de 
" Seton patriae militibus;" whereas ia charters before this, it is said only militibus, 
as other knights, without the addition o (patriot) that of their country. And for 
a further confirmation hereof, there is to be seen among Mr Sutherland's Curious 
Collection of Old Coins, now the property of the Society of Advocates, and lodged 
in their said library at Edinburgh, a piece of gold of King Robert the Bruce, 
whereon is raised on one side the figure of St Andrew, expanded on his saltier 
cross between two flower-de-luces, and the legend round the same is Dominus pro- 
tector meits y liberator ineus, and on the other side are the arms of Scotland within 
a formal shield timbred with an open crown. And if it had been the custom of 
these times to adorn escutcheons of arms with the ensigns of royal orders in any 
kingdom, these of the above-named knights had been trimmed with that of this 
noble order, as others of that kind of later times do by surrounding the shield of 
arms; but this method came not in use and practice for 200 years after. 

And now having, I humbly think, convincingly proven the antiquity of our 
Noble Order the Thistle before that of the Garter, which was but only instituted 
in the year of our redemption 1350, then, generally and regularly, the first in time 
ou^ht to be preferred, amongst such as are equal in dignity; which is clear by the 
civil law, not only in kingdoms, but in all the degrees of nobility and promotions. 
And this our reason may teach us without law; for if there were not some certain 
and stated rule whereby precedencies might be known, it were impossible to evite 
confusion; and all other rules except this are uncertain. And of the same opinion 
is the learned English themselves. For their great antiquary Elias Ashmole, in 
his Institution of the Garter, chap. -j. tells us, That the older the order is in the 
roll of antiquity, whose chief ensign is now represented in armorial bearings, the 
nearer ought it (says he) to be placed to the escutcheon of arms, being the more 
honourable post. Now our brethren of England, come the length to agree we had 
this royal order of knight prior to theirs, which I judge they cannot deny from 
what is above said, yet at the same tune will not allow our order the precedency to 
theirs, in respect, say they, the same was for a long tract of years after disused, 
and became wholly extinct, and no mention to be found anent it in all our 
histories, till King James V. instituted or revived, say they, our Order of the 
Thistle, and therefore their Noble Order of the Garter ought to have precedency, 
as being a considerably older order. Now that this king was not the institutor of 
our royal order, I have already demonstrated, and, if he was but only the reviver 
of it, this saith nothing to the purpose; for in all competitions betwixt kingdoms, 
states, or orders, we are not to consider their present condition, but what they were 
formerly; and if they remain the sa-ne that they were in their substantials, in. 
that case th^- former precedency is still continued. 

But, in my opinion, this our ancient and Noble Order of the Thistle has never 
wholly been disused or laid aside by our after succeeding kings since the days of 
the said King Robert the Bruce, except when the many rebellions and disturbances 
in the nation might occasion the same to be neglected for some time; which in 
some measure I shall make appear, so far as I have seen, from charters, coins, seals, 
and other authentic documents, though not so fully as I could wish, thereby to en- 
gage others of my countrymen, that have more time and occasion to see and 
peruse unquestionable documents on this head, that they would be pleased to 

VOL. II. 3 I. 


oblige the world with what they have collected thereanent, not only for the ho- 
nour of our nation in general, but that of this order in particular. 

Now as King Robert 1. had a .special regard for the honour and flourishing of 
this noble order, and icceived only the noblest and galkntest of his subjects knights- 
companions thereof, as may appear from such of their names as I had occasion to 
narrate above, and whose names are all famous in the history of that King's Life, 
for their renowned acts of chivalry and gallantry, so I find King Robert II. has 
not been forgetful ot the same ; for in a gold com of his, also to be seen among the 
forecited Mr Sutherland's Collection of Real Coins, kept in a box in the said 
Advocates' Library, there is on one side the figure of St Andrew expanded on the 
cross of his martyrdom, and on the reverse the arms of the kingdom; and no doubt 
but in this king's reign there have been created new knights companions of this 
royal order, in room of old ones deceased, though the iniquity of the times has 
deprived us of sufficient records to instruct the same. Yet I find King Robert III. 
hath had his knights companions of this order, among whom I meet with Archi- 
bald, fourth Earl of Douglas, and first Duke of Touraine, Lord Longueville and 
Marshal of France, called Tynman, not for his cowardice, being abundantly gallant 
and brave, but for his unfortunate success in battle, being killed at the unfortunate 
battle of Verneuil in France, anno 14^4, and interred in the church of St Gratians 
at Tours, the 2Oth of August this year, according to Sir James Balfour in his 
Peerage of Scotland. But Andrew Favin, in his 1 heatre of Honour, describing 
the arms of this Archibald Earl of Douglas, whom he says was interred in St Ger- 
mains de Preze at Paris, calls him Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Thistle. 
Again 1 find King James II. retained high regard for this noble order; for on the 
seal of Mary, daughter of Arnold Duke of Guelderland, queen to this king, ap- 
pended to several writs and evidents, particularly to a charter in the lower Parlia- 
ment House, granted by her to Archibald Abbot of Holyroodhouse, of an annual- 
rent of twenty shillings, payable out ot the barony of Balernock in excambion of 
two acres of land in the territory of Broughton, belonging to the said abbot and 
convent, of the date the i6th April anno 1459, * s ner own arms impaled with those 
of Scotland, and placed in the arms of an angel, whose head and breast is above 
the shield and crown, and above the head is a cross, and on the breast below is- 
placed a saltier or St Andrew's cross. And King James III. as he commonly wore 
about his neck, pendent at a gold chain on his brreast, the badge of this order, as 
may be seen on all old paintings of his effigies, so he had his knights companions of 
this order, among whom Sir James Balfour, in his said Peerage, gives us the instance 
of one, viz. William Sinclair Earl of Orkney, and to prove which, he tells us, he had 
seen an old charter, about the time of this king's reign, of the lands of Roslin in 
Lothianshire, given by this Earl William to his second son Oliver Sinclair, wherein 
he stiles himself " Willielmus de Sancto Claro Dux de Oldenburgh, Comes Or- 
' cadise 8s- Cathaniensiae, Dominusde Zitland, Newburgh, Sinclair, Dysert, Rosslin, 
" Mussilburgh, &-c. limitum onentalium 8t occidentalium Scotiae prefectus, Baro 
" de Ecford & Cavertoun, Magnus Camerarius &- Admiralus Scotia:, &. nobilissi- 
" morum Cardui, St Michaelis, & Aurei Velleris eques." Neither is it to be doubt- 
ed but this king's grandfather, King James I. after his releasement from captivity 
in England, being bred at that court from his infancy, and a very polite and learn- 
ed prince, took occasion after his restoration to introduce many of the deservedly 
commendable practices and customs of the English nation. And as their Order of 
the Garter was in high repute at that time, so it is presumable to think he also, in 
imitation thereof, did his utmost to raise the reputation of his own Order of 
Knighthood the Thistle. But however that may be, I shall not determine, having 
as yet found no document to instruct the same ; but I find, and have seen, that in 
all paintings and sculptures of the effigies of said King James III. and IV. to show 
that these kings were not forgetful to honour and esteem this his sovereign ord.>r 
of knighthood, that of King James III. is commonly drawn with a large gold chain 
about his neck, (in the same manner as collars of royal orders of knighthood are 
now usually worn) to which hang pendent on his breast the image of St Andrew 
embracing his saltier cross on his breast with both his arms. And that of King 
James IV. is represented holding in his hand a thistle of the like figure, as the 


same is commonly struck on our copper coin, only it is not ensigned with a crown 
as on the said coin. 

And Balen, in his Maison de Montmorency, lib. 2. page 3. affirms, that when 
King James V. went to France, anno 1535, to marry Magdalen, daughter to Fran- 
cis I. King of France, among the tokens of his love, during his abode there, he be- 
stowed the Order of the Bur, (as he called it) that is to say the Thistle, not only 
on the French king, who did requite him with his Order of St Michael, but also on 
the Count de Montmorency, whom he dearly loved. And no sooner was the badge 
of the garter by King iienry Viil. of England introduced to surround his armorial 
shield, (being the first King of England that had his arms so trimmed, as may be 
seen on his Great Seal in Mr Sandford's Genealogical History) but our said King 
James V. surrounded his royal escutcheon of arms with his collar of the thistle, 
which I huve seen having the pendant at it, being the image of St Andrew, hold- 
ing before him his saltier cross; and sometimes L have observed the pendant to the 
collar to be only a blue oval, charged with a saltier or St Andrew's cross argent. 
And the reason why the cross is, white in a blue field is because the cross appeared 
as a flash of lightning in the blue firmament. And this cross is a badge derived 
to us from the Picts, as 1 have observed before; but now the ordinary pendant of 
the collar of the thistle (which is composed of thistles, interwoven and linked with 
sprigs of leaves of rue, all of gold) is on a blue roundel, or oval, the image of St 
Andrew, his vesture of cloth of gold, with the white cross of his martyrdom on his 
breast, and in a circle environing the figure beautified with pearls, this epigraph 
written, Nemo me impune lacesset. But the ordinary and common sign worn by 
the knights of this ancient and noble order is a green ribbon, whereat hung a 
thistle of gold, crowned with an imperial crown, within a circle also of gold bear- 
ing the foresaid motto. And besides, the effigies of the said King James V. is 
always drawn with the said collar about his neck, with the pendant thereat hang- 
ing on his breast.. Bishop Lesley, in his History of Scotland, lib. 9. page 193. 
writeth that James V. King of Scotland, in anno 1534 received the Order of the 
Golden Fleece from Charles V. Emperor, as also that of St Michael from Francis I. 
King of France, anno 1535, and that of the Blue Garter, anno 1536, from Henry VIII. 
King of England; and in memory of these orders received, keeping open court, 
he solemnized the several feasts of St Andrew patron of the Golden Fleece, of St 
Michael of France, and of St George of England, that the several princes might 
know how much he honoured their orders, and held them in no mean account. 
And upon the same subject, he set the arms of the princes (circled with their or- 
ders) over the gate of his palace at Linlithgow, with the Order of St Andrew, the 
particular order of the monarchs of Scotland. This author's own words are, 
" Cujus rei ut luculentius signum toti posteritati eluceret, insignia regia in porta 
" Lithcoensis palatii figenda, singulaque ordinura singulorum, simul ac divi An- 
" drese ornamenta (qiue sunt nostras gentis propna) exquisita artifice laude cir- 
" cumplicanda curavit." The author of a Journey Through Scotland, printed at 
London in octavo 1729, tells us, page 197 That it was in the palace of Linlithgow 
that King James V. in imitation of the Kings of England and France, called a 
chapter of the worthiest amongst his nobility, and added a collar of thyme and rue 
to his Order of St Andrew, ordaining the thistle to be worn on